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Priene

Priene was an ancient Greek city of Ionia at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about 6 kilometres north of the course of the Maeander River, 67 kilometres from ancient Anthea, 15 kilometres from ancient Aneon and 25 kilometres from ancient Miletus. It was built on the sea coast, overlooking the former Latmian Gulf of the Aegean on steep slopes and terraces extending from sea level to a height of 380 metres above sea level at the top of the escarpment. Today, after several centuries of changes in the landscape, it is an inland site, it is located at a short distance west of the modern village Güllübahçe Turun in the Söke district of Aydın Province, Turkey. Priene possessed a great deal of architecture; the city's original position on Mount Mycale has never been discovered. Priene never held a great deal of political importance due to the city's size, as it is believed around 4 to 5 thousand inhabitants occupied the region; the city was arranged into four districts, firstly the political district which consisted of the bouleuterion and the prytaneion, the cultural district containing the theatre, the commercial where the agora was located and the religious district which contained sanctuaries dedicated to Zeus and Demeter and most the Temple of Athena.

The city visible on the slopes and escarpment of Mycale was constructed according to plan within the 4th century BCE. It was not the original Priene, a port city situated at the mouth of the Maeander River; this location caused insuperable environmental difficulties for it due to slow aggradation of the riverbed and progradation in the direction of the Aegean Sea. The harbour would silt over and the population find itself living in pest-ridden swamps and marshes; the underlying causes of the problem are that the Maeander flows through a subsiding rift valley creating a drowned coastline and that human use of the forested slopes and valley denudes the countryside and accelerates erosion. The sediments are progressively deposited in the trough at the mouth of the river, which migrates westward and more than compensates for the subsidence. Physical remains of the original Priene have not yet been identified, because, it is supposed, they must be under many feet of sediment, the top of, now valuable agricultural land.

Knowledge of the average rate of progradation is the basis for estimating the location of the city, moved every few centuries to renew its utility as a port. The Greek city was founded by a colony from the ancient Greek city of Thebes in the vicinity of ancient Aneon at about 1000 BCE. At about 700 BCE a series of earthquakes provided the opportunity for a move to within 8 kilometres of its 4th century BCE location. At about 500 BCE the city moved again to a few km away at the port of Naulochos. At about 350 BCE the Persian-empire satrap, Mausolus planned a magnificent new city on the steep slopes of Mycale, where it would be, it was hoped, a permanent deep-water port. Construction had begun when the Macedonians took the region from the Persian Empire and Alexander the Great assumed responsibility for the move, he and Mausolus intended to make Priene a model city. He offered to pay for construction of the Temple of Athena to designs of the noted architect Pytheos, if it would be dedicated by him, which it was, in 323 BCE.

The inscription translated to: "King Alexander dedicated the temple to Athena Polias". The leading citizens were quick to follow suit: most of the public buildings were constructed at private expense and are inscribed with the names of the donors; the ruins of the city are conceded to be the most spectacular surviving example of an entire ancient Greek city intact except for the ravages of time. It has been studied since at least the 18th century and still is; the city was constructed of marble from nearby quarries on Mycale and wood for such items as roofs and floors. The public area is laid out in a grid pattern up the steep slopes, drained by a system of channels; the water distribution and sewer systems survive. Foundations, paved streets, partial door frames, walls, terraces can be seen everywhere among toppled columns and blocks. No wood has survived; the city extends upward to the base of an escarpment projecting from Mycale. A narrow path leads to the acropolis above. Despite the expectations of the population Priene lasted only a few more centuries as a deep-water port.

In the 2nd century CE Pausanias reports that the Maeander had silted over the inlet in which Myus stood and that the population had abandoned it for Miletus. While Miletus was still open according to recent geoarchaeological research Priene had lost the port and open connection to the sea in about the 1st century BCE, its merchants had preceded the people of Myus to Miletus. By 300 CE the entire Bay of Miletus, except for Lake Bafa, was silted in. Today Miletus is many miles from the sea and Priene stands at the edge of a fertile plain, now a checkerboard of owned fields. A Greek village remained after the population decline and was joined by a Turkish population after the 12th century CE. In the 13th century CE Priene was known as Sampson in Greek after the biblical hero Samson (Samsun Kale, "Samson

Stationery

Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, writing implements, continuous form paper, other office supplies. Stationery includes materials to be written by equipment such as computer printers; the term stationery referred to all products sold by a stationer, whose name indicated that his book shop was on a fixed spot near a university, permanent, while medieval trading was carried on by itinerant peddlers and others at markets and fairs. It was a special term used between 15th centuries in the manuscript culture. Stationers' shops were places where books were bound and published; these shops loaned nearby university students titles for a fee. However, the books were loaned out in sections and the only way to get the next part of the title was to return the previous section; the Stationers' Company held a monopoly over the publishing industry in England and was responsible for copyright regulations. Letterpress is a method of printing many identical copies that requires characters being impressed upon the page.

The print may be inked or blind but is done in a single color. Motifs or designs may be added as many letterpress machines use movable plates that must be hand-set; when a single document needs to be produced, it may be handwritten or printed by a computer printer. Several copies of one original can be produced by some printers using multipart stationery. Typing with a typewriter is obsolescent, having been superseded by preparing a document with a word processor and printing. Thermographic printing is a process that involves several stages but can be implemented in a low-cost manufacturing process; the process involves printing the desired designs or text with an ink that remains wet, rather than drying on contact with the paper. The paper is dusted with a powdered polymer that adheres to the ink; the paper is vacuumed or agitated, mechanically or by hand, to remove excess powder, heated to near combustion. The wet ink and polymer bond and dry, resulting in a raised print surface similar to the result of an engraving process.

Embossing is a printing technique used to create raised surfaces in the converted paper stock. The process relies upon mated dies that press the paper into a shape that can be observed on both the front and back surfaces. Engraving is a process that requires a design to be cut into a plate made of a hard material, it requires significant skill and experience. The finished plate is covered in ink, the ink is removed from all of the un-etched portions of the plate; the plate is pressed into paper under substantial pressure. The result is a design, raised on the surface of the paper and covered in ink. Due to the cost of the process and expertise required, many consumers opt for thermographic printing, a process that results in a raised print surface, but through different means at less cost. Desktop instruments: hole punch and staples, tapes and dispenser, Drawing instruments: brushes, colour pencils, water colour, Erasers Ink and toner: Dot matrix printer's ink ribbon Inkjet Ink cartridge Laser printer toner Photocopier toner Filing and storage: Expandable file File folder Hanging file folder Index cards and files Two-pocket portfolios Mailing and shipping supplies: Envelope Paper and pad: Notebooks, wirebound notebook, writing pads, college ruled paper, wide ruled paper, Office paper: dot matrix paper, inkjet paper, laser paper, Photocopy paper.

Writing instruments: ballpoint pen, fountain pen, porous point pen, rollerball pen, highlighter pen Many shops that sell stationery sell other school supplies for students in primary and secondary education, including pocket calculators, display boards and protractors, the like. Office supplies Co.. List of stationery topics New Zealand standard for school stationery Ryman Shoplet Smythson teNeues WHSmith The dictionary definition of stationery at Wiktionary Media related to Stationery at Wikimedia Commons

Rey del Ring (2018)

The Rey del Ring show was a major annual lucha libre event produced and scripted by Mexican professional wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group, took place on May 20, 2018 in Arena Naucalpan, State of Mexico, Mexico. The main event was the Eponymous IWRG Rey del Ring tournament, the sixteenth annual version of the tournament, IWRG's version of WWE's Royal Rumble, multi-man elimination event. In IWRG the winner of the Rey del Ring tournament wins the IWRG Rey del Ring Championship, after the previous champion Imposible vacated the championship prior to the match. Emperador Azteca won the championship by outlasting 29 other wrestlers; the show featured three additional matches, including a Lucha de Apuestas, hair vs. hair match where Lunatic Xtreme defeated Gallo Frances, forcing Gallo Frances to be shaved bald as a result. The Mexican professional wrestling company International Wrestling Revolution Group started their annual Rey del Ring event in 2002, creating an annual event around the eponymous Rey del Ring match, a 30-man elimination match similar in concept to the WWE's Royal Rumble match.

From 2002 until the 2011 event the "prize" for winning the match itself was the prestige of outlasting 29 other competitors, but at the 2011 Rey del Ring IWRG introduced the IWR Rey del Ring Championship complete with a belt to symbolize the championship that would be awarded to the winner each year. At that point in time the Rey del Ring title became a championship that could be defended and lost or won in matches in between the annual tournaments. For the tournament the champion would vacate the Rey del Ring Championship prior to the actual Rey del Ring match itself. All Rey del Ring shows, as well as the majority of the IWRG shows in general are held in Arena Naucalpan, owned by the promoters of IWRG and their main arena; the 2018 Rey del Ring was the sixteenth over all Rey del Ring tournament held by IWRG. The event featured five professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches.

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