The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Borut Pahor is a Slovenian politician serving as President of Slovenia since December 2012. He was Prime Minister from November 2008 to February 2012. A longtime president of the Social Democrats party, Pahor served several terms as a member of the National Assembly and was its speaker from 2000 to 2004. In 2004, Pahor was elected as member of the European Parliament. Following the victory of the Social Democrats in the 2008 parliamentary election, Pahor was appointed as Prime Minister. In September 2011, Pahor's government lost a confidence vote amidst an economic crisis and political tensions, he continued to serve as the pro tempore Prime Minister until he was replaced by Janez Janša in February 2012. In June 2012, he announced he would run for the ceremonial office of President of Slovenia, he defeated the incumbent Danilo Türk in a runoff election held on 2 December 2012, receiving two-thirds of the vote. In November 2017, Pahor was re-elected for a second term. Pahor was born in Postojna, SR Slovenia, spent his childhood in the town of Nova Gorica, before moving to the nearby town of Šempeter pri Gorici.
His father died at a young age and his mother, Iva Pahor Martelanc raised him as a single mother. After finishing the Nova Gorica High School in 1983, Pahor enrolled in the University of Ljubljana, where he studied public policy and political science at the Faculty of Sociology, Political Science and Journalism, he graduated in 1987 with a thesis on peace negotiations between members of the Non-Aligned Movement. His B. A. thesis was awarded the Student Prešeren Award, the highest academic award for students in Slovenia. According to the Slovenian press, Pahor worked as a male model to pay for his university studies. Pahor became involved in party politics in high school. At the age of 15, he became the chairman of the high school student's section of the Alliance of Socialist Youth of Slovenia in Nova Gorica, the autonomous youth branch of the Communist Party. In his college years, Pahor joined the ruling League of Communists of Slovenia. In 1987, he ran for the Presidency of University Section of the Alliance of the Socialist Youth of Slovenia.
This internal election was important, as it was the first election in Yugoslavia organized according to democratic principles. In the election, in which the members could choose between two antagonistic teams, Pahor's team lost to a more liberal faction; as a consequence, the Youth Alliance emancipated from the control of the Communist Party: a process that resulted in the formation of the Liberal Democratic Party in 1990. Due to this shift, Pahor continued his political career in the main apparatus of the Communist Party, he rose to prominence in the late 1980s, when he became one of the strongest supporters of the reformist wing of the Communist Party, led by Milan Kučan and Ciril Ribičič. During the political crisis caused by the so-called Ljubljana trial in the spring and summer of 1988, Pahor was the first high-ranking member of the Communist Party to propose that the Party renounced the monopoly over the Slovenian political life, thus opened the path to full-fledged political pluralism.
In 1989, Pahor co-founded and chaired the Democratic Forum, a youth section within the Slovenian Communist Party established as a counter-force to the Alliance of Socialist Youth, now openly opposing the communists' policies. The same year, he was appointed to the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Slovenia, thus becoming the youngest member of this body in its history. In 1990, he participated in the Slovenian delegation at the last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia in Belgrade. In the first free elections in Slovenia in April 1990, in which the communists were defeated by the Democratic Opposition of Slovenia, Pahor was elected in the Slovenian Parliament on the list of the League of Communists - Party of Democratic Reform. Together with Milan Balažic, Pahor emerged as the leader of the pro-reformist wing of the party, which advocated a clear cut with the communist past and a full-fledged acceptance of free market economy; as the party continued to lose support during the whole 1990s, falling under 10% of popular vote in 1996, Pahor's positions grew in strength.
In 1997, he was elected as its president on a Third way-centrist platform. In 1997, he was involved in the attempt of creating a common left wing government between Pahor's United List of Social Democrats, the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, the Slovenian National Party, the Pensioner's Party. Pahor was proposed as Minister of Foreign Affairs in this left wing coalition government, but the proposal failed to gain a majority in the parliament. Instead, the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia formed a coalition with the conservative Slovenian People's Party, based on a centrist platform, which ruled until 2000. Pahor's Social Democratic party remained in opposition, although it supported the government in several key decisions. In 2000, Pahor led his party in the coalition with the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia led by Janez Drnovšek. Pahor was elected speaker of the Slovenian National Assembly; this was his first important institutional office. During this period, he distinguished himself with a moderate and non-partisan behaviour, which gained him the respect of large sectors of the centre-right opposition.
As the speaker of the parliament, he pushed for a public commemoration in the memory of the deceased anti-communist dissident Jože Pučnik, initial
Slovenian Armed Forces
The Slovenian Armed Forces or Slovenian Army are the armed forces of Slovenia. Since 2003, it is organized as a professional standing army; the Commander-in-Chief of the SAF is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. The military history of Slovenia spans less than a hundred years. Following the disintegration of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, the Duchy of Styria was divided between the newly established states of German Austria and the State of Slovenes and Serbs. Rudolf Maister, a Slovene major of the former Austro-Hungarian Army, occupied the town of Maribor in November 1918 and claimed it to the State of Slovenes and Serbs. After a short fight with German Austrian provisional units, the current border was established, which followed the ethnic-linguistic division between Slovenes and ethnic Germans in Styria; the current Slovenian Armed Forces are descended from the Slovenian Territorial Defence, formed in 1991 by fusion of Territorial Defence with secret alternative command structure, known as the Manoeuvre Structures of National Protection, an existing but antiquated institution, intended to enable the republic to form an ad hoc defence structure, akin to a Home Guard.
It was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with few members. When Slovenia declared independence at the onset of the Yugoslav Wars in 1991, the Slovenian Territorial Defence and the Slovenian police comprised the majority of forces engaging the Yugoslav People's Army during the Ten-Day War; the Slovenian Armed Forces were formally established in 1993 as a reorganization of the Slovenia Territorial Defence. After 1993, the Slovenian Armed Forces had relied on mandatory military service, with conscripts receiving 6–7 months of training. In 2003, the Slovenian Government abolished conscription and as of July 2004, the Slovenian Armed Forces had been completely reorganised into a professional army now based on volunteers. There are 7,300 active troops and 1,500 in reserve, reduced from 55,000 personnel during conscription. A major reorganization of the Slovenian Armed Forces is underway with a goal making them more effective and cheaper. More than half of all commands have been disbanded which has made commanding the subordinated units easier and faster.
Soldiers are to be located nearer to their homes. Since the Slovenian Armed Forces do not have enough modern armored vehicles to maintain three motorized battalions fulfilled at every time, one Wheeled Combat Vehicles Company and one Tank Company have been organized within the Logistics brigade, which now lends vehicles to any of four newly formed infantry regiments, regarding to the regiments' needs. Reorganization transformed 72nd Brigade from a support unit to a combat unit and thus equaled it with the 1st Brigade. Both brigades were added support elements, such as Air Defense, Intelligence, etc; the operational units now consist of Special Operations Unit, Naval Division, an Aviation Regiment and three brigades, the 1st, 72nd and Logistics Brigade. As part of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia was never a member of the Warsaw Pact. Today, the foreign policy priority of NATO membership drives Slovenia's defense reorganization. Once many countries lifted the arms embargo on Slovenia in 1996, the country embarked on a military procurement program to bolster its status as a NATO candidate and to aid its transformation into a mobile force.
Active in the SFOR deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia is a charter member of Partnership for Peace and a regular participant in PfP exercises. The United States provides bilateral military assistance to Slovenia, including through the International Military Education and Training program, the State Partnership Program, the EUCOM Joint Contact Team Program. Slovenia formally joined NATO in March 2004; the transition of its armed forces from a conscript-based territorial defense organization to a professional force structure has the ultimate goal of creating NATO-interoperable combat units able to operate on an par with units from other NATO armies. Implementation of interoperability objectives as determined by the Planning and Review Process and the Individual Partnership Program as part of Slovenia's PfP participation proceeds. Slovenia's elite units train with and are integrated into international units including NATO members—for example as part of SFOR and on Cyprus, its elite mountain troops will be assigned to the Multinational Land Force peacekeeping battalion with Italy and Croatia.
Slovenia hosted its first PfP exercise in 1998--"Cooperative Adventure Exchange"—a multinational disaster-preparedness command post exercise involving 6,000 troops from 19 NATO and PfP member nations. Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon, they have served in Cyprus and the Golan Heights as a part of UNFICYP and UNDOF respectively. Slovenia hosts Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare, one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Bohinjska Bela, Slovenia, it is "respons
Prime Minister of Slovenia
There have been eight Prime Ministers of Slovenia President of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, since the country gained parliamentary democracy in 1989 and independence in 1991. The Prime Minister is nominated by the President after consultation with the parties represented in the National Assembly, he is formally elected by a simple majority of the National Assembly. If no candidate receives a majority, a new vote must be held within 14 days. If no candidate receives a majority after this round, the President must dissolve the legislature and call new parliamentary elections unless the National Assembly agrees to hold a third round. If no candidate is elected after a third round the legislature is automatically dissolved pending new elections. In practice, since the Prime Minister must command a majority of the National Assembly in order to govern, he or she is the leader of the majority party in the National Assembly or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition.
The National Assembly can only withdraw its support from a Prime Minister by way of a constructive vote of no confidence–that is, a motion of no confidence is of no effect unless a prospective successor has the support of a majority. The Prime Minister is President of the National Security Council. PartiesConservatives: SLS Parties KPS/ZKS SDP PartiesChristian democrats: SKD SLS NSiLiberals: LDS PS ZaAB SMC LMŠConservatives: SDSSocial democrats: SD President of Slovenia
Municipalities of Slovenia
Slovenia is divided into 212 municipalities, of which 11 have urban status. Municipalities are further divided into local districts. Slovene is an official language of all the municipalities. Hungarian is a second official language of three municipalities in Prekmurje: Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Hodoš/Hodos, Lendava/Lendva. Italian is a second official language of four municipalities in the Slovene Littoral: Ankaran/Ancarano, Izola/Isola, Koper/Capodistria, Piran/Pirano. In the EU statistics, the municipalities of Slovenia are classified as "local administrative unit 2", below 58 administrative units, which are LAU 1; the Slovene names of the municipalities have the word Občina'municipality' followed by a nominative form the seat of the municipality. In 2014, Slovenia was divided into 212 municipalities. ISO 3166-2:SI NUTS:SI Review of municipalities and appurtenant spatial units and house numbers, 1 January 2011. Published by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t
2011 Slovenian parliamentary election
A parliamentary election for the 90 deputies to the National Assembly of Slovenia was held on 4 December 2011. This was the first early election in Slovenia's history. 65.60% of voters cast their vote. The election was won by the center-left Positive Slovenia party, led by Zoran Janković. However, he failed to be elected as the new Prime Minister in the National Assembly, the new government was formed by a right-leaning coalition of five parties, led by Janez Janša, the president of the second-placed Slovenian Democratic Party; the National Assembly consists of 90 members, elected for a four-year term, 88 members elected by the party-list proportional representation system with D'Hondt method and 2 members elected by ethnic minorities using the Borda count. The election was scheduled to take place in 2012, four years after the 2008 election. However, on 20 September 2011, the government led by Borut Pahor fell after a vote of no confidence; as stated in the Constitution, the National Assembly has to elect a new Prime Minister within 30 days and a candidate has to be proposed by either members of the Assembly or the President of the country within seven days after the fall of a government.
If this does not happen, the president calls for a snap election. The leaders of most parliamentary political parties expressed opinion that they preferred an early election instead of forming a new government; as no candidates were proposed by the deadline, the President Danilo Türk announced that he would dissolve the Assembly on 21 October and that the election would take place on 4 December. The question arose as to whether the President could dissolve the Assembly after the seven days, in the event that no candidate was proposed. However, since this situation is not covered in the constitution, the decision of the President to wait the full 30 days was welcomed by the political parties; the dissolution of the Assembly, a first in independent Slovenia, took place on October 21, a minute after midnight. The votes were won in the following manner: In accordance with the Constitution of Slovenia, two seats were allocated to the Italian and Hungarian national communities, one to a representative of each community.
Members of the Italian community elected Roberto Battelli, members of the Hungarian community elected László Göncz as their representative. Batelli was the sole candidate in the Italian community, whereas in the Hungarian community, Göncz won 68.54% of votes and Orban Dušan won 31.46% of votes. In the Italian community, 1,152 out of 2,711 voters voted, in the Hungarian community, 3,382 out of 6,661 voters voted. Two new parties, both formed just weeks before the election, entered the National Assembly, with Positive Slovenia winning the election and Gregor Virant's Civic List placing fourth; the Slovenian National Party and two liberal parties, Liberal Democracy of Slovenia and Zares, all won less than a margin of 4% of the vote losing their position in the National Assembly. However, the Christian democracy centre-right New Slovenia party returned to the Assembly after being absent following the 2008 election. After the election, Janković said that the victory of his party was a proof that Slovenians wanted an efficient state and that he would focus on economic growth.
Shortly after the unofficial results became available, he stated he would invite all the parties to coalition talks. Analysts predicted the most coalition would consist of PS, SD, LGV and DeSUS; the leader of the SDS party Janez Janša congratulated Janković on the day of the election, stating that he was ready to cooperate, though Janković rejected to form a coalition with SDS. The leader of Social Democrats and incumbent Prime Minister Pahor stated that the result of his party was better than he expected, following the fall of his government earlier in September. LGV, DeSUS, SLS, NSi parties were all satisfied with the results. Foreign media reported about the win of the election by Zoran Janković as a surprising result and as a heavy blow to Janez Janša in the context of public surveys that predicted an easy win for Janša. Danilo Türk, the President of Slovenia, pointed out after the election that the will of the voters had been expressed, that it had been a rational choice and that it proved them to be ready for changes.
He stated that the large participation at election showed the voters had preserved their trust in democracy. He congratulated the parties who succeeded to win a seat in the Assembly and summoned them to work for the common good. According to public opinion researchers, Positive Slovenia won the election due to the mobilisation of left voters in Ljubljana, they reported that tactical voting in Slovenia reached proportions that were not recorded anywhere else before. 30% of Slovenian voters voted tactically. Three percent of right voters abstained from voting.29 of 90 elected deputies were females, a record. 57 deputies who never before held the post of deputy were elected. The average age of the elected deputies was a bit under 51 years; the youngest deputy was 26 years old, the oldest deputy was 68 years old. Official results of the election were announced on 16 December; the first and the founding session of the newly elected Assembly took place on 21 December. The elected deputies confirmed their mandates and the mandate of elected deputies ceased.
Due to the amendment to the Deputies Act, passed in May 2011, this was the first election enforcing the incompatibility of the mayoral post and the post of deputy at the National Assembly. 11 mayors were elected, including the Mayor of Ljubljana. All of them lost their mayoral posts on 21 December 2011, when they bec