Such an abbot is called a territorial abbot or abbot nullius diœceseos. A territorial abbot thus differs from an ordinary abbot, who exercises authority only within the walls or to monks or canons who have taken their vows there. A territorial abbot is equivalent to a bishop in Catholic canon law, the practice arose in part because abbeys served the spiritual needs of Catholics who lived near the monastery, especially in mission territories. The monasterys own chapel was a space of worship for the laity who had settled nearby. After the Second Vatican Council, more emphasis has been placed on the nature of the episcopacy. As such, abbeys nullius have been phased out in favor of the erection of new dioceses or the absorption of the territory into an existing diocese, a few ancient abbeys nullius still exist in Europe, and one in Korea. The Abbot of Waegwan is the present apostolic administrator of the Tŏkwon abbacy and it has not been united with any diocese throughout Korea due to the effective vacancy of the ones in North Korea and the lack of effective jurisdiction applied by the Church in South Korea.
Cluny Abbey is the one in France. It became extremely rich and influential within and beyond the Church, Abbey of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome. It was formally suppressed as an abbey in 1977. St. Peter-Muenster, which from 1921 until 1998 served an area of Saskatchewan. GCatholic. org - List of Current Territorial Abbacies Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. A subdeacon or hypodeacon is the highest of the orders of clergy in the Orthodox Church. This order is higher than the reader and lower than the deacon, like the reader, the clerical street-dress of the subdeacon is the cassock, which is usually black but only need be so if he is a monk. This is symbolic of his suppression of his own tastes and desires, and his obedience to God, his bishop. As a concession in countries where Orthodoxy is little known, many wear the cassock when attending services or when moving about the faithful on church business. This situation often arises if there is a need for a subdeacon, the reason for this lies in the fact that the canons prohibit subdeacons to marry after their ordination. This latter stipulation has led, in places, to the reservation of the formal ordination service as a stepping-stone for candidates for the priesthood. In the Byzantine Rite, the liturgical role is primarily that of servant to the bishop.
Outside of hierarchical services, the subdeacon serves in the altar as any other server but, in addition to the above duties, the subdeacon may read the reading from the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy if there is only one deacon. For this reason, he has a blessing to touch the Holy Table and the Table of Oblation. He is responsible for the training of new servers, the clerical street-wear of a subdeacon is the inner-cassock and outer cassock. Many wear the cassock only when present among the community or attending to church business. For services, the subdeacon is vested in a sticharion with an orar tied around his waist, up over his shoulders, and with the ends crossed over, the ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy. The reader who is to be tonsured subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave, there he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.
He is led to stand immediately before the bishop, the subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand kisses the orar and the hand. The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, lays his hand upon the ordinands head. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the blessing and kiss his hands
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons. A priest, a nun, a monk, a healer, an exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or a building or even an object. In a Roman Catholic context, exorcist may refer to a cleric who has been ordained into the order of exorcist. Since at least the third century, the Latin Church has formally ordained men to the order of exorcist. These exorcists routinely performed ceremonies over adults and infants preparing to be baptised, authors such as Eusebius and Augustine provide details of these minor exorcisms, Eusebius mentions the imposition of hands and prayer. Augustine noted that rites of exorcism by exsufflation were performed for the baptism of infants, by the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, exorcists wore the surplice and it was left open to the Catholic bishops of individual countries to petition the Vatican to establish a ministry of exorcist if it seemed useful in that nation.
The Eastern Churches did not establish a order of exorcist. In principle, every Christian has the power to command demons, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing. The revised 1983 Code of Canon Law similarly stated that the bishop is to give this permission only to a presbyter who has piety, prudence, the Catholic Churchs Rite of Exorcism was revised in 1999. Paragraph 13 of its states that a priest can be appointed by the local Bishop either for a single act of exorcism. The Rite specifies that whenever it uses the word exorcist without qualification, among notable exorcists, Gabriele Amorth served as chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome, he was the founder of the International Association of Exorcists. Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south, of the four Vedas, the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine.
Many of the rituals described in this book are for casting out demons and these beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal and southern states like Kerala. Vaishnava traditions employ a recitation of names of Lord Narasimha, main Puranic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana. Exorcism Parapsychology Fangxiangshi, a Chinese ritual exorcist An Evening with an Exorcist, thomas J. Euteneuer Exorcisms in the Catholic Church
A vicar general is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority and possesses the title of local ordinary. The title normally occurs only in Western Christian churches, such as the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the title for the equivalent officer in the Eastern churches is protosyncellus. The term is used by religious orders of men in a similar manner. In the Catholic Church, a bishop must appoint at least one vicar general for his diocese. The vicar general by virtue of office is the agent in administration. Vicars general must be priests, auxiliary bishops, or coadjutor bishops—if a coadjutor bishop exists for a diocese, other auxiliary bishops are usually appointed vicars general or at least episcopal vicars. A vicar general is an ordinary and, as such, acquires his powers by virtue of office. He is to possess a doctorate or at least a licentiate in law or theology or be truly expert in these fields. These might include issues concerning religious institutes or the faithful of a different rite and these too must be priests or auxiliary bishops.
The equivalent officer in the Eastern Churches is called the syncellus, priests appointed as vicars general or episcopal vicars are freely appointed or removed by the diocesan bishop, and are appointed for a fixed duration. They lose their office when the term expires, or when the see falls vacant. Auxiliary bishops may be removed from the office of vicar general, an auxiliary bishop who is an episcopal vicar, or a coadjutor bishop who is vicar general, may only be removed from office for a grave reason. A coadjutor bishop has the right of succession, so if the see falls vacant he becomes the bishop immediately. These offices should not be confused with the vicar forane or dean/archpriest, the appointment of a vicar general is a useful tool for a diocesan bishop who has additional functions attached to his episcopate. The most notable example is in the diocese of Rome, the Vicar General of Rome serves the same role for the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia, the traditional see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since it was merged with the diocese of Rome.
The Vicar General of Rome, who is normally a cardinal, the current Vicar General of Rome is Cardinal Agostino Vallini. A similar example is found in the United States and this had the status of an apostolic vicariate, and functioned as the equivalent of a diocese defined by quality rather than by geography. The archbishop had two separate administrations and two sets of vicars general to manage each and this arrangement ended with the establishment of the wholly separate Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
In some Christian churches, the reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. In early Christian times, the reader was of value due to the rarity of literacy. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the term lector or reader can mean someone who in a liturgy is assigned to read a Biblical text other than the Gospel. But it has the specific meaning of a person who has been instituted as a lector or reader. This is the meaning in which the term is used in this article, in this sense, the office was formerly classed as one of the four minor orders and in recent centuries was generally conferred only on those preparing for ordination to the priesthood. With effect from 1 January 1973, the apostolic letter Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972 decreed instead that, What up to now were called minor orders are henceforth to be called ministries. Ministries may be assigned to lay Christians, hence they are no longer to be considered as reserved to candidates for the sacrament of orders, two ministries, adapted to present-day needs, are to be preserved in the whole Latin Church, those of reader and acolyte.
The functions heretofore assigned to the subdeacon are entrusted to the reader, the reader is appointed for a function proper to him, that of reading the word of God in the liturgical assembly. He may also, insofar as may be necessary, take care of preparing other faithful who are appointed on a basis to read the Scriptures in liturgical celebrations. That he may more fittingly and perfectly fulfill these functions, he is to meditate assiduously on sacred Scripture, instituted lectors, who are all men, are obliged, when proclaiming the readings at Mass, to wear an alb. Like other lay ministers, they may wear an alb or other suitable attire that has been approved by the Conference of Bishops. Neither the England and Wales episcopal conference nor that of the United States has specified a particular alternative attire, the General Instruction thus makes no distinction between men and women for proclaiming the scriptural readings in the absence of an instituted lector. In its sections the same document lists the lectors specific duties at Mass, traditionalist Catholic organizations such as the Priestly Fraternity of St.
The controversial Society of St. Pius X and other traditionalist Catholic bodies in dispute with the Holy See, such as sedevacantists, in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine tradition, the reader is the second highest of the minor orders of clergy. This order is higher than the Doorkeeper and lower than the subdeacon, due to this fact, it often falls to the reader within a parish to construct the variable parts of the divine services according to the often very complicated rules. This can lead to an intimate knowledge of the structure of. There is a service for the ordination of a reader. Immediately before ordination as a reader, the candidate is tonsured as a sign of his submission and it is a separate act from ordination
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
A military chaplain ministers to military personnel and, in most cases, their families and civilians working for the military. In some cases they work with local civilians within a military area of operations. They may liaise with local leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace. Military chaplains normally represent a religion or faith group but work with military personnel of all faiths, some countries, like the Netherlands and Belgium, employ humanist chaplains who offer a non-religious approach to chaplain support. In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Defence employs chaplains, naval chaplains called to service with the Royal Marines undertake a commando course at Commando Training Centre Royal Marines, Lympstone and if successful serve with a front-line Royal Marines unit. British Army chaplains undertake seven-weeks training at The Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House, in the United States, the term, nomination, is not generally applied to the process of becoming a military chaplain.
Individuals volunteer, and if they are accepted, they are commissioned as military officers in the Chaplain Corps. Neither the government as a whole nor the military in particular will be put into the position of determining whether an individual is a bona fide priest, rabbi, etc. Although ordination is normally required for service, some equivalent status is accepted for individuals from religious groups which do not have ordination. The Geneva Conventions are silent on whether chaplains may bear arms, the Conventions do state that chaplains are non-combatants, they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities. It is generally assumed that during World War II, chaplains were unarmed, crosby describes an incident where a US chaplain became a trained tank gunner and was removed from the military for this entirely illegal, not to mention imprudent action. Fraser asks, if the shot, what would the harvest be. Apart from three ringing cheers from the whole battalion, other nations, notably Norway and Sweden, and Australia, make it an issue of individual conscience.
Since 1909 US chaplains on operations have been accompanied by an armed chaplain assistant, perhaps on this occasion it was felt that an unarmed uniformed man would draw unwelcome attention. Captured chaplains are not considered prisoners of war and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war, serving chaplains have died in action. The US Army and Marines lost 100 chaplains killed in action during World War II, the third highest casualty rate behind the infantry, many have been decorated for bravery in action. In 2006, training materials obtained by U. S, among the training materials, there included an insurgent sniper training manual that was posted on the Internet. Among its tips for shooting U. S. troops, there read, Killing doctors, Military chaplains are often supervised by a chaplain general or chief of chaplains, on the staff of the leader of the nations military forces
Quakers are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the Religious Society of Friends. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity, to differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers, in 2012, there were 377,055 adult Quakers. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry, the first Quakers lived in mid-17th century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, some of these early Quaker ministers were women. They emphasized a personal and direct experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity, in the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism. & J.
Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury and Frys, and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man named George Fox was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered. Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, and Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith, the central theme of his Gospel message was that Christ has come to teach his people himself. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, in 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to George Foxs autobiography, Bennet was the first that called us Quakers and it is thought that George Fox was referring to Isaiah 66,2 or Ezra 9,4.
Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing George Foxs admonition, Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, and the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. This was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689, with the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for women and Fell viewed the Quaker mother as essential to developing holy conversation in her children and husband. Quaker women were responsible for the spirituality of the larger community, coming together in meetings that regulated marriage. The persecution of Quakers in North America began in 1656 when English Quaker missionaries Mary Fisher and they were considered heretics because of their insistence on individual obedience to the Inner Light. They were imprisoned and banished by the Massachusetts Bay Colony and their books were burned, and most of their property was confiscated. They were imprisoned in terrible conditions, deported, in 1660, English Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence. The office is found only in older Catholic countries, and is now purely honorific. The Holy See has granted Polish primates the privilege of wearing cardinals crimson attire, except for the skullcap and biretta, the city may no longer have the prominence it had when the title was granted. Other former functions of primates, such as hearing appeals from metropolitan tribunals, were reserved to the Holy See by the early 20th century, the closest equivalent position in the Eastern Churches in 1911 was an exarch. The Holy See has continued in modern times to grant the title of primate, with the decree Sollicitae Romanis Pontificibus of 24 January 1956 it granted the title of Primate of Canada to the Archbishop of Quebec. As stated above, this is merely an honorary title involving no additional power, a right of precedence over other bishops and similar privileges can be granted even to a bishop who is not a primate.
Thus, in 1858, the Holy See granted the Archbishop of Baltimore precedence in meetings of the United States bishops. The title of primate is sometimes applied loosely to the archbishop of a capital, as in the case of the archbishops of Seoul in South Korea. The pre-reformation archbishop of Nidaros was sometimes referred to as Primate of Norway, the loose structure of the Benedictine Confederation is claimed to have made Pope Leo XIII exclaim that the Benedictines were ordo sine ordine. The powers of the Abbot Primate are specified, and his position defined, in a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops, the primacy is attached to the global Benedictine Confederation whose Primate resides at SantAnselmo in Rome. The Primatial powers are vested in the Abbot Primate to act by virtue of the proper law of its autonomous Benedictine congregation. However, certain branches of the Benedictine Order seem to have lost their autonomy to some extent. In a similar way the Confederation of Canons Regular of St.
Augustine, elects an Abbot Primate as figurehead of the Confederation and indeed the whole Canonical Order. The Abbots and Superiors General of the nine congregations of confederated congregations of Canons Regular elect a new Abbot Primate for a term of office lasting six years, the Current Abbot General is Rt. Rev. Fr Maurice Bitz, Abbot of St. Pierre, Anglican usage styles the bishop who heads an independent church as its primate, though commonly they hold some other title. In both the Church of England and the Church of Ireland, two bishops have the title of primate, the archbishops of Canterbury and York in England and of Armagh, only the bishop of the senior primatial see of each of these two churches participates in the meetings. The Archbishop of Canterbury, who is considered primus inter pares of all the participants, convokes the meetings and archbishops are styled The Most Reverend
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations, in the civil administration of the Byzantine Roman Empire the exarch was, as stated above, the viceroy of a large and important province. After the dissolution of the Western Empire in the fifth century. Justinian I reconquered North Africa, Italy and finally parts of Spain for the Eastern Roman Empire, this put an incredible strain on the Empires limited resources. Subsequent emperors would not surrender the land to remedy the situation. Thus the stage was set for Emperor Maurice to establish the Exarchates to deal with the evolving situation of the provinces. In Italy the Lombards were the opposition to Byzantine power. In North Africa the Amazigh or Berber princes were ascendant due to Roman weakness outside the coastal cities, the problems associated with many enemies on various fronts forced the imperial government to decentralize and devolve power to the former provinces.
The term Exarch most commonly refers to the Exarch of Italy, the exarchates seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. Ravenna remained the seat of the Exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm, the growing menace of the Lombards and the split between eastern and western Christendom that Iconoclasm caused made the position of the Exarch more and more untenable. The last Exarch was killed by the Lombards in 751, a second exarchate was created by Maurice to administer northern Africa, formerly a separate praetorian prefecture, the islands of the western Mediterranean and the Byzantine possessions in Spain. The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage, the exarchate proved both financially and militarily strong, and survived until the Arab Muslim conquest of Carthage in 698. The term exarch entered ecclesiastical language at first for a metropolitan with jurisdiction not only for the area that was his as a metropolitan, the advance of Constantinople put an end to these exarchates, which fell back to the state of ordinary metropolitan sees.
But the title of exarch was still used for any Metropolitan. Thus, since the Church of Cyprus was declared autocephalous, its Primate received the title of Exarch of Cyprus, the short-lived medieval Churches of Peć, Ohrid and Tirnova, were governed previously by exarchs, though these prelates assumed the title of patriarch. On the same principle the Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu is an exarch, though in case, as in that of Cyprus. When the Bulgarians reconstituted their national Church in 1870, they obtained from the Ottoman authorities for its head the title of Exarch, not the highest, that of Patriarch. The Bulgarian Exarch, who resided at Constantinople, was the most famous bearer of the title, adherents throughout Macedonia were called exarchists, as opposed to the Greek patriarchists
Deacon is a ministry in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the diaconate, the term for an office, is a clerical office. The word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning servant, waiting-man, minister, or messenger. One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means through the dust, female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. The title deaconess is not found in the Bible, however, a woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16, 1–2 as a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, the exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, and of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3, prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket and Reginald Pole.
On June 8, A. D.536 a serving Roman deacon was raised to Pope and his father, Pope Agapetus, had died and the office had been vacant for over a month. The title is used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland. The diaconate is one of the orders in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox. The other major orders are those of bishop and presbyter, the diaconate continued in a vestigial form as a temporary, final step along the course toward ordination to priesthood. In Catholic and Anglican churches, deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties and they have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church, deacons have a profound presence in the Divine Liturgy. In the Western Church, Pope St. Today, deacons are granted permission to preach, beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the permanent diaconate in the Latin church. It has however remained a part of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
These men are known as permanent deacons in contrast to those continuing their formation, there is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons. The permanent diaconate formation period in the Roman Catholic Church varies from diocese to diocese as it is determined by the local ordinary, although they are assigned to work in a parish by the diocesan bishop, once assigned, deacons are under the supervision of the parish pastor. Unlike most clerics, permanent deacons who have a profession have no right to receive a salary for their ministry