Pretoria is the administrative capital of South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains, it is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Tshwane University of Technology, University of Pretoria, the University of South Africa home to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the Human Sciences Research Council; the city hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane and the proposed name change has caused some public controversy.

Pretoria was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, within South Africa sometimes called the "Jacaranda City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets and gardens. Pretoria was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius and chose a spot on the banks of the Apies rivier to be the new capital of the South African Republic; the elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River in 1838. The elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which the United Kingdom acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal, it became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881.

The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa; the city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902 at Melrose House. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments; the Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal. On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status.

When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital. Pretoria is situated 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north, it lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters; the city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days. Although the average lows during winter are mild, it can get cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C; the average annual temperature is 18.7 °C. This is rather high, considering the city's high altitude of about 1,339 metres, is due to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year.

Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an rare event. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, unusual for that time of the year. Similar record-breaking extreme heat events occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days; the year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of 914 mm fell up with 220 mm recorded in this month alone. In 2015, Pretoria saw its worst drought since 1982. Pretoria reached a new record high of 44 °C on 7 January 2016. Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 700,000 to 2.95 million. The main langua

Incapacity Benefit

Incapacity Benefit was a British social security benefit, paid to people facing extra barriers to work because of their long-term illness or their disability. It replaced Invalidity Benefit in 1995; the government began to phase out Incapacity Benefit in 2008 by making it unavailable to new claimants, moved all the remaining long-term recipients onto Employment and Support Allowance. In 1995, the Conservative Secretary of State for Social Security, Peter Lilley, abolished Invalidity Benefit for fresh claims and replaced it with Incapacity Benefit after the Prime Minister of the day, John Major, had complained about the burgeoning caseload, saying: "Frankly, it beggars belief that so many more people have become invalids at a time when the health of the population has improved". A new feature of Incapacity Benefit was that officials could ask for claimants' disabilities to be confirmed using a bespoke testing procedure – the All Work Test – carried out by doctors working for the government.

Another feature was that claimants would be assessed on their ability to do any job, not just their old trade. And unlike its predecessor, Incapacity Benefit was taxable; the caseload continued to rise. After 2000, some recipients underwent a Personal Capability Assessment to establish whether their condition had improved: if it had, benefit payments could be withdrawn; this new test was used to assess some fresh claims for Incapacity Benefit. In late 2008, the Labour government replaced Incapacity Benefit with Employment and Support Allowance for new claims and brought in another gateway health test carried out by nurses: the Work Capability Assessment. Following the introduction of ESA, the number of remaining Incapacity Benefit recipients dwindled as they came off the benefit upon reaching the State Pension age. By early 2011, the Incapacity Benefit caseload had shrunk by more than 500000, the ESA caseload had grown by the same amount; the Coalition government decided to implement the plan to reassess most remaining Incapacity Benefit recipients.

This reassessment programme, which began in early 2011 and was completed in 2016, used an updated version of the Work Capability Assessment. Recipients confirmed as having limited capability for work were transferred onto ESA. To be eligible for Incapacity Benefit claimants had to meet one of two criteria: Have paid National Insurance contributions in the pastor Be over 16 but under 20 and were unable to work because of illness or disability that began before they turned 20 and been unable to work for at least 28 weeks. For the first 28 weeks of the claim, eligibility was based on whether the claimant could do their normal occupation. From the 29th week onwards, eligibility was based on whether the claimant was able to do any type of work. People over state pension age who were claiming Incapacity Benefit before they reached this age were eligible to receive Incapacity Benefit for up to one year after they became eligible for the state pension; the short term rate was paid to people. After 52 weeks, claimants would be paid the long term rate, claimants who had a terminal illness or got the highest rate care component of Disability Living Allowance were able to be paid the long term rate after 28 weeks of claiming Incapacity Benefit.

The short term rate was split into two other categories: higher rate. The lower rate was paid to people, sick or disabled for more than four days but less than 28 weeks and who were not able to claim Statutory Sick Pay; the higher rate was paid to people, sick or disabled for more than 28 weeks but less than 52 weeks. Claimants who became unable to work as a result of sickness or disability before the age of 45 were paid the Incapacity Age Addition; the number of Incapacity Benefits rose in the 1990s. A study on this phenomenon argued that it was unlikely that the number of people with serious disabilities had risen as as the number of Incapacity Benefit claimants; the study found that areas where a high number of jobs had been lost experienced the biggest rises in people claiming Incapacity Benefit, but that there was no comparable rise in Jobseeker's Allowance claimants. In 2004, the caseload peaked at just under 2,500,000 began to fall but caseloads never fell lower than they were in 1995.

A report written by academics from Sheffield Hallam University argued that Incapacity Benefit had been used to give the appearance that unemployment levels were lower than they genuinely were. The report's author's claimed that because Incapacity Benefit claimants were not counted as unemployed in official data on employment levels, unemployed people with disabilities that did not prevent them from working were allowed to claim Incapacity Benefit so that unemployment figures would appear lower; the report cites data from the DWP that show that the number of Incapacity Benefit in relation to the number of JSA claimants rose between the 1990s and the 2000s. As well as this, an article in the Telegraph argued that the number of former Incapacity Benefit claimants found fit for work when assessed for ESA showed that Incapacity Benefit had been used to

Holland Landing

Holland Landing is a community in the town of East Gwillimbury, located in the northern part of the Regional Municipality of York, in south-central Ontario, Canada. Its major road is Yonge Street and the community has bus service by GO Transit route 68 and York Region Transit route 52; the East Gwillimbury GO train station is in the southeast corner of Holland Landing, providing weekday commuter train service. The East Holland River has several marinas for recreational boats. Most of Holland Landing's internal economy is based on the service industry, some manufacturing. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe came across what would be the future site of Holland Landing known as St. Albans, he believed the area would make an ideal portage route and defence point between York and Georgian Bay. Holland Landing was named after Samuel Holland, first Surveyor-General of British North America, who had served on HMS Pembroke, under Captain John Simcoe, father of Governor Simcoe, for whom Lake Simcoe is named.

Holland Landing was the northernmost point on the original alignment of Yonge Street. North of the town the Holland River is navigable, the location was selected as a well sited inland port for Lake Simcoe, via the river, it was intended that Yonge Street, in combination with the similar Penetanguishene Road further north, would provide access to the upper Great Lakes from the city of York. Holland Landing would be a major point on this route. However, it never served this intended role in any real capacity; the closest it came was during the War of 1812, when the British decided to retake the entire lake system through the construction of a number of first-rate ships in Kingston and Penetanguishene. A large anchor, over fifteen feet long and weighing 4000 lbs, for the frigate under construction at Penetanguishene was shipped from England and had made it as far as Holland Landing when the war ended. Today it is on display at Anchor Park; the town itself was not formed until the early 19th century, settled by the same Quaker immigrants as nearby Newmarket and Aurora.

In 1815, a population of settlers from Selkirk, Manitoba arrived in Holland Landing after a conflict between them and the Métis. Samuel Lount, a martyr of the 1837 Rebellion led by William Lyon Mackenzie and operated a smithy here. Lount was captured convicted of treason, hanged on April 12, 1838; the idea for a canal linking to Lake Simcoe and the Trent-Severn Waterway was approved and construction started in 1906. Holland Landing would connect Bradford, it was complete in the summer of 1912 – three lift locks, three swing bridges and a turning basin – when the new government of Robert Borden cancelled the project. The project was abandoned, earning it the name "The Ghost Canal", it continues to serve as a historical landmark. Population: 2006: about 8,500 - estimate based on the census population of East Gwillimbury, the town's data which indicate 41% of its residents are in Holland Landing. 2015: about 9,000 The community has four primary schools. There are no higher education institutions in Holland Landing, or indeed in East Gwillimbury.

Students from Holland Landing attend one of the high schools in Newmarket. Bradford, northwest Queensville, northeast Sharon, east Newmarket, south Kettleby, southwest Ansnorveldt, west Keswick, north