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Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is a computer instruction set that allows a computer's microprocessor to have fewer cycles per instruction than a complex instruction set computer. A RISC computer has a small set of simple and general instructions, rather than a large set of complex and specialized ones; the main distinguishing feature of RISC is that the instruction set is optimized for a regular instruction pipeline flow. Another common RISC trait is their load/store architecture, in which memory is accessed through specific instructions rather than as a part of most instructions. Although a number of computers from the 1960s and 1970s have been identified as forerunners of RISCs, the modern concept dates to the 1980s. In particular, two projects at Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. Stanford's MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley's RISC gave its name to the entire concept and was commercialized as the SPARC.

Another success from this era was IBM's effort that led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, Power ISA. As these projects matured, a variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as for embedded processors in laser printers and similar products; the many varieties of RISC designs include ARC, Alpha, Am29000, ARM, Atmel AVR, Blackfin, i860, i960, M88000, MIPS, PA-RISC, Power ISA, RISC-V, SuperH, SPARC. The use of ARM architecture processors in smartphones and tablet computers such as the iPad and Android devices provided a wide user base for RISC-based systems. RISC processors are used in supercomputers such as Summit, which, as of January 2020, is the world's fastest supercomputer as ranked by the TOP500 project. Alan Turing's 1946 Automatic Computing Engine design had many of the characteristics of a RISC architecture. A number of systems, going back to the 1960s, have been credited as the first RISC architecture based on their use of load/store approach.

The term RISC was coined by David Patterson of the Berkeley RISC project, although somewhat similar concepts had appeared before. The CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray in 1964 used a load/store architecture with only two addressing modes and 74 operation codes, with the basic clock cycle being 10 times faster than the memory access time. Due to the optimized load/store architecture of the CDC 6600, Jack Dongarra says that it can be considered a forerunner of modern RISC systems, although a number of other technical barriers needed to be overcome for the development of a modern RISC system. Michael J. Flynn views the first RISC system as the IBM 801 design, begun in 1975 by John Cocke and completed in 1980; the 801 was produced in a single-chip form as the IBM ROMP in 1981, which stood for'Research OPD Micro Processor'. As the name implies, this CPU was designed for "mini" tasks, was used in the IBM RT PC in 1986, which turned out to be a commercial failure, but the 801 inspired several research projects, including new ones at IBM that would lead to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture.

In the mid-1970s, researchers at IBM demonstrated that the majority of combinations of these orthogonal addressing modes and instructions were not used by most programs generated by compilers available at the time. It proved difficult in many cases to write a compiler with more than limited ability to take advantage of the features provided by conventional CPUs, it was discovered that, on microcoded implementations of certain architectures, complex operations tended to be slower than a sequence of simpler operations doing the same thing. This was in part an effect of the fact that many designs were rushed, with little time to optimize or tune every instruction. One infamous example was the VAX's INDEX instruction; as mentioned elsewhere, core memory had long since been slower than many CPU designs. The advent of semiconductor memory reduced this difference, but it was still apparent that more registers would allow higher CPU operating frequencies. Additional registers would require sizeable chip or board areas which, at the time, could be made available if the complexity of the CPU logic was reduced.

The most public RISC designs, were the results of university research programs run with funding from the DARPA VLSI Program. The VLSI Program unknown today, led to a huge number of advances in chip design and computer graphics; the Berkeley RISC project started in 1980 under the direction of David Patterson and Carlo H. Sequin. Berkeley RISC was based on gaining performance through the use of pipelining and an aggressive use of a technique known as register windowing. In a traditional CPU, one has a small number of registers, a program can use any register at any time. In a CPU with register windows, there are a huge number of registers, e.g. 128, but programs can only use a small number of them, e.g. eight, at any one time. A program that limits itself to eight registers per procedure can make fast procedure calls: The call moves the window "down" by eight, to the set of eight registers used by that procedure, the return moves the window back; the Berkeley RISC project delivered the RISC-I processor in 1982.

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Toboggan Stakes

The Toboggan Stakes the Toboggan Handicap, is an American Thoroughbred horse race run annually during the first week of March at Aqueduct Race Track in Queens, New York. Open to horses aged three and older, the Grade III event is contested over at a distance of six furlongs on the dirt and offers a purse of $150,000 added; the 123rd running of The Toboggan Handicap was run in 2016. Before 1896, it was called the Toboggan Slide because it took place on the downhill Eclipse course at Morris Park Racecourse in the Bronx; the Toboggan Slide was not run in 1891 or 1895. The Toboggan Handicap was not run in 1911 and 1912. In 2015, it was run in early February. Since inception, the Toboggan Stakes has been contested at two different distances: 6 furlongs: 1890-1993, 2005–present 7 furlongs: 1995-2004,2018 Speed record: 1:08.40 - Nance's Lad Most wins: 2 - Octagon 2 - Banastar 2 - High Noon 2 - Osmand 2 - Okapi 2 - Eight Thirty 2 - Devil Diver 2 - Rippey 2 - Boom Towner 2 - Affirmed Success 2 - Calibrachoa Most wins by a jockey: 6 - Richard Migliore Most wins by a trainer: 4 - James G. Rowe Sr. 4 - John J. Hyland 4 - H. Allen Jerkens Most wins by an owner: 5 - August Belmont Jr. and/or Blemton Stable

Ministry of Trade (Iraq)

The Ministry of Trade of Iraq is a conglomeration of state-owned enterprises and operates a nearly $6bn annual budget that provides a monthly public food distribution programme for Iraqis. It manages the import of grain and construction materials. While Iraq is a rich country with huge oil deposits, decades of wars and sanctions have led to the collapse of infrastructure and social services, – which has resulted in many people being left without sufficient food or nutrition. A 2008 survey estimated that 930,000 Iraqis were food insecure, with a further 6.4 million vulnerable to food security without the Public Distribution System. Iraq's food rationing system was established in 1995 as part of the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Under the Public Distribution System every Iraqi, irrespective of income level, is entitled to a monthly food ration for a nominal fee. Most of the Ministry's 3000 trucks and 400 warehouses are dedicated to the PDS. However, the programme has been plagued by mismanagement and corruption since the 2003 US-led invasion.

With annual costs running at more than US$4 billion, the Iraqi government is looking at ways to reform the system to target only the most vulnerable people in need of such assistance. Anti-corruption officials and the Iraqi army went to the ministry's offices in central Baghdad on April 29, 2009 to detain nine people on corruption charges, their attempted roundup triggered a 15-minute gunfight between the military and the minister's security team. Only the minister's spokesman, Mohammed Hanoun was detained. Two of Sudani's brothers, one who worked for the ministry and one who headed the Iraqi Grain Board, were arrested the following day. In May 2009 Iraqi Trade Minister Abdel Falah al-Sudani resigned and was arrested amid allegations of corruption and embezzlement linked to the nation's food assistance programme. Sudani, a member of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki's Shiite Dawa faction, had been questioned by parliament over claims relating to imports for Iraq's food rationing programme; the minister was accused of importing expired commodities—sugar—and procuring illegal contracts as well as failing to fight corruption in his ministry.

In December 2009 the United Nations World Food Programme and Iraqi Ministry of Trade signed a'Memorandum of Understanding' under which the two parties agreed to work together to improve the supply chain management of the Public Distribution System which provides a monthly food ration to millions of Iraqis. The agreement was signed in Baghdad by Edward Kallon and the Iraqi Minister of Trade, Dr Safa Al-Deen Alsafi; the official stated purpose of the Iraqi Ministry of Trade is to facilitate and promote trade and commerce in Iraq. It aims to encourage private sector development by removing regulations blocking trade and investment, eliminating import licensing rules, embarking on wide-ranging projects to promote a new trading environment in Iraq: an anti-corruption drive, a consumer welfare and protection unit, a “Baghdad International Fair" site and the leasing of Iraqi shopping centers to private developers; the Iraqi Ministry of Trade has number of associated State Companies: Iraqi Fairs, Food Stuff Trading, Constructions Stuff Trading, Grains Production, Grains Trading, Central Markets and Vehicles and Machines Trading.

In addition, there are a number of'directorates' for Private Sector Development and Purveying, Administrative and Financial Affairs and Foreign Affairs and the Registration of Companies Department. Iraqi Commercial Attaché Bulgaria Iraqi Commercial Attaché China Iraqi Commercial Attaché Egypt Iraqi Commercial Attaché France Iraqi Commercial Attaché India Iraqi Commercial Attaché Italy Iraqi Commercial Attaché Japan Iraqi Commercial Attaché Jordan Iraqi Commercial Attaché Russia Iraqi Commercial Attaché Tunis Iraqi Commercial Attaché Turkey Iraqi Commercial Attaché UK Iraqi Commercial Attaché USA Iraq Ministry of Trade official website

Ansó Aragonese

Ansó Aragonese is a variety of Western Aragonese spoken in Ansó Valley, included Ansó, Biniés and Fago. Final -r is not pronounced in Ansó but it's still pronounced in Fago; the most documented article system in Ansó Aragonese is o, a, os, as but it is used the old system lo, la, las in certain contexts: fendo lo fatuo le'n diremos a la ermanaThe verb haver as impersonal in general Aragonese i ha, i heva is replaced by the verb estar: bi'stá augua. Bi'stava augua. There is a first-person personal ending-i in some tenses: yo fevai. Yo tenevai, it is one of the few Aragonese varieties that still have this characteristic that may be found in the Spanish spoken in Embún, Salvatierra de Esca and Uncastillo and in the Aragonese language spoken in some villages in the North of the Cinco Villas such as Longás and Fuencalderas. Aragonese dialects Article in Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa A video in Ansó Aragonese L'ansotano, estudio del habla del Valle de Ansó Presentation of the book El aragonés ansotano: estudio lingüístico de Anso y Fago

Astrorama

Astrorama is an album by French Jazz fusion artist Jean-Luc Ponty and Japanese Avant-Garde artist Masahiko Satoh. It was released in 1970 on Toshiba EMI; the album was recorded live in Tokyo on August 29, 1970. Catalog: FAR EAST/TOSHIBA EMI "Golden Green" "And So On" "Astrorama" "Nuggis" Motohiko Hinodrums Yoshiaki Masuo – electric guitar Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersenbass Jean-Luc Ponty – electric violin Masahiko Satoh – piano, electric piano

Geminiano Giacomelli

Geminiano Giacomelli was an Italian composer. Giacomelli was born in Piacenza. In 1724 he was named to the post of Kapellmeister to the duke of Parma. Beginning with the first performance of his opera Ipermestra, in 1724, he became one of the most popular opera composers of his era. Between 1724 and 1740 he composed 19 operas, his best known opera is Cesare in Egitto of 1735. He wrote a deal of sacred music, including eight psalm settings for tenor and bass, some concertos with continuo. In 1738 Giacomelli again became this time at the Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto. Ipermestra Catone in Utica Scipione in Cartagine Zidiana Astianatte Gianguir Lucio Papirio dittatore Scipione in Cartagine nuova Semiramide riconosciuta Annibale Epaminonda Rosbale Alessandro Severo Adriano in Siria Il Tigrane La caccia in Etolia La Merope Artaserse Cesare in Egitto Nitocri, regina d'Egitto Arsace Demetrio La costanza vincitrice in amore Achille in Aulide Lucio Papirio dittatore Circe Giacomelli Fiamma vorace: Opera Arias Flavio Ferri-Benedetti Musica Fiorita.

Pan Classics. Champlin, John Denison Jr.. Apthorp, William Foster. Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. I – II – III. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. A. Della Corte and G. M. Gatti, Dizionario di musica, Paravia, 1956, pag. 255 Free scores by Geminiano Giacomelli at the International Music Score Library Project