Powderham Castle

Powderham Castle is a fortified manor house situated within the parish and former manor of Powderham, within the former hundred of Exminster, about 6 miles south of the city of Exeter and ​1⁄4 mile north-east of the village of Kenton, where the main public entrance gates are located. It is a Grade I listed building; the park and gardens are Grade II* listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. It is situated on flat marshy ground on the west bank of the River Exe estuary where it is joined by its tributary the River Kenn. On the opposite side of the Exe is the small village of Lympstone; the castle was expanded and altered extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries, most notably by James Wyatt in the 1790s. The castle remains the seat of Earls of Devon; the manor of Powderham is named from the ancient Dutch word polder, means "the hamlet of the reclaimed marsh-land". At some time after 1390 the medieval core of the present structure was built by Sir Philip Courtenay, the 5th or 6th son of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon.

The Earls of Devon were seated at Tiverton Castle until 1556, their cousins of this cadet line known as "Courtenay of Powderham" continued to exist in parallel, not always on amicable terms, as prominent county gentry, arguably the leading and most prestigious gentry family of Devon engaged in the local administration of Devon as JP's, sheriffs and MP's. From 1556 on the extinction of the senior line of Courtenay of Tiverton, the Courtenays of Powderham had become retrospectively, as was decided by law in 1831, de jure Earls of Devon, became de facto Earls from 1831 when the title was confirmed to them in law, they had however shortly before obtained the right to sit in the House of Lords when created Viscounts. The original building on the site was a fortified manor house, the appellation "castle" was added no earlier than the 17th century; the building has never been a true castle, to say with a keep and moat, although it did possess a curtain wall and yard on the east side as shown in the 1745 engraving by Buck.

Leland mentioned a barbican or bulwark in this area, but these were demolished as part of the 18th-century landscaping works designed to provide an uninterrupted view from the lower rooms towards the Exe Estuary. Many castle-like elements on the west front were added in the 19th century; the gatehouse was built between 1845–47 to a design by Charles Fowler. The tall rectangular structure beyond with a tower to the north is the original fortified manor house; the projection from the lower storey to the north in lighter stone with three Gothic-style windows is the Victorian dining hall, designed by Fowler. During the Wars of the Roses the enemies of the Courtenay Earls of Devon of Tiverton Castle were the Bonville family of Shute, their distant cousin at Powderham, Sir William Courtenay married Margaret Bonville, daughter of William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville, which confirmed Powderham as a Bonville stronghold against the Earls of Devon. On 3 November 1455 Thomas de Courtenay, 5th Earl of Devon, at the head of a private army of 1,000 men, seized control of Exeter and its castle and laid siege to Powderham for two months.

Lord Bonville approached from the east, crossing the River Exe. On 15 December 1455 the Earl of Devon and Lord Bonville met decisively at the First Battle of Clyst Heath in Exeter, where Bonville was defeated and after which the earl sacked and pillaged Shute. During the Civil War Powderham Castle was garrisoned by 300 Royalist soldiers under the command of Sir Hugh Meredith. In December 1645 a Parliamentarian detachment under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax tried, without initial success, to capture it but it fell on 25 January 1646 to Col. Robert Hammond; the castle was badly damaged in the assault and remained, in places, open to the elements until the early 1700s when it was repaired by Sir William Courtenay, 2nd Baronet. The house is centred on the 14th- and 15th-century thickly-walled double-height rectangular building comprising from north to south the withdrawing room, great hall, screens passage and kitchens, which are now represented in the same orientation by the ante-room, staircase hall, marble hall and Victorian kitchen.

The marble hall, named from its black and white marble floor, was completed in 1755 and forms the lower and southern part of the former mediaeval great hall, divided by an internal wall in the early 18th century into staircase hall and marble hall. It was double height, as high as the staircase hall to the north, before the ceiling was added in the 18th century to form bedrooms above. At the same time the staircase was inserted into the upper part to form the staircase hall; the screens passage was located in this end of the hall. The timber screen which formed the north side of the screens passage was demolished at the time of the partition, but three mediaeval Gothic-arched doorways through the south stone wall of the screens passage into the kitchen remain. A single more flatly arched doorway remains high up on the south wall, which formed the entrance to the wooden minstrels' gallery overhanging the great hall; the marble hall is used as a sitting room. Contents of the room include a 14 feet high longcase clock made about 1745 by William Stumbels of Totnes.

Two portraits of the present Earl of Devon and his wife hang on the north wall above t

Ortenburg (Bavaria)

Ortenburg is a municipality and old market town in the district of Passau in Bavaria in Germany. Ortenburg is situated in the forested area south of the north of the Rott, it is one of the main centres of population in the Lower Bavarian Upland. The majority of the municipality is located in the Wolfach Valley and the Wolfach itself runs directly through Ortenburg; the market town lies 20 km west of Passau, 10 km south of Vilshofen an der Donau, 12 km northwest of Bad Griesbach and 20 km north of Pocking. The closest municipalities are Haarbach, Vilshofen an der Donau, Fürstenzell, Bad Griesbach im Rottal; the cities of Passau and Pocking are somewhat farther away. The municipality of Ortenburg includes 112 districts. Set in the Wolfach River valley, Ortenburg can look back over a 900-year history. In about 1120 it was established by the Counts of Ortenburg. At the same time the upwardly mobile von Kamm family appeared on the scene. However, during the thirteenth century the von Kamms relocated to Hals.

The Ortenburg counts, whose own origins lay with the Spanheimer dynasty, were keen to establish their own separate dynastic centre and such the Imperial County of Ortenburg kept its Imperial immediacy until 1806. The Ortenburgs were among the most powerful of the Bavarian nobility, competing in terms of power and position with the Wittelsbach dynasty. During the height of their power, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the Ortenburgs held lands from as far south as the Brixen valley, that extended far into the Upper Palatinate. Heinrich Deubel, Nazi SS concentration camp commandant

Alessio Lorandi

Alessio Lorandi is an Italian racing driver. Lorandi began his racing career in karting in 2007, he remained in karting until 2014. In 2015, Lorandi debuted in open-wheel racing, in European Formula 3 Championship with Van Amersfoort Racing; the following year, he claimed his maiden victory at the third race at Pau. Lorandi made his debut in the series at the final two rounds of the 2016 season with Jenzer Motorsport. In 2017, he reunited with the team to contest the series full-time. In July 2018, Lorandi was called up to be a temporary replacement for Santino Ferrucci at Trident's Formula 2 team, after Ferrucci aggressively crashed into his team-mate Arjun Maini on the cool-down lap at the 2018 Silverstone FIA Formula 2 round; this replacement was set to last for four races. But shortly after the Trident team chose to sack Ferrucci due to unsportsmanlike behaviour, resulting in Lorandi replacing Ferrucci for the remainder of the season. Lorandi's brother Leonardo Lorandi is a racing driver. Alessio Lorandi career summary at