The President and Fellows of Harvard College is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Board of Overseers. In 1650, at the request of Harvard President Henry Dunster, the Great and General Court of Massachusetts issued the body's charter, making it now the oldest corporation in the Americas. Although the institution it governs has grown into Harvard University, the corporation's formal title remains the President and Fellows of Harvard College; the corporation was originally intended to be a body of the school's resident instructors, similar to the fellows of an Oxbridge college. However, it early fell into the now-familiar American model of a governing board—an outside body whose members are not involved in the institution's daily life, which meets periodically to consult with the day-to-day head, the president; the Corporation is self-perpetuating, appointing new members to fill its own vacancies as they arise. For most of its history, the Corporation was consisted of six fellows in addition to the president.
But after the abortive presidency of Lawrence Summers and a large endowment decline in 2008–2009, a year-long governance review was conducted. In December 2010, it announced that the Corporation's "composition and practices" would be altered: the number of fellows would increase from seven to 13, with prescribed terms of service, several new committees would endeavor to improve the group's integration with the activities of the University as a whole its long-term planning. There are thirteen members of the Corporation, their names and degrees that each received from a school of Harvard University are shown below. President and Fellows of Harvard College
The Lenti Madonna or Bache Madonna is a c.1472-1473 tempera and gold on panel painting by Carlo Crivelli, signed OPVS KAROLI CRIVELLI VENETI. It is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which it entered in 1944. Small and intended for private devotion, it was the work seen by Orsini around 1790 in Pier Giovanni Lenti's house in Ascoli Piceno with a "K" in its signature rather than the more usual "C" - the alternative candidate is the Ancona Madonna, but, signed "CAROLI" not "KAROLI"; the first definitive mention of the work dates to 1852, placing it in the Jones Collection in Clytha, from which it passed to the Baring Collection in 1871 and the Northbrook Collection. The Duveen Brothers acquired it in 1927, ceding it to Jules S. Bache, before passing to its present collection
Rebekah Lynn Warren is an American Democratic politician from Ann Arbor, representing the 55th District of the Michigan House of Representatives since January 1, 2019. She was elected to this position on November 6, 2018, beating Republican opponent Bob Baird, 74% to 26%, she served two terms as State Representative for Michigan's 53rd District, from 2007 to 2010, two terms in the Michigan Senate, from 2010 to 2018. Warren was raised in Owosso and attended the University of Michigan, majoring in political science. In 1993 she joined the staff of State Representative Mary Schroer of Ann Arbor and that of State Representative Hubert Price of Pontiac, Michigan. From 1999 to 2006 she was the executive director of NARAL Pro-Choice Michigan, the state affiliate of NARAL Pro-Choice America, she was elected to a two-year term in the Michigan House of Representatives in 2006 and was subsequently reelected in 2008. Warren chaired the House Great Lakes and Environment Committee since and sat on the Judiciary Committee, the Tax Policy Committee, the Oversight and Investigations Committee.
She co-chaired the Michigan BioTech Caucus with Republican Senator Randy Richardville. Warren is a progressive Democrat, subscribing to tenets of social equity, environmental conservation and liberal fiscal policies. Warren has championed abortion rights. In 2005 she was recognized for her leadership by the National Women's Political Caucus of Michigan with their annual Millie Award. NOW of Michigan named her "Legislator of the Year" in 2009, she has sponsored or cosponsored legislation to prevent pay discrimination, provide emergency contraception, extend family medical leave to adopting parents, provide support and protections for sexual assault survivors. Environmental issues topped Warren's agenda in the state legislature in 2007-2008, she championed the passage of the Great Lakes Compact and associated legislation to govern withdrawals of the state's groundwater. The Center for Michigan touted the package as "the most important accomplishment to come out of the Michigan legislature this year."
Warren and mother-in-law Alma Wheeler Smith introduced legislation in 2009 to provide free college tuition for Michigan residents by raising the state income tax. In 2010, Warren competed with fellow Democrat Pam Byrnes for the Democratic nomination for the 18th Michigan Senate seat to succeed Liz Brater. Five days before the primary election, an article in a Michigan newspaper revealed that ads for Byrnes and attacking Warren were financed by The Great Lakes Education Project, a Political Action Committee funded in part by Republicans Dick and Betsy DeVos; the Great Lakes Education Project lobbies for choice and quality in education and assists candidates that support education reform. Warren defeated Byrnes in the primary election with 55.7% of the vote. Until 2017, Warren was married to Washtenaw County Commissioner Conan Smith and was the daughter-in-law of Alma Wheeler Smith. On the evening of December 26, 2019, Warren was arrested in Auburn Hills, MI, on suspicion of DUI. Police had received several calls in relation to an impaired driver at 11 p.m.
Police dashcam footage showed Warren's Jeep driving erratically and colliding with the right wall of northbound I-75 before continuing on. When stopped, Warren told police she was on her way home to Ann Arbor, she told the arresting officer that she had consumed 2-3 glasses of wine "just a minute ago" and subsequently failed a field sobriety test administered at the scene. Warren refused to take a breathalyzer test and was taken by police to McLaren Hospital in Pontiac where testing showed her blood alcohol level was.21 triple the legal limit. Police dashcam footage showed Warren telling police at the scene "You understand there's going to be a moment where we're both going to be on TV", adding "I'm elected. I'm a senator; this is going to be the most famous arrest you've made." Warren was subsequently released on a $500 personal recognizance bond and was scheduled to return to court for a hearing on February 19, 2020. Michigan Senate - Rebekah Warren Official Michigan Senate Site Rebekah Warren for State Representative, Official Campaign Site Project Vote Smart - Senator Rebekah Warren profile Michigan Liberal - HD053 Michigan Democratic Party State Rep. arrested for alleged DUI in Auburn Hills was nearly 3 times the legal limit on YouTube
Trituba is a genus of minute sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Newtoniellidae. Species in the genus Trituba include: Trituba additicia Gofas, 2003 Trituba anelpistos Trituba barbadensis † Trituba bitubulata Trituba blacki Trituba constricta Gofas, 2003 Trituba dexia Trituba elatissima Gofas, 2003 Trituba epallaxa Trituba fallax Gofas, 2003 Trituba hirta Gofas, 2003 Trituba incredita Gofas, 2003 Trituba lima Gofas, 2003 † Trituba neozelanica Trituba recurvata Gofas, 2003 Trituba superstes † Trituba zecollata SubgenusSubgenus Trituba Kosuge, 1967 represented as Trituba Jousseaume, 1884 Trituba antepallaxa Trituba nonnitens Trituba tanseiae Trituba tui Jousseaume 1884. Monographie des Triforidae. Bulletin de la Société Malacologique de France, 1: 217-270, pl. 4 Verco, J. C. 1909. Notes on South Australian marine Mollusca with descriptions of new species. Part XII.
The Gerritsen Collection is a diverse collection of women's archival materials and feminist records covering fifteen languages and over 4,700 volumes. Acquired by the John Crerar Library of Chicago in 1903, it was subsequently sold to the University of Kansas in 1954. In the 21st century, the holdings were digitized and are now available through subscription to libraries worldwide. In 1903, Aletta Jacobs, one of the first women physicians in the Netherlands and an active international suffragist, sold her collection of feminist books and pamphlets to the John Crerar Library of Chicago. At the time she sold the records, she was ending her medical practice to devote herself to the suffrage cause; the collection bears her husband, Carel Victor Gerritsen's surname, in spite of the fact that Jacobs and Gerritsen had a premarital agreement that she would retain her own surname. She had compiled around 2,000 volumes of materials focused on Dutch and German works, with a few early works about women in English.
The works spanned the period from the 16th to the 20th century, with the majority of the materials focused on the nineteenth century. For over three decades the materials were unavailable to scholars and still boxed. With the creation of the National Archives and Records Administration in 1934, preservation efforts increased throughout the United States and a push was started to collect unpublished source materials; the Crerar Library began adding English titles to the collection, doubling its size, in 1954, sold it to the University of Kansas, in Lawrence. Housed in the Kenneth Spencer Research Library, curators continued adding titles to the collection through 1975. In the 1970s several publishing houses, such as Arno Press, Garland Publishers, Source Book Press, reprinted some of the feminist works in the collection which were written in English. Microfilming of the collection began in 1974, as a way to both preserve the records and share them with other archives and libraries, it took over three years to complete filming.
In the 21st century, ProQuest digitized the Gerritsen Collection, in two segments. One includes the nearly 4,000 books called the Monograph Language Series and the other section comprises around 700 periodicals and pamphlets and is referred to as the Periodical Series; the digitized product is available to subscribers. One of the earliest volumes in the collection is Lodovico Dolce's Dialogo della institution delle donne and translations dating to 1566 and 1726 of Agrippa von Nettesheim's arguments in favor of "the nobility and excellence of the female sex". A large portion of the collection covers the 19th century suffrage and women's rights movements, containing material on most of the pioneers of the German movement. There were works by and about activists like Helen Blackburn, Emily Davies, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ellen Key, Mary Wollstonecraft, among many others. Periodicals dating from 1832, besides German and English titles, focus on both suffrage and anti-suffrage works from Arab countries, Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, The Netherlands, New Zealand and Switzerland.
There are volumes in the collection dating to the 17th century. Some evaluate particular legal problems, while others evaluate historical periods, or country-specific legal systems. A significant portion of the legal documents evaluate prostitution in countries like Algeria, France, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, South Africa, the United States. About 20% of the volumes dealing with legal status were written by women. Other parts of the collection focus on women's employment; these include historical surveys, research papers, reports, material both by and about women. The documents are about women in Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States. Many of the works on employment focus on job training, how-to guides for employment, unionization, as well as women’s employment in a variety of occupations. In addition to works on anthropological and sociological examinations of marital and sexual relationships, dating to the 18th century, there were books on women's roles in religion, a large section both autobiographical and biographical works about women in Dutch, English and German, though the entire collection covers works in fifteen languages
Titan or OLCF-3 was a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan was an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units in addition to conventional central processing units. Titan was the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS; the upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded by the United States Department of Energy. Titan was eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employed AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar, it used 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS.
This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan was available for any scientific purpose. Any selected programs must be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected, they dealt with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs; the modifications increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes yield greater performance on CPU-only machines. Plans to create a supercomputer capable of 20 petaFLOPS at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory originated as far back as 2005, when Jaguar was built. Titan will itself be replaced by an 200 petaFLOPS system in 2016 as part of ORNL's plan to operate an exascale machine by 2020; the initial plan to build a new 15,000 square meter building for Titan, was discarded in favor of using Jaguar's existing infrastructure.
The precise system architecture was not finalized until 2010, although a deal with Nvidia to supply the GPUs was signed in 2009. Titan was first announced at the private ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference on November 16, 2010, was publicly announced on October 11, 2011, as the first phase of the Titan upgrade began. Jaguar had received various upgrades since its creation, it began with the Cray XT3 platform that yielded 25 teraFLOPS. By 2008, Jaguar had been expanded with more cabinets and upgraded to the XT4 platform, reaching 263 teraFLOPS. In 2009, it was upgraded to the XT5 platform, hitting 1.4 petaFLOPS. Its final upgrades brought Jaguar to 1.76 petaFLOPS. Titan was funded by the US Department of Energy through ORNL. Funding was sufficient to purchase the CPUs but not all of the GPUs so the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration agreed to fund the remaining nodes in return for computing time. ORNL scientific computing chief Jeff Nichols noted that Titan cost $60 million upfront, of which the NOAA contribution was less than $10 million, but precise figures were covered by non-disclosure agreements.
The full term of the contract with Cray included $97 million, excluding potential upgrades. The yearlong conversion began October 9, 2011. Between October and December, 96 of Jaguar's 200 cabinets, each containing 24 XT5 blades, were upgraded to XK7 blade while the remainder of the machine remained in use. In December, computation was moved to the 96 XK7 cabinets while the remaining 104 cabinets were upgraded to XK7 blades. ORNL's external ESnet connection was upgraded from 10 Gbit/s to 100 Gbit/s and the system interconnect was updated; the Seastar design used in Jaguar was upgraded to the Gemini interconnect used in Titan which connects the nodes into a direct 3D torus interconnect network. Gemini uses wormhole flow control internally; the system memory was doubled to 584 TiB. 960 of the XK7 nodes were fitted with a Fermi based GPU as Kepler GPUs were not available. This first phase of the upgrade increased the peak performance of Jaguar to 3.3 petaFLOPS. Beginning on September 13, 2012, Nvidia K20X GPUs were fitted to all of Jaguar's XK7 compute blades, including the 960 TitanDev nodes.
In October, the task was completed and the computer was renamed Titan. In March 2013, Nvidia launched the GTX Titan, a consumer graphics card that uses the same GPU die as the K20X GPUs in Titan. Titan underwent acceptance testing in early 2013 but only completed 92% of the tests, short of the required 95%; the problem was discovered to be excess gold in the female edge connectors of the motherboards' PCIe slots causing cracks in the motherboards' solder. The cost of repair was borne by Cray and between 12 and 16 cabinets were repaired each week. Throughout the repairs users were given access to the available CPUs. On March 11, they gained access to 8,972 GPUs. ORNL announced on April 8 that the repairs were complete and acceptance test completion was announced on June 11, 2013. Titan's hardware has a theoretical peak performance of 27 petaFLOPS with "perfect" software. On November 12, 2012, the T