A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is the essential element of many news media organizations. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth and influence; some media organizations are devoted to sports reporting — newspapers and magazines such as L'Equipe in France, La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, Marca in Spain, the defunct Sporting Life in Britain, American Sports Illustrated and Sporting News. Sports. Major League Baseball gave print journalists a special role in its games, they were named official scorers and kept statistics that were considered part of the official record of league. Active sportswriters were removed from this role in 1980. Although their statistical judgment calls could not affect the outcome of a game in progress, the awarding of errors and wins/saves were seen as powerful influences on pitching staff selections and play lists when coach decisions seemed unusual.
The removal of writers, who could benefit fiscally from sensational sports stories, was done to remove this perception of a conflict of interest, to increase statistics volume and accuracy. Sports stories transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance: Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. Modern controversies regarding the hyper-compensation of top athletes, the use of anabolic steroids and other, banned performance-enhancing drugs, the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure for Olympic Games demonstrates how sports can intrude on to the news pages. Sportswriters face more deadline pressure than other reporters because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe, yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists, to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. They must take care not to show bias for any team.
The tradition of sports reporting attracting some of the finest writers in journalism can be traced to the coverage of sport in Victorian England, where several modern sports – such as association football, cricket and rugby – were first organized and codified into something resembling what we would recognize today. Andrew Warwick has suggested that The Boat Race provided the first mass spectator event for journalistic coverage; the Race, an annual rowing event between the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford, has been held annually from 1856. Cricket because of its esteemed place in society, has attracted the most elegant of writers; the Manchester Guardian, in the first half of the 20th century, employed Neville Cardus as its cricket correspondent as well as its music critic. Cardus was knighted for his services to journalism. One of his successors, John Arlott, who became a worldwide favorite because of his radio commentaries on the BBC, was known for his poetry; the first London Olympic Games in 1908 attracted such widespread public interest that many newspapers assigned their best-known writers to the event.
The Daily Mail had Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the White City Stadium to cover the finish of the Marathon. Such was the drama of that race, in which Dorando Pietri collapsed within sight of the finishing line when leading, that Conan Doyle led a public subscription campaign to see the gallant Italian, having been denied the gold medal through his disqualification, awarded a special silver cup, presented by Queen Alexandra, and the public imagination was so well caught by the event that annual races in Boston and London, at future Olympics, were henceforward staged over the same, 26-mile, 385-yard distance used for the 1908 Olympic Marathon, the official length of the event worldwide to this day. The London race, called the Polytechnic Marathon and staged over the 1908 Olympic route from outside the royal residence at Windsor Castle to White City, was first sponsored by the Sporting Life, which in those Edwardian times was a daily newspaper which sought to cover all sporting events, rather than just a betting paper for horse racing and greyhounds that it became in the years after the Second World War.
The rise of the radio made sports journalism more focused on the live coverage of the sporting events. The first sports reporter in Great Britain, one of the first sports reporters in the World, was an English writer Edgar Wallace, who made a report on The Derby on June 6, 1923 for the British Broadcasting Company. In France, L'Auto, the predecessor of L'Equipe, had played an influential part in the sporting fabric of society when it announced in 1903 that it would stage an annual bicycle race around the country; the Tour de France was born, sports journalism's role in its foundation is still reflected today in the leading rider wearing a yellow jersey - the color of the paper on which L'Auto was published. After the Second World War, the sports sections of British national daily and Sunday newspapers continued to expand, to the point where many paper
Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism that intentionally and transparently adopts a non-objective viewpoint for some social or political purpose. Because it is intended to be factual, it is distinguished from propaganda, it is distinct from instances of media bias and failures of objectivity in media outlets, since the bias is intended. Some advocacy journalists reject that the traditional ideal of objectivity is possible in practice, either or due to the presence of corporate sponsors in advertising; some feel that the public interest is better served by a diversity of media outlets with a variety of transparent points of view, or that advocacy journalism serves a similar role to muckrakers or whistleblowers. One writer for the "alternative" journalism collaborative, the Independent Media Center, writes the following in a call to action: Classic tenets of journalism call for objectivity and neutrality; these are antiquated principles no longer universally observed.... We must not feel bound by them.
If we are to create meaningful change, advocacy journalism will be the single most crucial element to enable the necessary organizing. It is therefore important that we learn how to be successful advocacy journalists. For many, this will require a different way of pursuing goals. In an April 2000 address to the Canadian Association of Journalists, Sue Careless gave the following commentary and advice to advocacy journalists, which seeks to establish a common view of what journalistic standards the genre should follow. Acknowledge your perspective up front. Be truthful and credible. Don't spread propaganda, don't take quotes or facts out of context, "don't fabricate or falsify", "don't judge or suppress vital facts or present half-truths" Don't give your opponents equal time, but don't ignore them, either. Explore arguments that challenge your perspective, report embarrassing facts that support the opposition. Ask critical questions of people who agree with you. Avoid slogans and polemics. Instead, "articulate complex issues and carefully."
Be fair and thorough. Make use of neutral sources to establish facts. Sue Careless criticized the mainstream media for unbalanced and politically biased coverage, for economic conflicts of interest, for neglecting certain public causes, she said that alternative publications have advantages in independence and access, which make them more effective public-interest advocates than the mainstream media. Nineteenth-century American newspapers were partisan, publishing content that conveyed the opinions of journalists and editors alike; these papers were used to promote political ideologies and were partisan to certain parties or groups. The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP, was founded in 1910, it describes itself as inheriting the tradition of advocacy journalism from Freedom's Journal, which began in 1827 as "the first African-American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States." The Suffragist newspaper, founded in 1913 by the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, promoted the agenda of the National Woman's Party and was considered the only female political newspaper at the time.
Muckrakers are claimed as the professional ancestors of modern advocacy journalists. F. Stone. Advocacy journalists may reject the principle of objectivity in their work for several different reasons. Studies have shown that despite efforts to remain impartial, journalism is unable to escape some degree of implicit bias, whether political, personal, or metaphysical, whether intentional or subconscious; this does not indicate an outright rejection of the existence of an objective reality, but rather recognition of the inability to report on it in a value-free fashion and the controversial nature of objectivity in journalism. Many journalists and scholars accept the philosophical idea of pure "objectivity" as being impossible to achieve, but still strive to minimize bias in their work, it is argued that as objectivity is an impossible standard to satisfy, all types of journalism have some degree of advocacy, whether are intentional or not. Environmental journalism Howell Raines Journalism Journalism ethics and standards News propaganda Objectivity Objectivity main article discussing the concept of objectivity in various fields Science journalism The Revolution in Journalism with an Emphasis on the 1960s and 1970s.
Belinda Carberry. Brief history of alternative journalistic forms, including references for further reading. Designed for use by high school teachers. From the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. "Cornel West: The Uses of Advocacy Journalism". The Tavis Smiley Show, 15 December 2004. "Commentator Cornel West and NPR's Tavis Smiley discuss the notion of advocacy journalism in America, in the tradition of W. E. B. Du Bois, I. F. Stone and Ida B. Wells." RealAudio or Windows Media Audio program. A Brief History of American Alternative Journalism in the Twentieth Century. Randolph T. Holhut. "Critical scan reveals. The New Brunswick Telegraph Journal 2004.06.29. This article criticizes the mainstream Canadian press for engaging in "advocacy journalism" on behalf of liberal causes. "The sorry state of American journalism" by Dennis Campbell. October 7, 2003. Criticizes "advocacy journalism" of all political stripes as "opinion disguised as news" and "propagandizing". Identifies "advocacy journalism" as a post-Watergate phenomenon
Data-driven journalism shortened to "ddj", a term in use since 2009, is a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating or elevating a news story. Many data-driven stories begin with newly available resources such as open source software, open access publishing and open data, while others are products of public records requests or leaked materials; this approach to journalism builds on older practices, most notably on computer-assisted reporting a label used in the US for decades. Other labels for similar approaches are "precision journalism", based on a book by Philipp Meyer, published in 1972, where he advocated the use of techniques from social sciences in researching stories. Data-driven journalism has a wider approach. At the core the process builds on the growing availability of open data, available online and analyzed with open source tools. Data-driven journalism strives to reach new levels of service for the public, helping the general public or specific groups or individuals to understand patterns and make decisions based on the findings.
As such, data driven journalism might help to put journalists into a role relevant for society in a new way. Since the introduction of the concept a number of media companies have created "data teams" which develop visualizations for newsrooms. Most notable are teams e.g. at Reuters, Pro Publica, La Nacion. In Europe, The Guardian and Berliner Morgenpost have productive teams, as well as public broadcasters; as projects like the MP expense scandal and the 2013 release of the "offshore leaks" demonstrate, data-driven journalism can assume an investigative role, dealing with "not-so open" aka secret data on occasion. The annual Data Journalism Awards recognize outstanding reporting in the field of data journalism, numerous Pulitzer Prizes in recent years have been awarded to data-driven storytelling, including the 2018 Pulitzer Prize in International Reporting and the 2017 Pulitzer Prize in Public Service According to information architect and multimedia journalist Mirko Lorenz, data-driven journalism is a workflow that consists of the following elements: digging deep into data by scraping and structuring it, filtering by mining for specific information and making a story.
This process can be extended to provide information results that cater to individual interests and the broader public. Data journalism trainer and writer Paul Bradshaw describes the process of data-driven journalism in a similar manner: data must be found, which may require specialized skills like MySQL or Python interrogated, for which understanding of jargon and statistics is necessary, visualized and mashed with the aid of open source tools. A more results-driven definition comes from data web strategist Henk van Ess. "Data-driven journalism enables reporters to tell untold stories, find new angles or complete stories via a workflow of finding and presenting significant amounts of data with or without open source tools." Van Ess claims that some of the data-driven workflow leads to products that "are not in orbit with the laws of good story telling" because the result emphazes on showing the problem, not explaining the problem. "A good data driven production has different layers. It allows you to find personalized details that are only important for you, by drilling down to relevant details but enables you to zoom out to get the big picture".
In 2013, Van Ess came with a shorter definition in that doesn't involve visualisation per se: "Datajournalism is journalism based on data that has to be processed first with tools before a relevant story is possible." Telling stories based on the data is the primary goal. The findings from data can be transformed into any form of journalistic writing. Visualizations can be used to create a clear understanding of a complex situation. Furthermore, elements of storytelling can be used to illustrate what the findings mean, from the perspective of someone, affected by a development; this connection between data and story can be viewed as a "new arc" trying to span the gap between developments that are relevant, but poorly understood, to a story, verifiable, trustworthy and easy to remember. In many investigations the data that can be found is misleading; as one layer of data-driven journalism a critical examination of the data quality is important. In other cases the data might not be public or is not in the right format for further analysis, e.g. is only available in a PDF.
Here the process of data-driven journalism can turn into stories about data quality or refusals to provide the data by institutions. As the practice as a whole is in early development steps, examinations of data sources, data sets, data quality and data format are therefore an important part of this work. Based on the perspective of looking deeper into facts and drivers of events, there is a suggested change in media strategies: In this view the idea is to move "from attention to trust"; the creation of attention, a pillar of media business models has lost its relevance because reports of new events are faster distributed via new platforms such as Twitter than through traditional media channels. On the other hand, trust can be understood as a scarce resource. While distributing information is much easier and faster via the web, the abundance of offerings creates costs to verify and check the content of any story create an opportunity; the view to transform media companies into trusted data hubs has been described in an article cross-published in February 2011 on Owni.eu and Nieman Lab.
The process to transform raw data into stories is akin to a refi
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them; this was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is considered to have ended by the early 1980s; the term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well. Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism"; the appearance of the yellow press—papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s—led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, its newspapers entered an era known as that of the'New Journalism.'" John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform.
Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism", Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, investigative, humanistic, reformist and a few more."The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction, alternative journalism, advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, changes in the established media. In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New Journalism", a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper history Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas Stead. He disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, declared that, under Stead, "the P. M. G. Whatever may be its merits, is fast ceasing to be literature." W. T. Stead called his brand of journalism'Government by Journalism' How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre is not clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain." In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese and Jimmy Breslin, he never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing.
It was picked up and stuck." But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket. A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would build on in his 1968 convention coverage and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story, it began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..." Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, wh