Power pop

Power pop is a form of pop rock based on the early music of bands such as the Who, the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Byrds. It originated in the late 1960s as young music fans began to rebel against the emerging pretensions of rock music, developed among American musicians who came of age during the British Invasion; the genre incorporates melodic hooks, vocal harmonies, an energetic performance, "happy"-sounding music underpinned by a sense of yearning, longing, or despair. The term "power pop" was coined by the Who's Pete Townshend in 1967 to describe their style of music. However, the term became more identified with subsequent artists from the 1970s who sought to revive Beatles-style pop; the sound of the genre became more established thanks to early 1970s hits by Badfinger, the Raspberries, Todd Rundgren. Subsequent artists drew from developments such as new wave, glam rock, pub rock, college rock, neo-psychedelia. Power pop reached its commercial peak during the rise of punk and new wave in the late 1970s, with Cheap Trick, the Knack, the Romantics, Nick Lowe, Dave Edmunds, Dwight Twilley.

During this time, music critics who wrote about the phenomenon popularized the term's usage. After a popular and critical backlash to the genre's biggest-ever hit, "My Sharona", record companies stopped signing power pop groups, most of the 1970s bands broke up in the early 1980s. Over the proceeding decades, power pop continued with modest commercial success while remaining an object of critical derision; the 1990s saw a new wave of alternative bands that were drawn to 1960s artists because of the 1980s music they influenced. Although not as successful as their predecessors, the Posies, Redd Kross, Teenage Fanclub, Material Issue were critical and cult favorites. In the mid-1990s, an offshoot genre that combined power pop harmonies with uptempo punk, dubbed "punk-pop", reached mainstream popularity. Power pop is a more aggressive form of pop rock, based on catchy, melodic hooks and energetic moods. AllMusic describes the style as "a cross between the crunching hard rock of the Who and the sweet melodicism of the Beatles and the Beach Boys, with the ringing guitars of the Byrds thrown in for good measure".

Every artist of the genre has been a rock band consisting of white male musicians who engaged with the song forms, vocal arrangements, chord progressions, rhythm patterns, instrumentation, or overall sound associated with groups of the mid 1960s British Invasion era. An essential feature of power pop is that its "happy"-sounding arrangements are supported by a sense of "yearning", "longing", or "despair" similar to formative works such as "Wouldn't It Be Nice" and "Pictures of Lily"; this might be achieved with an unexpected harmonic change or lyrics that refer to "tonight", "tomorrow night", "Saturday night", so on. Power pop was noted for its lack of irony and its reverence to classic pop craft, its reconfiguration of 1960s tropes, music journalist Paul Lester argued, could make it one of the first postmodern music genres. The Who's Pete Townshend coined "power pop" in a May 1967 interview promoting their latest single "Pictures of Lily", he said: "Power pop is what we play—what the Small Faces used to play, the kind of pop the Beach Boys played in the days of'Fun, Fun' which I preferred."

Despite other bands following in the power pop continuum since the term was not popularized until the rise of new wave music in the late 1970s. Greg Shaw, editor of Bomp! magazine, was the most prominent in the slew of music critics that wrote about power pop. This mirrored similar developments with the term "punk rock" from earlier in the decade. In light of this, Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave?, wrote that "the recognition and formulation" of power pop as a genre "was by no means organic."There is significant debate among fans over what should be classed as power pop. Shaw took credit for codifying the genre in 1978, describing it as a hybrid style of punk, he wrote that "much to my chagrin, the term was snapped up by legions of limp, second-rate bands hoping the majors would see them as a safe alternative to punk." Music journalist John M. Borack stated in his 2007 book Shake Some Action – The Ultimate Guide to Power Pop that the label is applied to varied groups and artists with "blissful indifference," noting its use in connection with Britney Spears, Green Day, the Bay City Rollers and Def Leppard.

Power pop has struggled with its critical reception and is sometimes viewed as a shallow style of music associated with teenage audiences. The perception was exacerbated by record labels in the early 1980s who used the term for marketing post-punk styles. Music critic Ken Sharp summarized that power pop is "the Rodney Dangerfield of rock'n' roll.... The direct updating of the most revered artists—the Who, the Beach Boys, the Beatles—yet it gets no respect." In 1996, singer-songwriter Tommy Keene commented that any association to the term since the 1980s is to be "compared to a lot of bands that didn't sell records, it's like a disease. If you're labeled that, you're history." Musician Steve Albini said: "I cannot bring myself to use the term'power pop.' Catchy, mock-descriptive terms are for journalists. I guess you could say I think this music is for pussies and should be stopped." Ken Stringfellow of the Posies concurred that "There’s a kind of aesthetic to power pop to be light on purpose. I wanted something with more gravitas."

Power pop originated in the late 1960s as young music fans began to rebel against the emerging pretensions of rock music. During this period, a schism developed

USS Cossatot (AO-77)

USS Cossatot was a United States Navy World War II Type T2-SE-A1 tanker which served as a fleet oiler. Launched as SS Fort Necessity on 28 February 1943 by the Sun Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. Chester, under a Maritime Commission contract, it was named for a river in Arkansas. Sailing from Norfolk to Baytown, Texas, to load kerosene and fuel oil in July 1943, Cossatot sailed from Norfolk on 6 August to fuel convoy escorts during their passage to Casablanca, returning to Norfolk on 14 September, she made seven such voyages from Norfolk to the North African ports of Casablanca and Bizerte between 4 October 1943 and 30 November 1944. Cossatot put to sea from Norfolk again on 28 December 1944 bound for the Pacific, she loaded diesel oil, fuel oil, gasoline at Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, arrived at Pearl Harbor on 30 January 1943. She operated from Saipan from 12 February fueling ships of the 6th Fleet until 3 March, when she began operations from Ulithi. Cossatot sortied as a part of TG 60.8, the logistics group for the 6th Fleet, for operations off Iwo Jima from 13 March to 12 April.

On 16 April she sailed with her group to conduct fueling operations off newly assaulted Okinawa. On 28 April she downed a suicide plane as it dove toward her, remained on this duty unscathed until 4 May when she arrived at Ulithi to reload. From 26 May until the end of the War, Cossatot operated out of Ulithi fueling various units of fast carrier TF 38, engaged in the final strikes against the Japanese homeland. Cossatot left Ulithi on 3 September for Okinawa and Sasebo, arriving on 21 September to fuel ships of the occupation force. On 12 November she sailed from Yokosuka for San Francisco. Cossatot received two battle stars for World War II service. Cossatot was placed out of commission in reserve 7 March 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Commission on 28 October 1946. Reacquired in February 1948, she was transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service on 1 October 1949 where she has served in a noncommissioned status under the Maritime Administration. While underway in the Pacific Ocean on 16 April 1963 Cossatot reported seeing an unidentified flying object on a straight and fast course in the skies.

It was described as glowing, star-like, on a trajectory at about 20 degrees and an altitude around 20,000 feet. No investigation was put forward. On 15 June 1968 Cossatot was damaged after a collision with the merchant vessel Copper State, in fog, off the coast of Santa Cruz, California. Cossatot was carrying 130,000 barrels of jet fuel and lost 20 feet of her bow section in this collision. Cossatot was stricken on 18 September 1974 and sold 2 September 1975. Beginning in September 1975, Cossatot was broken up by Luria Bros & Co Inc; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Cossatot at NavSource Naval History The T2 Tanker Page Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry


Palethorpe's is a British producer of cooked meat and pastry products and was well known for its branded sausages. Founded in 1852, it was bought by the Bibby Group in 1969 and by Haverhill Meat Products before becoming part of the Northern Foods Chilled Foods division in 1991. Palethorpes is now part of Pork Farms. Henry Palethorpe was born in 1829 in the Black Country. Setting up business as a butcher in Birmingham in the 1850s, he realised that the United States was flooding the United Kingdom market with cheap bacon and pork. Palethorpe decided to move into value-added meat processing products, specialising in sausages, with which he had success; the company moved to Tipton in 1896, claiming at the time to be the world's largest sausage producer. The company expanded during World War I. However, it lost market share during and after World War II, with restrictions on meat sales due to the amount of meat, being imported. By the 1960s, with the development of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, the company was experiencing additional pressure.

In 1967 Palethorpe's constructed a purpose built factory employing 400 people in Market Drayton, at a cost of £650,000. This resulted in the closure of the Tipton factory in 1968, after which it was demolished and redeveloped as low-rise council flats; the high cost of building the new factory saw Palethorpes suffer financial difficulties and in 1969 the business was bought by the Bibby Agricultural Group. In 1980 the business again changed hands being bought by Haverhill Meat Products, a joint venture company owned by J Sainsbury and Canada Packers. In 1985 J Sainsbury produced the worlds first Mycoprotein product, a Savoury Pie produced at its Palethorpes factory The Company ceased manufacturing and selling Palethorpes branded products in 1986 in order to concentrate on its own label business; the Palethorpes brand name was reborn in the mid-1990s as a value brand for Sainsbury's pies and pasties, although it is no longer used. Palethorpes became a part of Northern Foods, at that time the UK’s largest manufacturer of meat and savoury products, in 1991.

It became part of the Chilled Foods division known as Premium Savoury Products. In January 2007 Northern Foods sold most of its Savoury Pastry business to Vision Capital. Now rebranded by Vision Capital as Addo Food Group, the Market Drayton plant presently employs 700 people; the company supplies foods to leading retailers to be sold under their own brand names. Customer companies include Sainsbury's. Addo Food Group Website Addo Food Group Summary including information on the Palethorpes Bakery Brief History of Palethorpes in Tipton Palethorpes Tipton Factory 1935 Brief History of Palethorpes from the J. Sainsbury Journal News of Palethorpes sale by Northern Foods in 2006 Palethorpes claim in 2003 that they should be allowed to continue using the name Royal Melton for their Pork Pies National Archives article about favourite festive foods from the past including Palethorpes Sausages