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Pratt & Whitney

Pratt & Whitney is an American aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies. Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are used in both civil aviation and military aviation, its headquarters are in Connecticut. As one of the "big three" aero-engine manufacturers, it competes with General Electric and Rolls-Royce, although it has formed joint ventures with both of these companies. In addition to aircraft engines, Pratt & Whitney manufactures gas turbines for industrial and power generation, marine turbines. In 2017, the company reported that in 2014 they had 38,737 employees supporting more than 11,000 customers in 180 countries around the world. In 2013, Pratt & Whitney's revenue totaled $14.5 billion. In April 1925, Frederick Rentschler, an Ohio native and former executive at Wright Aeronautical, was determined to start an aviation-related business of his own, his social network included Edward Deeds, another prominent Ohioan of the early aviation industry, Frederick's brother Gordon Rentschler, both of whom were on the board of Niles Bement Pond one of the largest machine tool corporations in the world.

Frederick Rentschler approached these men. Deeds and G. Rentschler persuaded the board of Niles Bement Pond that their Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool subsidiary of Hartford, should provide the funding and location to build a new aircraft engine being developed by Rentschler, George J. Mead, colleagues, all of Wright Aeronautical. Conceived and designed by Mead, the new engine would be a air-cooled, radial design. Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool was going through a period of self-revision at the time to prepare itself for the post-Great War era, discontinuing old product lines and incubating new ones; the Great War had been profitable to P&WMT, but the peace brought a predictable glut to the machine tool market, as contracts with governments were canceled and the market in used built tools competed against new ones. P&WMT's future growth would depend on innovation. Having idle factory space and capital available at this historical moment, to be invested wherever good return seemed available, P&WMT saw the postwar aviation industry, both military and civil, as one with some of the greatest growth and development potential available anywhere for the next few decades.

It lent Rentschler $250,000, the use of the Pratt & Whitney name, space in their building. This was the beginning of the Whitney Aircraft Company. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft's first engine, the 425 horsepower R-1340 Wasp, was completed on Christmas Eve 1925. On its third test run it passed the Navy qualification test in March 1926; the Wasp exhibited reliability that revolutionized American aviation. The R-1340 powered the aircraft of Wiley Post, Amelia Earhart, many other record flights; the R-1340 was followed by another successful engine, the R-985 Wasp Junior. A whole Wasp series was developed. Both engines are still in use in agricultural aircraft around the world and produce more power than their original design criteria. George Mead soon led the next step in the field of large, state-of-the-art, air-cooled, radial aircraft engines when Pratt & Whitney released its R-1690 Hornet, it was "a bigger Wasp". In 1929, Rentschler ended his association with Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool and merged Pratt & Whitney Aircraft with Boeing and other companies to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation.

His agreement allowed him to carry the Whitney name with him to his new corporation. Only five years the federal government banned common ownership of airplane manufacturers and airlines. Pratt & Whitney was merged with UATC's other manufacturing interests east of the Mississippi River as United Aircraft Corporation, with Rentschler as president. United Aircraft became UTC in 1975. In October 2014, Pratt & Whitney was awarded a $592 million contract with US Defense Department to supply 36 F135 engines for the F-35 fighter. In January 2017, 10 employees left the company, including the head of the F135 engine program. Incurred expenses used to transport South Korean officials to the company's West Palm Beach facility in 2012 were deemed unethical, which led to the departure of the employees. Pratt & Whitney is headquartered in East Hartford and has plants in Londonderry, New Hampshire; the home stadium for the University of Connecticut Huskies football team, Rentschler Field, is located adjacent to Pratt & Whitney's East Hartford, Connecticut campus, on Pratt's company-owned former airfield of the same name.

In 2015, the stadium was renamed to Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field in time for the 2015–2016 University of Connecticut football season. Pratt & Whitney is a business unit of industrial conglomerate United Technologies, making it a sister company to Collins Aerospace, Otis Elevator Company, UTC Fire & Security, UTC Power and refrigeration giant Carrier Corporation, it is involved in two major joint ventures, the Engine Alliance with GE which manufactures engines for the Airbus A380, International Aero Engines company with Rolls-Royce, MTU Aero Engines, the Japanese Aero Engines Corporation which manufactures engines for the Airbus A320 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-90 aircraft. Pratt & Whitney's large commercial engines

William Jackson Humphreys

William Jackson Humphreys was an American physicist and atmospheric researcher. Humphreys was born on February 3, 1862 in Gap Mills, West Virginia to Jackson and Eliza Ann Humphreys, he studied physics at Washington & Lee University in Virginia and at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, where he earned his Ph. D. in 1897, studying under Henry Augustus Rowland. He worked in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology. In the field of spectroscopy he found the shift of spectral lines under pressure. In atmospheric physics he found a good model for the stratosphere in 1909, he wrote numerous books, including a textbook titled Physics of the Air, first published in 1920 and considered a standard work of the time, though it was last published in 1940. He held some teaching positions at universities, he concluded that the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora was responsible for the subsequent cooling known as the Year Without a Summer. From 1905 to 1935 he worked as a physicist for the U. S. Weather Bureau, predecessor of the National Weather Service.

In 1924 he was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in Toronto. He died on November 10, 1949 in Washington, D. C. Physics of the Air Weather paradoxes Fogs and clouds, The Williams & Wilins Co.. Rain making and Other weather vagaries Snow crystals

Cymbeline (film)

Cymbeline is a 2014 American film version of the play Cymbeline by William Shakespeare. The film is directed by Michael Almereyda and stars Ethan Hawke, Ed Harris, Dakota Johnson, Milla Jovovich and John Leguizamo. Based on the play Cymbeline by William Shakespeare, the story revolves around a war between dirty cops and a biker gang; the King of the bikers has lost his sons and needs his daughter to marry royalty to maintain the bloodline. The new Queen wishes to kill the king and her step-daughter in order to install her own son as the new gang leader; the step-daughter has married a penniless gang member, banished from the gang territory by the King. The banished son-in-law is tricked into believing; these many intertwined players will travel through desperate straits. Ed Harris as Cymbeline, King of the Briton Motorcycle Club Milla Jovovich as Queen, second wife of the King, who wants to cement her power by having Cloten marry Imogen Ethan Hawke as Iachimo, who bets that he can seduce Posthumus‘ chaste Imogen.

John Leguizamo as Pisanio, Cymbeline’s right hand man, tricked by the Queen into delivering poison to Imogen Penn Badgley as Posthumus, penniless amour secret husband, of Imogen. Plans to kill her after he is deceived by Iachimo. Dakota Johnson as Imogen, daughter of Cymbeline, calls herself Fidel while traveling disguised as a boy when searching for her banished love Anton Yelchin as Cloten, son of the Queen Peter Gerety as Dr. Cornelius, who undermines the Queen’s plans to kill Cymbeline and Imogen by giving her sleeping pills instead of poison. Kevin Corrigan as The Hangman Vondie Curtis-Hall as Caius Lucius, Chief of the Rome Police Department James Ransone as Philario, who befriends the banished Posthumus Bill Pullman as Sicilius Leonatus, Posthumus' father Delroy Lindo as Belarius, who kidnapped and lovingly raised Cymbeline‘s two sons and Arvirargus, as his own Spencer Treat Clark as Guiderius, a prince On July 31, 2013, it was announced that Ethan Hawke was re-teaming with director Michael Almereyda to star in the adaptation of Cymbeline.

He would play Iachimo and production was set to start on August 19 in New York City. Anthony Katagas and Michael Benaroya would be the producers of the film. On August 5, it was announced, he would play the role of King Cymbeline. Penn Badgley joined the cast in the adaptation of Cymbeline to play the role of orphan Posthumus who secretly marries the daughter of King Cymbeline and is banished by the monarch who raised Posthumus as a son. On August 8, 2013, Milla Jovovich joined the cast as a female lead. More cast added on 12 August included Anton Yelchin and Dakota Johnson, Yelchin would play Cloten, the son of the Queen by a former husband and Johnson would be playing the role of Imogen, the daughter of King Cymbeline from a previous marriage. Prior to the world premiere of the film, it was announced Lionsgate had acquired all distribution rights to the film; the film had its world premiere at the Venice Film Festival in Italy on September 3, 2014. The film went to screen at the Busan International Film Festival in South Korea on October 3, 2014.

For a short time, the film's U. S. title was Anarchy. The film was released in a limited release and through video on demand on March 13, 2015. On review aggregating website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a score of 31%, based on 29 reviews, with an average rating of 4.6/10. On Metacritic, which uses a weighted score, the film has a rating of 54 out of 100 based on 15 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Cymbeline on IMDb Cymbeline at Rotten Tomatoes

2003 UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships

The 2003 UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships were held in Lugano, Switzerland from 31 August to 7 September 2003. The disciplines included were cross-country, cross-country marathon, four-cross, trials; the event was the 14th edition of the UCI Mountain Bike World Championships and the 18th edition of the UCI Trials World Championships. This was the first year that the cross-country marathon was included in the UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships. From 2004 onwards, the cross-country marathon was run as a separate world championship. Anne-Caroline Chausson of France won her eighth consecutive world title in the women's downhill; as of 2016, no other rider has won more than two consecutive world titles in the event. Greg Minnaar of South Africa won the world title in the men's downhill, he thus became the first rider from the continent of Africa to win a mountain biking world championship in an elite category. 2003 UCI Mountain Bike World Cup UCI Mountain Bike Marathon World Championships Results for the mountain-bike events on Results for the trials events on

Pål Olson Grøt

Pål Olson Grøt was a Norwegian rosemaling painter who belonged to the most important group of rosemaling painters in Hol. He was born in Hol in 1813 and lived until he moved to the village of Hovet, Buskerud, in 1852, he died there in 1906. The genealogy, the family history of Pål Olson Grøt, small parts of it, are registered in several books and websites. However, there are differences in names, the way of writing the names, differences in birth dates. In the book Rosemåling i Hallingdal, the author Nils Ellingsgard writes that Grøt painted himself on a wooden coffer, named himself Paul Olsen Neeraal, born on December 15, 1813. According to the church book however, Ellingsgard writes that Grøt was baptized on December 13, 1812; the digitized Hol Kirkebog starts in 1900, cannot offer information about his birth. The date of his death, in 1906, is not registered in the Hol Kirkebog because Grøt lived in Hovet, Buskerud at that time. Hovet got its own graveyard in 1890, located at what was named the Håkonsethaugen the same place as where the church had been built in 1910.

This church is on a haugen, a tiny hill near to the Håkonsæt Fjellvilla. In MyHeritage Pål Olson Grøt is named Paul Olsen Grøtt, born December 13, 1813, died February 1, 1906; the Norwegian Wikipedia page about Pål Olson Grøt follows. According to the book, Pål Grøt was raised at Nerolshaugen. Neeraal pronounced in Norwegian sounds the same as the word Nerol. In the village Hol, there is a street named Nerolsvegen, which means the vegen of Nerol. Nerolsvegen had once been named Nerolshaugen; the word haugen is derived from the old Norwegian haug, a word for a little hill, but for farm homesteads. The street "Nerolsvegen" is indeed on a haugen; the word Nerolshaugen means the haugen of Nerol. The word Nerol is in the family name of Pål Olson Grøt's father: Ola Eirikson Nerol, it was a habit in that time to use the place. Pål Olson Nerolshaugen changed his name into Pål Olson Grøt when he moved to Hovet in 1852, bought a farm on land with the name Grøt; the true family name is therefore Olson. The farm where Pål Olson Grøt lived still belongs to his family.

It is unclear. In the family tree one can see family members with both spellings. Since Pål Olson Grøt's father's first name was Ola, "Ola's son" has been merged into "Ol's sønn", into Olsen, which sounds the same as Ol's sønn. Pål Olson Grøt wrote his own name as Paul Olsen, with an e. Others, like Nils Ellingsgard, wrote the name as Pål Olson, with an o. On the MyHeritage page the name is written as Paul Olsen Grøtt, with an e. Daughters of Ola were named Olsdatter. Datter is Norwegian for daughter. In the My Heritage page Pål Olson Grøt's first name has been changed into the American name Paul. Nils Ellingsgard mentions in his book that several children of Pål Olson Grøt moved to the United States. In 1852 Pål Olson Nerolshaugen moved to Hovet, started living on a farm, built on a land with the name Grøt. From that time on he named himself Pål Olson Grøt. On April 11, 1860, when he was 47 years old, eight years after he moved to Hovet, he married Marita Iversdatter Kleppo, born in Hovet on November 15, 1839.

They had six children. Two sons and one daughter emigrated to the US. Pål Olson Grøt died in 1906, in Hovet, is buried on the graveyard of Hovet named Håkonsethaugen, his wife Marita Iversdatter Kleppo died in 1920. Rosemaling means "rose painting", is a traditional Norwegian decorative painting style. Rosemaling in Norway originated in the low-land areas of eastern Norway in Telemark and Hallingdal, but in Numedal and Setesdal and in other valleys in Vest-Agder, Sogn og Fjordane and Rogaland, it came into existence around 1750, when Baroque and Rococo, artistic styles of the upper class, were introduced into Norway's rural culture. Pål Olson Grøt lived in the traditional district of Hallingdal. Characteristic for the Hallingdal style are Baroque scrolls and acanthus leaves wrapped around a central flower; the designs are symmetrical, using opaque color and not shaded. Backgrounds are red, black green, dark green, a lighter blue green. Pål Grøt was a pupil of Nils Bæra in Ål and became one of the most important rosemåling painters in Hol.

His style has many features in common with the style of the Torstein Sand cohabitation. Torstein Sand was a pupil of Nils Bæra. Both became important examples for contemporary and rosemåling painters in Hol. Pål Grøt has painted many beer buns with great imagination, his wooden box painting has a basic theme and the middle motifs are animal figures or houses. From the early 1830s rosemåling was Pål Olson Grøt's main activity, but he was a skilled carpenter and wood carver; as a painter, he had his most productive period in the 1850s. The Hallingdal rosemaling style used by Grøt, is symmetrical, similar to a butterfly, with a center and a left and right-hand side that mirror each other, it may be a coincidence. The name rosemåler sounds similar to rosemaler. Pål Grøt is represented in the collections at the Hol Bygdemuseum, Hallingdal Museum, Drammen Museum and the Norwegian Folk Museum. Ellingsgard, Nils: Rosemaling i Hallingdal. Oslo. ISBN 82-09-01493-5 Ellingsgard, Nils: "Pål, Olson Grøt" i: Norsk kunstnerleksikon bd. 1.

S.807 f. Oslo 1982 ISBN 82-00-05689-9 DigitaltMuseum: Pål Olson Grøt / Trøys


Stimulants is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects. Stimulants are used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs; the most prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine and amphetamine. It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has used amphetamine-type stimulants and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%. Stimulants in therapeutic doses, such as those given to patients with ADHD, increases ability to focus, sociability and may elevate mood. However, in higher doses stimulants may decrease the ability to focus, a principle of the Yerkes-Dodson Law. In higher doses stimulants may produce euphoria and decrease need for sleep. Many, but not all, stimulants have ergogenic effects. Drugs such as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methylphenidate have well documented ergogenic effects, while cocaine has the opposite effect.

Neurocognitive enhancing effects of stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate have been documented in healthy adolescents, is a cited reason among illicit drug users for use among college students in the context of studying. In some cases psychiatric phenomenon may emerge such as stimulant psychosis and suicidal ideation. Acute toxicity has been associated with a homicide, aggressive behavior, motor dysfunction, punding; the violent and aggressive behavior associated with acute stimulant toxicity may be driven by paranoia. Most drugs classified as stimulants are sympathomimetics, they stimulate the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system; this leads to effects such as mydriasis, increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature. When these changes become pathological, they are called arrhythmia and hyperthermia, may lead to rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrest, or seizures. However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie these fatal outcomes of acute stimulant toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal.

Assessment of the effects of stimulants is relevant given the large population taking stimulants. A systematic review of cardiovascular effects of prescription stimulants found no association in children, but found a correlation between prescription stimulant use and ischemic heart attacks. A review over a four-year period found that there were few negative effects of stimulant treatment, but stressed the need for longer term studies. A review of a year long period of prescription stimulant use in those with ADHD found that cardiovascular side effects were limited to transient increases in blood pressure only. Initiation of stimulant treatment in those with ADHD in early childhood appears to carry benefits into adulthood with regard to social and cognitive functioning, appears to be safe. Abuse of prescription stimulants or of illicit stimulants carries many negative health risks. Abuse of cocaine, depending upon route of administration, increases risk of cardiorespiratory disease and sepsis.

Some effects are dependent upon the route of administration, with intravenous use associated with the transmission of many disease such as Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and potential medical emergencies such as infection, thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, while inhalation may be associated with increased lower respiratory tract infection, lung cancer, pathological restricting of lung tissue. Cocaine may increase risk for autoimmune disease and damage nasal cartilage. Abuse of methamphetamine produces similar effects as well as marked degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. Stimulants have been used in medicine for many conditions including obesity, sleep disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, nasal congestion and as anesthetics. Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and include drugs that follow the general definition of a stimulant, but other drugs such as CB1 receptor antagonists exist in this class too. Drugs used to treat sleep disorders such as excessive daytime sleepiness are called eugeroics and include notable stimulants such as modafinil.

Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off-label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder to increase energy and elevate mood. Stimulants such as epinephrine and salbutamol orally have been used to treat asthma, but inhaled adrenergic drugs are now preferred due to less systemic side effects. Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion caused by the common cold, hay fever and other respiratory allergies. Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of the large number of classes the drugs occupy, the fact that they may belong to multiple classes; when referring to stimulants, the parent drug will always be expressed in the singular. Major stimulant classes include phenethylamines and their daughter class substituted a