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The PowerBook is a family of Macintosh laptop computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1991 to 2006. During its lifetime, the PowerBook went through several major revisions and redesigns being the first to incorporate features that would become standard in competing laptops; the PowerBook line was targeted at the professional market, received numerous awards in the second half of its life, such as the 2001 Industrial Design Excellence Awards "Gold" status, Engadget's 2005 "Laptop of the Year". In 1999, the line was supplemented by education-focused iBook family; the PowerBook was replaced by the MacBook Pro in 2006 as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors. In October 1991 Apple released the first three PowerBooks: the low-end PowerBook 100, the more powerful PowerBook 140, the high end PowerBook 170, the only one with an active matrix display; these machines caused a stir in the industry with their compact dark grey cases, built-in trackball, the innovative positioning of the keyboard that left room for palmrests on either side of the pointing device.

Portable PC computers at the time were still oriented toward DOS, tended to have the keyboard forward towards the user, with empty space behind it, used for function key reference cards. In the early days of Microsoft Windows, many notebooks came with a clip on trackball that fit on the edge of the keyboard molding; as usage of DOS gave way to the graphical user interface, the PowerBook's arrangement became the standard layout all future notebook computers would follow. The PowerBook 140 and 170 were the original PowerBook designs, while the PowerBook 100 was the result of Apple having sent the schematics of the Mac Portable to Sony, who miniaturized the components. Hence the PowerBook 100's design does not match those of the rest of the series, as it was designed after the 140 and 170 and further benefited from improvements learned during their development; the PowerBook 100, did not sell well until Apple dropped the price substantially. The 100 series PowerBooks were intended to tie into the rest of the Apple desktop products utilizing the corporate Snow White design language incorporated into all product designs since 1986.

Unlike the Macintosh Portable, a battery-powered desktop in weight and size, the light colors and decorative recessed lines did not seem appropriate for the scaled-down designs. In addition to adopting the darker grey colour scheme that coordinated with the official corporate look, they adopted a raised series of ridges mimicking the indented lines on the desktops; the innovative look not only unified their entire product line, but set Apple apart in the marketplace. These early series would be the last to utilize the aging Snow White look, with the 190 adopting a new look along with the introduction of the 500 series; the first series of PowerBooks were hugely successful. Despite this, the original team left setting back updated versions for some time; when attempting to increase processing power, Apple was hampered by the overheating problems of the 68040. For several years, new PowerBook and PowerBook Duo computers were introduced that featured incremental improvements, including color screens, but by mid-decade, most other companies had copied the majority of the PowerBook's features.

Apple was unable to ship a 68040-equipped PowerBook until the PowerBook 500 series in 1994. The original PowerBook 100, 140, 170 were replaced by the 145, 160, 180 in 1992; the 160 and 180 having video output allowing them to drive an external monitor. In addition, the PowerBook 180 had a superb-for-the-time active-matrix grayscale display, making it popular with the Mac press. In 1993, the PowerBook 165c was the first PowerBook with a color screen followed by the 180c. In 1994, the last true member of the 100-series form factor introduced was the PowerBook 150, targeted at value-minded consumers and students; the PowerBook 190, released in 1995, bears no resemblance to the rest of the PowerBook 100 series, is in fact a Motorola 68LC040-based version of the PowerBook 5300. Like the 190, the 150 used the 5300 IDE-based logic-board architecture. From the 100's 68000 processor, to the 190's 68LC040 processor, the 100 series PowerBooks span the entire Apple 68K line, with the 190 upgradable to a PowerPC processor.

In 1992 Apple released a hybrid portable/desktop computer, the PowerBook Duo, continuing to streamline the subnotebook features introduced with the PowerBook 100. The Duos were a series of thin and lightweight laptops with a minimum of features, which could be inserted into a docking station to provide the system with extra video memory, storage space and could be connected to a monitor. 1994 saw the introduction of the Motorola 68LC040-based PowerBook code-named Blackbird. These models of PowerBooks were much sleeker and faster than the 100 series, which they replaced as the mid and high-end models; the 500 series featured DSTN or active-matrix LCD displays, stereo speakers, was the first computer to use a trackpad. The PowerBook 500 series was the mainstay of the product line until the PowerBook 5300; the 500 series was the first

Palmerston North railway station

Palmerston North railway station is a main station on the North Island Main Trunk serving the city of Palmerston North in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand. It is the northern terminus of the Capital Connection long distance commuter train to Wellington and a major stop on the Northern Explorer service between Auckland and Wellington. With the discontinuation of the Overlander and the introduction of its replacement the Northern Explorer several stops on the Overlander were discontinued. Palmerston North is now the nearest station for these locations; the Palmerston North rail freight hub is to be built by KiwiRail near Palmerston North, with a grant of $40 million from the Provincial Growth Fund, as announced by the minister Shane Jones on 15 November 2018. It will replace the Tremaine Avenue freight yard; the original station was opened on 20 October 1876. Traffic increased with the opening of the line to Napier via Woodville in 1891, the station was moved 30 chains south in March 1891.

But it was still a bottleneck, remained the longest-persisting bottleneck on the Main Trunk until the 1960s. Changes were recommended by Hiley in 1914, a commission in 1916 and the Fay-Raven commission in 1924-25. Construction of the Milson Deviation to shift the line and station northwest and away from the centre of Palmerston North started in May 1926, but was delayed by the depression and World War II, objections from the local business quarter. Work by the Public Works Department was stopped in 1929 by Minister of Works Alfred Ransom and restarted in 1938 by Bob Semple but halted by the war. Resumed in 1957 under John McAlpine, the first stage to Milson from the north-east was opened on 22 April 1954; the deviation was opened to Longburn for through goods trains on 27 July 1959. On 21 October 1963 the new station and yards were opened, all rail traffic removed from the main street and square of Palmerston North; the old line was closed by mid-1965, the Awapuni railway station south of the main station on the old route was closed Pierre, North Island Main Trunk pp. 192–199 ISBN 0-589-01316-5 Leitch and Scott, Brian.

Esava Ratugolea

Esava Ratugolea is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for the Geelong Football Club in the Australian Football League. Ratugolea was drafted by Geelong with their third pick and forty-third overall in the 2016 national draft. Ratugolea made his debut in the three point win against Melbourne at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and kicked his first AFL goal. Ratugolea was born in New South Wales, his parents are Fijian, arrived in Australia a few years before his birth. At the age of six, Ratugolea moved to Victoria, he only began playing football in 2011, after playing rugby and soccer. Esava Ratugolea's profile on the official website of the Geelong Football Club Esava Ratugolea's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Chatfield, Texas

Chatfield is an unincorporated community in northeastern Navarro County, United States, eleven miles northeast of Corsicana. The community lies along Farm to Market Road 1603 just northeast of Interstate 45. Chatfield was established as a trading post, on the San Antonio and Shreveport Trail, in an oak grove six miles west of Porter's Bluff, in 1838, is named for pioneer Norman Chatfield. Other sources cite this pioneer's name as Champion Chatfield. Mr. Chatfield did not stay; the town was built up by a Captain Robert Hodge. Captain Hodge purchased 1280 acres of land and moved his family to Chatfield in 1853, he was a successful plantation owner who built an antebellum home named "Hodge Oaks" in 1860. The "Hodge Oaks" house remained in the Hodge family until it was sold out of the family in 1993. At one time, Chatfield had a furniture manufacturing facility, a boarding school along with a number of cotton gins, a post office and stores; the population peaked around 500 in the 1890s. The railroad bypassed Chatfield and instead, chose to go through Corsicana, TX located about 15 miles southwest of Chatfield.

This played a role in preventing further growth in the commerce and population of Chatfield. Larry Little, one of the most renowned gardeners and hog hunters and everything in Richardson, TX was born in Chatfield, TX on October 25, 1952. Sutton E. Griggs and Baptist minister. U. S. Army General Lucian Truscott was born in Chatfield in 1895. Will Coleman, believed to be the first African-American to practice veterinary medicine in Texas. Chatfield is in northeastern Navarro County, located at 32°14′30″N 96°24′27″W

Streptomyces somaliensis

Streptomyces somaliensis is a protelytic bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces, isolated from a mycetoma from the foot of a man in Somalia. Streptomyces somaliensis can cause actinomycosis. Naim-Ur-Rahman. "Cranial and epidural mycetoma caused by streptomyces somaliensis". Neuroradiology. 29: 95–97. Doi:10.1007/BF00341050. Baril, Laurence. "Refractory Craniofacial Actinomycetoma Due to Streptomyces somaliensis That Required Salvage Therapy with Amikacin and Imipenem". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 29: 460–462. Doi:10.1086/520246. PMID 10476772. Grueber, H. L. E.. M.. "Mycetoma caused by in North India". Medical Mycology. 8: 108–111. Doi:10.1080/00362177085190721. Kirby, R.. A.. "Draft Genome Sequence of the Human Pathogen Streptomyces somaliensis, a Significant Cause of Actinomycetoma". Journal of Bacteriology. 194: 3544–3545. Doi:10.1128/JB.00534-12. PMC 3434723. PMID 22689234. Zhang, Yonghe. "Activation and enhancement of Fredericamycin A production in deepsea-derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66 by using ribosome engineering and response surface methodology".

Microbial Cell Factories. 14. Doi:10.1186/s12934-015-0244-2. PMC 4425903. Ed.-in-chief, George M. Garrity. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. New York: Springer Science + Business Media. ISBN 0-387-68233-3. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list List of Streptomyces species Type strain of Streptomyces somaliensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

Sanjay Mahindru

Rear Admiral Sanjay Mahindru is an Indian Navy Flag officer. He was appointed Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra Naval Area on 17 Oct 2016; as Flag Officer, he initiated a number of initiatives to improve lives of Veterans and Naval Service persons. Before his current posting he served as Flag Officer Submarines, he qualified as a submariner. As a submariner, he has commanded a conventional submarine, assumed the first command of India's premier indigenous Nuclear Submarine, INS Arihant, he is an alumnus of the Joint Staff College at United Kingdom. He commanded the Cadet's Training Ship, INS Krishna, commandeered her to Colombo, Sri Lanka