PowerPC is a reduced instruction set computer instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name lives on as a trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture-based processors. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Intended for personal computers, the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh, PowerBook, iMac, iBook, Xserve lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel's x86, it has since become a niche in personal computers, but remains popular for embedded and high-performance processors. Its use in 7th generation of video game consoles and embedded applications provided an array of uses. In addition, PowerPC CPUs are still used in third party AmigaOS 4 personal computers. PowerPC is based on IBM's earlier POWER instruction set architecture, retains a high level of compatibility with it.
The history of RISC began with IBM's 801 research project, on which John Cocke was the lead developer, where he developed the concepts of RISC in 1975–78. 801-based microprocessors were used in a number of IBM embedded products becoming the 16-register IBM ROMP processor used in the IBM RT PC. The RT PC was a rapid design implementing the RISC architecture. Between the years of 1982–1984, IBM started a project to build the fastest microprocessor on the market; the result is the POWER instruction set architecture, introduced with the RISC System/6000 in early 1990. The original POWER microprocessor, one of the first superscalar RISC implementations, is a high performance, multi-chip design. IBM soon realized that a single-chip microprocessor was needed in order to scale its RS/6000 line from lower-end to high-end machines. Work began on a one-chip POWER microprocessor, designated the RSC. In early 1991, IBM realized its design could become a high-volume microprocessor used across the industry. Apple had realized the limitations and risks of its dependency upon a single CPU vendor at a time when Motorola was falling behind on delivering the 68040 CPU.
Furthermore, Apple had conducted its own research and made an experimental quad-core CPU design called Aquarius, which convinced the company's technology leadership that the future of computing was in the RISC methodology. IBM approached Apple with the goal of collaborating on the development of a family of single-chip microprocessors based on the POWER architecture. Soon after, being one of Motorola's largest customers of desktop-class microprocessors, asked Motorola to join the discussions due to their long relationship, Motorola having had more extensive experience with manufacturing high-volume microprocessors than IBM, to form a second source for the microprocessors; this three-way collaboration between Apple, IBM, Motorola became known as the AIM alliance. In 1991, the PowerPC was just one facet of a larger alliance among these three companies. At the time, most of the personal computer industry was shipping systems based on the Intel 80386 and 80486 chips, which have a complex instruction set computer architecture, development of the Pentium processor was well underway.
The PowerPC chip was one of several joint ventures involving the three alliance members, in their efforts to counter the growing Microsoft-Intel dominance of personal computing. For Motorola, POWER looked like an unbelievable deal, it allowed the company to sell a tested and powerful RISC CPU for little design cash on its own part. It maintained ties with an important customer and seemed to offer the possibility of adding IBM too, which might buy smaller versions from Motorola instead of making its own. At this point Motorola had its own RISC design in the form of the 88000, doing poorly in the market. Motorola was doing well with its 68000 family and the majority of the funding was focused on this; the 88000 effort was somewhat starved for resources. The 88000 was in production, however; the 88000 had achieved a number of embedded design wins in telecom applications. If the new POWER one-chip version could be made bus-compatible at a hardware level with the 88000, that would allow both Apple and Motorola to bring machines to market far faster since they would not have to redesign their board architecture.
The result of these various requirements is the PowerPC specification. The differences between the earlier POWER instruction set and that of PowerPC is outlined in Appendix E of the manual for PowerPC ISA v.2.02. Since 1991, IBM had a long-standing desire for a unifying operating system that would host all existing operating systems as personalities upon one microkernel. From 1991 to 1995, the company designed and aggressively evangelized what would become Workplace OS targeting PowerPC; when the first PowerPC products reached the market, they were met with enthusiasm. In addition to Apple, both IBM and the Motorola Computer Group offered systems built around the processors. Microsoft released Windows NT 3.51 for the architecture, used in Motorola's
The University of Washington School of Medicine is a public medical school in the northwest United States, located in Seattle and affiliated with the University of Washington. UWSOM is the first public medical school in the states of Washington, Alaska and Idaho; the school maintains a network of teaching facilities in more than 100 towns and cities across the five-state region. As part of this "WWAMI" partnership, medical students from Wyoming, Alaska and Idaho spend their first year and a half at the University of Wyoming, the University of Alaska Anchorage, the Montana State University, or the University of Idaho, respectively. In addition, sixty first-year students and forty second-year students from Washington are based at Gonzaga University in Spokane. UW Medicine includes the UWSOM, as well as a number of clinical facilities owned and operated by the UW, including the following: Harborview Medical Center — Seattle University of Washington Medical Center — Seattle Northwest Hospital & Medical Center — Seattle Valley Medical Center — Renton UW Medicine Neighborhood Clinics — nine primary care facilities UW School of Medicine UW Physicians — a physician practice Airlift Northwest — a medical transport system for Washington, Alaska and IdahoIn addition, UW Medicine shares in the ownership and governance of Children’s University Medical Group and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, a partnership between UW Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Seattle Children's.
The school was founded in 1946 as the 76th medical school in the country and is a leader in primary care, family medicine, biomedical research, experimental therapy, clinical treatments, academic medicine. In 2014, the UW School of Medicine was ranked #10 in research and #1 in primary care and in rural medicine by U. S. News and World Report; the UW School of Medicine ranks as one of the top medical schools in receipt of federal researching funding, having been awarded $712.3 million in grants by the National Institutes of Health in 2009. Only Harvard Medical School was awarded more federal funding. In May 2013, it was announced that UW Medicine and PeaceHealth were coming together in a "strategic affiliation." The American Civil Liberties Union criticized the merger as PeaceHealth is "directed by the Catholic Ethical and Religious Directives" and UW Medicine is taxpayer-funded. List of medical schools in the United States WWAMI Regional Medical Education Program Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine Official website
Salim ibn Asad ibn Abi Rashid was the governor of Sicily for the Fatimid Caliphate for twenty years, from 917 to 937. Salim was appointed to the office in 917, following the suppression of a rebellion of the local Sicilian troops under Ahmad ibn Qurhub, the siege and capitulation of the island's capital, Palermo, in 916–917. In the aftermath of this revolt, the jund was disarmed and dispossessed, a garrison of Kutama Berbers, loyal to the Fatimid regime, was installed on the island. Following this turbulent start to Fatimid rule over Sicily, the stronger Fatimid presence allowed Salim to secure relative tranquility for the island over twenty years though the third Fatimid caliph, al-Mansur Billah, is said to have remarked of him disparagingly that he was nothing more than a "donkey standing on two feet"; as governor of Sicily, he was responsible for the perennial naval war with the Byzantine Empire in southern Italy and the last Byzantine strongholds in northeastern Sicily. During the Sicilian revolt, the rebel emir Ibn Qurhub had agreed a truce with the local Byzantine strategos in Calabria in exchange for an annual payment of 22,000 gold coins, but this payment had lapsed since.
Thus, in August 918 he led a night attack on Rhegion, captured and sacked. In the following year, however, a truce was signed with Taormina and the other Byzantine strongholds of the Val Demone so that the Muslim forces could be concentrated on the Italian mainland, where Fatimid forces, with reinforcements from Ifriqiya, launched raids in 922/3 and 924. In 928, Salim led the campaign himself, along with Sabir al-Fata, who commanded the Ifriqiyan troops, they attacked a locality named al-Ghiran in Apulia and Otranto were sacked, Salerno and Naples forced to pay heavy tribute in money and precious brocades to avoid being attacked. It was an outbreak of the plague which forced the expedition to return to Sicily, but they soon returned to Calabria and imposed the head tax fro the local inhabitants; the growing resentment of the Sicilians for the Kutama-dominated and tax-heavy Fatimid regime broke out in April 937, when the populace of Agrigento expelled their governor. Salim sent an army of Kutama Berbers against the city under Abu Duqaq, but he was defeated, the inhabitants of Agrigento, themselves Berbers, marched on Palermo.
Salim managed to beat them back, but in September, Palermo too rose in revolt, forcing Salim to lay siege to his own capital. The Byzantines assisted the rebels, Salim was forced to ask for reinforcements from Ifriqiya. Fresh troops under Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Tamimi arrived in October, Khalil, who now became governor, was able to subdue Palermo, but the revolt was not suppressed until 941. Salim died in 939 at his palace. Halm, Heinz. Das Reich des Mahdi: Der Aufstieg der Fatimiden. Munich: C. H. Beck. ISBN 3-406-35497-1. Lev, Yaacov. "The Fāṭimid Navy and the Mediterranean Sea, 909–1036 CE/297–427 AH". Byzantion. 54: 220–252. ISSN 0378-2506. Lilie, Ralph-Johannes. Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit Online. Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Nach Vorarbeiten F. Winkelmanns erstellt. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. Metcalfe, Alex; the Muslims of Medieval Italy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2008-1