Princess Charlotte of Wales
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales was the only child of George, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Brunswick. Had she outlived both her grandfather King George III and her father, she would have become Queen of the United Kingdom, Charlottes parents disliked each other from before their arranged marriage and soon separated. The Prince of Wales left most of Charlottes care to governesses and servants, but only allowed her limited contact with the Princess of Wales, who eventually left the country. As Charlotte grew to adulthood, her father pressured her to marry William, Hereditary Prince of Orange and this resulted in an extended contest of wills between her and her father, and finally the Prince of Wales permitted her to marry Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After a year and a half of marriage, Charlotte died after delivering a stillborn son. Charlottes death set off tremendous mourning among the British, who had seen her as a sign of hope, as she had been King George IIIs only legitimate grandchild, there was considerable pressure on the Kings unmarried sons to find wives.
King George IIIs fourth son, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, fathered the eventual heir, Victoria, in 1794, Prince of Wales, sought a suitable bride. He did not do so out of any desire to secure the succession. George, despite receiving large incomes as Prince of Wales and as Duke of Cornwall, lived well beyond his means, George had attempted marriage once, to his mistress, Maria Fitzherbert. The attempted marriage was invalid as no attempt had been made to obtain the consent of King George III, the Princes father. Nevertheless, the Prince kept Fitzherbert as his mistress, that is, George considered two German princesses as possible brides, both of whom were his first cousins. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the daughter of Georges mothers brother, while Caroline of Brunswick was his fathers sisters daughter. Princess Caroline had, it was said, behaved improperly with an Irish officer in her fathers army, Harris found the Princess dressed in a dishevelled manner, and it was obvious that she had not washed in several days.
He found her conversation coarse and overly familiar, the diplomat brought Caroline to St. Jamess Palace, on first sight of his bride, the Prince stated, Harris, I am not well, pray get me a glass of brandy. After the Prince had left, Caroline said, I think he is very fat and nothing like as handsome as his portrait. Before the wedding on 8 April 1795, George sent his brother William, Duke of Clarence, to tell Fitzherbert that she was the woman he would ever love, went to the ceremony. Caroline on the other hand hinted that the Prince was impotent, the royal couple separated within weeks, though they remained under the same roof. One day short of nine months after the wedding, Caroline gave birth to a daughter, Charlotte was born at the Princes residence, Carlton House, London, on 7 January 1796
Prince Octavius of Great Britain
The Prince Octavius was the 13th child and 8th son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Six months after the death of his brother Prince Alfred, Octavius was inoculated with the smallpox virus, several days later, he became ill. His subsequent death at the age of four devastated his parents, George bemoaned the death of his son, of whom he was exceedingly fond, the kings bouts of madness would involve hallucinations of his young son. Prince Octavius was born on 23 February 1779, at Buckingham House, London and he was the thirteenth child and eighth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The princes name derives from Latin octavus, the eighth, indicating that he was the son of his parents. Octavius was christened on 23 March 1779, in the Great Council Chamber at St Jamess Palace, by Frederick Cornwallis and his godparents were The Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, The Duke of Mecklenburg, and The Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
King George was extremely devoted to Octavius, who was too young to cause the kinds of trouble that his brothers were by the year of his birth. The king was kept informed of his childrens educational progress, when he was nineteen months old, Octavius became an older brother with the birth of his younger brother Prince Alfred. Octavius was three years of age when Alfred died on 20 August 1782, and he became the youngest surviving child. Horace Walpole wrote to Sir Horace Mann that upon Prince Alfreds death, King George had declared I am very sorry for Alfred, biographer John Watkins added Octavius was reckoned one of the finest of the royal progeny. Six months after Alfreds death and Sophia were taken to Kew Palace in London to be inoculated with the smallpox virus. While Sophia recovered without incident, Octavius became ill and died days later, around 8 oclock PM, on 3 May 1783. As was traditional, the household did not go into mourning for the deaths of children under the age of fourteen.
Octavius has the distinction of being the last member of the British royal family to suffer from smallpox, on 10 May, he was buried alongside his brother Alfred at Westminster Abbey. Their eldest brother, now King George IV ordered their remains transferred to St. Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle on 11 February 1820, at about 3 oclock. The princes death had an effect, both mentally and physically on Queen Charlotte, who at the time was pregnant with her youngest child Princess Amelia. Octaviuss death devastated his father, Walpole wrote the King has lost another little child, shortly afterward, King George said There will be no Heaven for me if Octavius is not there. The day after his sons death, the King passed through a room where artist Thomas Gainsborough was completing the finishing touches on a portrait of the family
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Ernest Augustus was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the son and eighth child of George III, King of the United Kingdom. As a fifth son, Ernest seemed unlikely to become a monarch, the Salic Law, which barred succession to or through a woman, prevailed in Hanover, when his elder brother William IV died in 1837, Ernest succeeded him as King of Hanover. Ernest was born in England but was sent to Hanover in his adolescence for his education, while serving with Hanoverian forces in Wallonia against Revolutionary France, he received a disfiguring facial wound. In 1799, he was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, although his marriage in 1815 to the twice-widowed Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz met with the disapproval of his mother, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, it proved a happy one. This gave him some prospect of succeeding to the British throne, both of his unmarried older brothers quickly married, and King Georges fourth son, Duke of Kent, fathered the eventual British monarch, Victoria.
Ernest was an member of the House of Lords, where he maintained an extremely conservative voting record. There were persistent allegations that he had murdered his valet and had fathered a son by his sister, before Victoria succeeded to the British throne, it was rumoured that Ernest intended to murder her and take the throne himself. When King William IV died on 20 June 1837, Ernest acceded to the Hanoverian throne, Ernest Augustus, the fifth son of King George III and Queen Charlotte, was born at Buckingham House, now part of Buckingham Palace, on 5 June 1771. After leaving the nursery, he lived with his two brothers, Prince Adolphus and Prince Augustus, and a tutor in a house on Kew Green. At the age of fifteen, he and his two brothers were sent to the University of Göttingen, located in his fathers domain of Hanover. Though the King never left the United Kingdom in his life, Prince Ernest proved an apt student, and after being tutored privately for a year, while learning German, he attended lectures at the University.
In 1790, Ernest asked his father for permission to train with Prussian forces, instead, in January 1791, he and Prince Adolphus were sent to Hanover to receive military training under the supervision of Field Marshal Wilhelm von Freytag. Ernest learned cavalry drill and tactics under Captain von Linsingen of the Queens Light Dragoons, after only two months of training, Freytag was so impressed by the Princes progress that he gave him a place in the cavalry as captain. Ernest was supposed to receive training, but the King, impressed by his sons prowess. In March 1792, the King commissioned Prince Ernest Augustus as a colonel into the 9th Hanoverian Light Dragoons. The Prince served in the Low Countries in the War of the First Coalition, under his elder brother Frederick, Duke of York, commander of the combined British and Austrian forces. Seeing action near the Walloon town of Tournai in August 1793, he sustained a wound to the head
George V of Hanover
George V was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George Vs reign was ended by the Unification of Germany and he was baptized on 8 July 1819, at a hotel in Berlin where his parents were staying, by the Rev. Henry Thomas Austen. George spent his childhood in Berlin and in Britain and he lost the sight of one eye following a childhood illness and accident in 1828, and in the other eye in 1833. His uncle, William IV, created him a Knight of the Garter on 15 August 1835. His father had hoped that the prince might marry his cousin Victoria. The Duke of Cumberland succeeded to the Hanoverian throne as Ernst August I, since he was totally blind, there were doubts as to whether the Crown Prince was qualified to succeed as king of Hanover, but his father decided that he should do so. George married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, during his 15-year reign, he engaged in frequent disputes with the Hanoverian parliament. George was generally supportive of Austria in the Diet of the German Confederation, as the Austro-Prussian War started, the Prussian government sent a dispatch on 15 June 1866 demanding that Hanoverian troops submit to their authority or face war.
Despite previously having concluded that Hanover could not win an armed confrontation with Prussia, George remained protective of his throne, contrary to the wishes of the parliament, Hanover joined the Austrian camp in the war. As a result, the Prussian army occupied Hanover and the Hanoverian army surrendered on 29 June 1866, the Prussian government formally annexed Hanover on 20 September 1866. Incidentally, the King of Prussia when all this happened was William I, German Emperor, the deposed King never renounced his rights to the throne or acknowledged Prussias actions. From exile in Gmunden, Austria, he appealed in vain for the European great powers to intervene on behalf of Hanover, from 1866 to 1870, George V maintained the Guelphic Legion partially at his own expense. George V died at his residence in the Rue de Presbourg, Paris and he was buried in St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle. The king supported industrial development – in 1856 the Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein was founded which was named after him, the company erected an iron and steel works which gave the city Georgsmarienhütte its name
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. She was the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, Queen Charlotte was a patroness of the arts and an amateur botanist, who helped expand Kew Gardens. George III and Charlotte had 15 children,13 of whom survived to adulthood and she was distressed by her husbands bouts of physical illness and insanity, which became permanent in life and resulted in their eldest son being appointed Prince Regent in 1811. Sophia Charlotte was born on 19 May 1744 and she was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow and his wife Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a small north German duchy in the Holy Roman Empire, the children of Duke Charles were all born at the Untere Schloss in Mirow. According to diplomatic reports at the time of her engagement to George III, when King George III succeeded to the throne of Great Britain upon the death of his grandfather, George II, he was unmarried.
His mother and advisors were anxious to have him settled in marriage and he instructed her on her arrival in London not to meddle, a precept she was glad to follow. Charlotte spoke no English but was quick to learn the language and it was noted by many observers that she was ugly, had a dark complexion and flared nostrils. She is timid at first but talks a lot, when she is among people she knows, said one observer. Three days of public celebrations followed, and on 17 Aug 1761, the Princess set out for Britain, accompanied by her brother, Duke Adolphus Frederick, on 22 Aug, they reached Cuxhaven, where a small fleet awaited to convey them to England. The voyage was difficult, the party encountered three storms at sea, and landed at Harwich only on 7 September. They set out at once for London, spent that night in Witham, at the residence of Lord Abercorn and they were received by the King and his family, which marked the first meeting of the bride and groom. At 9,00 pm that evening, within six hours of her arrival, Charlotte married George III at the Chapel Royal, St.
Jamess Palace, with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Secker, officiating. The Queen favored this residence, and spent much of her time there, as many as 14 of her 15 children were born in Buckingham House. Less than a year after the marriage, on 12 August 1762, the Queen gave birth to her first child, the Prince of Wales, in the course of their marriage, they had 15 children, all but two of whom survived into adulthood. Around 1762 the King and Queen moved to Buckingham House, at the end of St. Jamess Park. The house which forms the core of the present palace was built for the first Duke of Buckingham. Buckinghams descendant, Sir Charles Sheffield, sold Buckingham House to George III in 1761 for £21,000, the house was originally intended as a private retreat, in particular for Charlotte, and was known as The Queens House
George III of the United Kingdom
He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.
Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What.
It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral values
Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts
Fellowship of the Royal Society of Arts is an award open to anyone who can demonstrate that they support the mission and share the values of the Royal Society of Arts. Fellows are charged a subscription and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSA, examples of current fellows, who come from diverse backgrounds and professions, include Tim Berners-Lee, Sue Black, Stephen Hawking, Benson Taylor and Gareth Malone. Previous Fellows have included Charles Dickens, Benjamin Franklin and Karl Marx, a partial List of Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts gives more examples, alongside the Category, Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts. As of 2016 the RSA Fellowship is a community of 28,000 members who have either applied for or been nominated for Fellowship since 1754
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany KG GMB GCH, a member of the House of Hanover, was the second son and child of King George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover. However, he died before his brother, Prince Frederick Augustus, or the Duke of York as he became in life, belonged to the House of Hanover. He was born on 16 August 1763, at St. Jamess Palace and his father was the reigning British monarch, King George III. On 27 February 1764, when Prince Frederick was six months old and he received this title because his father, as Elector of Hanover, was entitled to select every other holder of this. He was invested as Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath on 30 December 1767, George III decided that his second son would pursue an army career and had him gazetted colonel on 4 November 1780. From 1781 to 1787, Prince Frederick lived in Hanover, where he studied at the University of Göttingen and he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards on 26 March 1782 before being promoted to major-general on 20 November 1782.
Promoted to lieutenant general on 27 October 1784, he was appointed colonel of the Coldstream Guards on 28 October 1784 and he was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 27 November 1784 and became a member of the Privy Council. He retained the bishopric of Osnabrück until 1803, when, in the course of the preceding the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. On 26 May 1789 he took part in a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him, Lennox missed, on 12 April 1793 Frederick was promoted to full general. That year, he was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of Coburgs army destined for the invasion of France and his command fought in the Flanders Campaign under extremely trying conditions. He won several engagements, such as the Siege of Valenciennes in July 1793. In the 1794 campaign he was successful at the Battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing that month, the British army was evacuated through Bremen in April 1795.
After his return to Britain, his father George III promoted him to the rank of field marshal on 18 February 1795, on 3 April 1795, George appointed him effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst although the title was not confirmed until three years later. He was colonel of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 19 August 1797 and his second field command was with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. On 7 September 1799, he was given the title of Captain-General. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, in charge of the vanguard, had succeeded in capturing some Dutch warships in Den Helder. However, following the Dukes arrival with the body of the army. On 17 October 1799, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar,1799 saw Fort Frederick in South Africa named after him
Charlotte, Princess Royal
Charlotte, Princess Royal, was Queen of Württemberg as the wife of King Frederick. She was the 1st daughter and 4th child of King George III of the United Kingdom, Princess Charlotte was born on 29 September 1766 at Buckingham House, London, to British monarch, King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Charlotte was officially designated as Princess Royal on 22 June 1789, after the birth of three sons in a row, her parents were delighted to have a Princess in the nursery. Like all of her siblings, Charlotte was inoculated—in her case, since French was the official language in every European court, the little Princess was given a Frenchwoman to be her tutor, in order that she should have no accent. Her memory was another of her beginning subjects and she was taught to recite little verses and stories, and as a result had an almost uncanny ability to recall detail for the rest of her life. Her early childhood was not all scholarly pursuits, when she was almost three years old, she took place in her first tableau dressed like Columbine, where she danced with her seven-year-old brother George, Prince of Wales.
She was not a musical child and abhorred such displays of children, declaring that they made children vain. This did not stop her parents from continuing to show her off, in late 1769, she and the Prince of Wales were once again displayed, this time to the public in a junior drawing room in St. James Palace. Charlotte was dressed in a Roman toga and lay on a sofa, though this type of thing was common in German courts, it was considered vulgar in England, where in reaction a London mob drove a hearse into the Palace courtyard. Afterward, the Prince of Wales told Lady Mary Coke that the event had made Charlotte terribly tired. Wisely, the King and Queen decided to never repeat the experience, though she was the eldest daughter, Charlotte was constantly compared to her sister Augusta Sophia, only two years younger than she. When Augusta was an old, Lady Mary Coke called her the most beautiful baby I have ever seen while Charlotte was very plain. Passing judgment once again three years later, Charlotte was now the most sensible agreeable child I ever saw, in 1770, the cluster of the three eldest princesses was completed with the birth of Princess Elizabeth, the seventh child.
However, given the frequency with which children were being produced, on 18 May 1797, the Princess Royal was married at the Chapel Royal, St. The younger Frederick succeeded his father as the reigning Duke of Württemberg on 22 December 1797, the marriage between Duke Frederick and the Princess Royal produced one child, a stillborn daughter on 27 April 1798. In 1800, the French army occupied Württemberg and the Duke, the following year, Duke Frederick concluded a private treaty ceding Montbeliard to France and receiving Ellwangen in exchange two years later. He assumed the title Elector of Württemberg on 25 February 1803, in exchange for providing France with a large auxiliary force, Napoleon recognized the Elector as King of Württemberg on 26 December 1805. Electress Charlotte became queen when her husband ascended the throne on 1 January 1806 and was crowned as such on the same day at Stuttgart
Augusta Emma d'Este
The prince was married at Rome, and afterwards at St Georges, Hanover Square. She owned a considerable amount of property in the town. In 1845, she married Thomas Wilde, 1st Baron Truro, in years, her ladyship suffered from severe bouts of asthma and had spent the autumn on the continent. She returned to her residence in Eaton Square, London. The funeral took place on the afternoon of Monday 28 May 1866 at St Laurence Church and she is interred in the family mausoleum. She left an estate valued at around £70,000, of which over £40,000 was left to charity. 1801 -1845, Miss Augusta Emma dEste 1845 -1850, Mrs Thomas Wilde 1850 -1858, The Right Honourable The Lady Truro 1858 -1866, The Right Honourable The Dowager Lady Truro