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Women's Christian College, Kolkata

Women's Christian College is an undergraduate college for women students in southern Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It has been rated as a Grade A college by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, an autonomous organization that evaluates post-secondary academic institutions in India, it operates under the aegis of the Bengal Christian Council, an autonomous interdenominational Christian body, that draws from the best practices of rival Christian denominations in administering educational institutions in West Bengal. In legal terms, it is a Grant-in-Aid college, affiliated to the University of Calcutta and aided by the University Grants Commission, it is a well-equipped educational institution with wi-fi enabled facilities, audio-visual enabled classrooms automated libraries, a supportive staff. It was established on 19 July 1945, for the education of Bengali speaking Indian Christians; the founders felt it necessary to have their self-administered college, following the closure of the Diocesan College for women students.

The initiative to establish a Christian college for women was taken by Miss Nirajbashini Shome, founder secretary, Miss Stella Bose, the founder principal of the college. The London Missionary Society allowed the founders to use the ground floor and two rooms on the first floor of the present building for one year free of rent; the intermediate in arts course was started with three students in 1945-‘46 and the figure rose to twenty-two by the end of the session. Calcutta University affiliation for the I. A. course was granted in 1947-‘48 and that for the B. A. course in 1948-‘49. The Honours Course was extended to Bengali, English and Economics; the Saroj Nalini Memorial Institution donated furniture to the college while the Sisters of the Oxford Mission, helped with books and furniture. The London Missionary Society building was bought along with six cottah of land in May 1952 for Rs. 30,000/-. The property was augmented by the acquisition of two more premises after seven years. An additional building for the B.

A. course classes and an assembly hall were built with the help of the State Government and University Grants Commission. Financial assistance was received from the Methodist Mission, the Baptist Missions and an anonymous donor from the Church of England. Thus, Women's Christian College came into being neither through state patronage nor through missionary initiative, it was an indigenous educational enterprise that lay great store on imparting value-based education to young women hailing from diverse social and religious backgrounds without discriminating on the basis of caste, creed or class. From the beginning the college has had a small hostel, a boon for outstation students. Presently the college has three buildings encompassing a chapel, a hostel, a computer training centre, a central library, a seminar hall and an audio-visual room among other facilities; the college houses the Arts and Science departments which offer undergraduate Degree courses in various subjects like English, Political Science, Education, Sanskrit, Geography and Economics.

The Distance Education Postgraduate Programmes under the aegis of Netaji Subhas Open University in English, Mathematics, Political Science, Social Work and English Language Teaching are conducted in this institution. The college is the sole Study Centre in West Bengal for the 2-Year MA Programme and the 1 Year Diploma Programme of the ELT Course under NSOU; the college has six arts department, namely Bengali, Sanskrit, Political Science, Philosophy and Sociology, three science departments, namely Economics and Mathematics. The college has three buildings – Block A, B and C, it has a Chapel, Central Library, Seminar Libraries, Seminar Hall, Audio-Visual Room, Smart Classrooms, Students’ Common Room, Computer Training Centre and Cheap Store. The college has a Hostel attached; the Central library is situated in Block C of the college building. Women's Christian College Library was started along with the establishment of the college in 1945; the college has a computer training centre. In the first year students are taught the fundamentals of computer, Windows XP, Ms-Office 2007 and HTML.

In their second year they graduate to multimedia software such as Photoshop, Sound Forge and Flash and in the third year they are taught Premiere and 3D Max. The centre has two faculty members and technological aid in the form of 16 computers, a television set, internet; these rooms are equipped with LCD Projector, Digital Visualizer and a Sound System. These rooms are used for small seminars and interactive classes enriched with modern technological audio-visual aids; the seminar hall, too, is equipped with the same technological aids enhancing audio-visual communication. The students are trained in Karate and Self Defence Skills and are certified by International Gosoky Ryu Karate Do Association. Self-defence classes are incorporated as a part of the curriculum and held within the college premises following a specific timetable. Participation in the self- defence classes is compulsory for all the students of this college from the year 2012. Special workshops too are sometimes arranged and the students are encouraged to participate in the same.

The College has different cells and clubs to enable its students to serve the community not only in the educational sphere but in the areas of women's welfare, environmental issues, poverty reduction etc. The college introduced a National Service Scheme unit from the session 2009-10 under zone IV of the University of Calcutta. NSS carries

Tylösand

Tylösand is a locality situated in Halmstad Municipality, Halland County, with 399 inhabitants in 2010. It is located 7 km west of Halmstad, on Tyludden. Tylösand is famous for its 7 km long sand beach, its golf courses and “Hotell Tylösand”, a hotel owned by Roxette star Per Gessle and Björn Nordstrand; the Roman poet Vergilius, in the middle of the first century BC, refers to the North as “Ultima Thule”, i.e. the furthermost North. The Roman author Plinius, who lived during the first century AD, claims that the world's furthermost place at Thule or Tyle is the place described by the Greek Pytheas from Marseille, who travelled from the Mediterranean to the North in 300 BC. In the 1950s, the German researcher W. Koepp links the above mentioned citations to the area of Tylö in Halland, Sweden. Excavations in the area of Tylösand and Söndrum show traces of a 6000-year-old Stoneage dwelling, where axes and arrows were found. On Tylö, Bronze age remains were found; the area of Tylösand was given to Halmstad by the Danes in 1563.

According to official documents dating back to the 16th century, Tylösand was inhabited by fishermen. It was impossible to cultivate any crops in the surrounding area because of the sand's expansion. One explanation given is that when trees were cut down, the ground could no longer hold the sand that spread over the whole area; the area of Tyludden and Tylösand was difficult to approach and one of its bays called ’’Tjuvahålan” was popular among smugglers. In 1870, the customs service installed a customs station in order to combat smuggling and the same year the lighthouse on Tylö was built. In 1905, a holiday resort for school children was built, making Tylösand a place for holidays and recreation; the sea resort of Tylösand became known in the beginning of the 20th century. In 1915, the first inn was built, in 1917 “Tylösands Havsbad” was established by the inn's owner and the royal photographer Johan Hallberg. In 1927, the hotel, nowadays called “Hotel Tylösand” was built by Tylösands Havsbad and was inaugurated in 1931.

The old inn was demolished in 1985. In the 1920s, camping above Tjuvahålan became popular and the tourists lived in tents. In the 1930s, small cottages were built; the construction of the golf course began 1935 and was completed 1938. The small wooden chapel of St. Olof is situated on top of a stony hill among pine-trees; the chapel was discovered by the antiquarian Erik Salvén in 1931, when he held a seminar on Greek art in Lidhult, a small community at the borders of the landscapes Halland and Småland. There he heard of a wooden church, with decorations and wooden details, built in 1721 and demolished in the late 19th century; the small church had been sold to a farmer in the village of Prosteköp and had been rebuilt into a residential house. As the farmer had been thinking of pulling down the old chapel because of its lack of amenities for the elderly couple that lived there, Salvén decided to move the church to Tylösand with the help of his good friend and priest Knut Peters. In 1950, the small chapel of St. Olof was erected.

Between 1954 and 1997 and during the summer months, Prince Bertil of Sweden used to reside in his villa in Tylösand, located at the end of the street Älgvägen. The 13 km long path derives its name from Prince Bertil; the paths starts at the palace of Halmstad and ends at the sand beach of Tylösand and is suitable for young and old and for the handicapped. A part of the path passes through the Rhododendron park, planted in 1933. Halmstad Halmstad Golf Club Media related to Tylösand at Wikimedia Commons