Hopewell is an independent city surrounded by Prince George County and the Appomattox River in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,591; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Hopewell with Prince George County for statistical purposes. Hopewell is in the Tri-Cities area of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city was founded to take advantage of its site overlooking the Appomattox Rivers. City Point, the oldest part of Hopewell, was established in 1613 by Sir Thomas Dale, it was first known as "Bermuda City,", changed to Charles City, lengthened to Charles City Point, abbreviated to City Point. Hopewell/City Point is the oldest continuously inhabited English settlement in the United States, Jamestown no longer being inhabited. "Charles City Point" was in Charles City Shire when the first eight shires were established in the Colony of Virginia in 1634. Charles City Shire soon became known as Charles City County in 1637. In 1619 Samuel Sharpe and Samuel Jordan from City Point named Charles City, were burgesses at the first meeting of the House of Burgesses.
The burgesses separated an area of the county south of the river, including City Point, establishing it separately as Prince George County in 1703. City Point was an unincorporated town in Prince George County until the City of Hopewell annexed the Town of City Point in 1923. During the American Civil War, Union General Ulysses S. Grant used City Point as his headquarters during the Siege of Petersburg in 1864 and 1865. Grant's headquarters, which President Lincoln visited, were located at Appomattox Manor, one of the three plantations of Richard Eppes, who cultivated wheat and other grains and held 130 slaves at the beginning of the war, his property included most of the present day city of Hopewell and Eppes Island, a plantation across the James River from City Point. Richard Slaughter, a former slave of Eppes, escaped to a Union ship during the Civil War, as did all but 12 of Eppes' 130 slaves, choosing freedom. Slaughter recounted his life story for a Works Progress Administration interviewer in 1936.
The City Point Railroad, built in 1838 between City Point and Petersburg, was used as a critical part of the siege strategy. It is considered the oldest portion of the Norfolk and Western Railway, now a part of Norfolk Southern. Samuel Janney in his "History of Friends," says, "Alexander Ross about the year 1732, having obtained a grant for One hundred thousand acres of land in the Colony of Virginia, situated near Opequan Creek a tributary of the Potomac. Under authority of Chester Quarterly Meeting they established in 1744 a Monthly Meeting, called Hopewell, which thus became a branch of Phila. Yearly Meeting." 10 acres was deeded to the Quakers April 2, 1751 for a Meeting House which afterwards became "Hopewell." This deed of 1751 is the first appearance of the Quakers in the old County. However, it is possible that the Hopewell described by Janney as a Virginia Quaker settlement is to the northwest of the Hopewell, the subject of this entry; the Hopewell Friends Meeting House describes the Janney settlement.
Hopewell, part of the Eppes' plantation, was developed by DuPont Company in 1914 as Hopewell Farm, an incorporated area in Prince George County. DuPont first built a dynamite factory there switched to the manufacture of guncotton during World War I. Nearly burned to the ground in the Hopewell Fire of 1915, the city prospered afterward and became known as the "Wonder City" as the village of Hopewell grew from a hamlet of 400 in 1916 to a city of more than 20,000 people in a few short months. Unlike most cities in Virginia, Hopewell was never incorporated as a town, but it was incorporated as an independent city in 1916. After DuPont abandoned the city following World War I, moving its manufacturing facilities elsewhere and specializing in other products, Hopewell became a ghost town until 1923 when Tubize Corporation established a plant on the old DuPont site; the same year, the city of Hopewell annexed the neighboring town of City Point, which enabled it to expand and thrive. The Tubize plant was acquired by Firestone Tire and Rubber Company and was a major employer in Hopewell for decades.
Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation and Hercules Chemical established plants on portions of the old DuPont site. As early as its incorporation, Hopewell was a city of industrious migrants. Immigrants from Bohemia and Greece populated the city, working in factories and opening small businesses. Others migrated from other parts of Virginia and neighboring states of North Carolina and West Virginia to work in Hopewell's industries; as was the case in most southern cities, African Americans in Hopewell were subject to Jim Crow segregation until the success of the Civil Rights Movement. The picturesque theater in the middle of town, the Beacon Theater, only allowed Blacks in the balcony. In August 1966, the Ku Klux Klan confronted the Reverend Curtis Harris and other Black Hopewell citizens when they attempted to petition the city manager to find an alternate location for a landfill, going to be opened in the middle of a Black neighborhood. Hopewell public schools were desegregated under court order in 1963, following Renee Patrice GILLIAM et al v. School Board of the City of Hopewell, Virginia.
Hopewell made national news when, on December 22, 1935, a bus plunged through the open draw of the Appomattox River Drawbridge on Stat
The Virginia Company refers collectively to two joint-stock companies chartered under James I on 10 April 1606 with the goal of establishing settlements on the coast of America. The two companies are referred to as the "Virginia Company of London" and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth", they operated with identical charters but with differing territories; the charters established an area of overlapping territory in America as a buffer zone, the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within 100 miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter, but its territory was claimed by England and became New England; as corporations, the companies were empowered by the Crown to govern themselves, they conferred that right to their colonies. The Virginia Company failed in 1624, but the right to self-government was not taken away and the principle was established that a royal colony should be self-governing; this formed the genesis of democracy in America. The original charter by King James in 1606 did not mention a Plymouth Company.
The Charter of 1609 stipulates two distinct companies, stating: …that they shoulde devide themselves into twoe collonies, the one consistinge of divers Knights, gentlemen and others of our cittie of London, called the First Collonie. The eastern seaboard of America was named Virginia from Maine to the Carolinas; as corporations, the companies were empowered by the Crown to govern themselves. The Virginia Company failed in 1624, but the right to self-government was not taken from the colony, the principle was thus established that a royal colony should be self-governing, forming the genesis of democracy in America. By the terms of the charter, the London Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 miles square between the 34th and 45th parallels between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound, it owned a large portion of Atlantic Ocean and inland Canada. On 14 May 1607, the London Company established the Jamestown Settlement about 40 miles inland along the James River, a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in present-day Virginia.
In 1620, George Calvert asked King James I for a charter for English Catholics to add the territory of the Plymouth Company. In 1609, a much larger Third Supply mission was organized. A new purpose-built ship named the Sea Venture was rushed into service without the customary sea trials, she became flagship of a fleet of nine ships, with most of the leaders and supplies aboard. Notable persons aboard the Sea Venture included fleet Admiral George Somers, Vice-Admiral Christopher Newport, the new governor for the Virginia Colony Sir Thomas Gates, future author William Strachey, businessman John Rolfe with his pregnant wife; the Third Supply convoy encountered a hurricane which lasted three days and separated the ships from one another. The Sea Venture was leaking through its new caulking, Admiral Somers had it driven aground on a reef to avoid sinking, saving 150 men and women and several dogs, but destroying their ship; the uninhabited archipelago was named "The Somers Isles" after Admiral Somers, though it was known as Bermuda.
The survivors built two smaller vessels from salvaged parts of the Sea Venture which they named Deliverance and Patience. Ten months they continued on to Jamestown, arriving at Jamestown on 23 May 1610 but leaving several men behind on the archipelago to establish possession of it. At Jamestown, they found that over 85% of the 500 colonists had perished during what became known as the "Starving Time"; the Sea Venture passengers had anticipated finding a thriving colony at Jamestown and had brought little food or supplies with them. The colonists at Jamestown were saved only by the timely arrival three weeks of a supply mission headed by Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, better known as "Lord Delaware". In 1612, The London Company's Royal Charter was extended to include the Somers Isles as part of the Virginia Colony. However, the isles passed to the London Company of the Somers Isles in 1615, formed by the same shareholders as the London Company. To the disappointment of its investors, the Virginia Company of London failed to discover gold or silver in Virginia.
However, the company did establish trade of various types. The biggest trade breakthrough came when colonist John Rolfe introduced several sweeter strains of tobacco from the Caribbean, rather than the harsh-tasting kind native to Virginia. Rolfe's new tobacco strains led to a strong export for the London Company and other early English colonies, helped balance a trade deficit with Spain; the Jamestown Massacre which devastated that colony in 1622 brought on unfavorable attention from King James I who had chartered the Company. There was a period of debate in Britain between Company officers who wished to guard the original charter, those who wanted the Company to be disbanded. In 1624, the King made Virginia a royal colony; the Plymouth Company was permitted to establish settlements between the 38th and 45th parallels between the upper reaches of the Chesapeake Bay and the current U. S.-Canada border. On 13 August 1607, the Plymouth Company established the Popham Colony along the Kennebec River in present-day Maine.
However, it was abandoned after about a year and the Plymouth Company became inactive
Surry County, Virginia
Surry County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,058, its county seat is Surry. In 1652, Surry County was formed from the portion of James City County south of the James River. For more than 350 years, Surry County has depended on an agricultural economy, it has guarded its heritage, including many small towns and 19 sites listed on the National Register including a landmark occupied in 1676 known as Bacon's Castle and Chippokes Plantation. The Jamestown Ferry provides easy access to Virginia's Historic Triangle, featuring Jamestown and Yorktown, linked by the National Park Service's Colonial Parkway; the county is known for farming, curing Virginia Hams, harvesting lumber, notably Virginia Pine. During the Virginia Colony, Surry County was formed in 1652 from a portion of James City County south of the James River, it was named for the English county of Surrey. Surry County consisted of two parishes of the Church of England: Lawne's Creek and Southwark.
Nearby, in 1665, Arthur Allen built a Jacobean brick house. A decade it became known as Bacon's Castle because it was occupied as a fort or "castle" during Bacon's Rebellion against the Royal Governor, Sir William Berkeley.. The first town of Cobham was established in 1691 at the mouth of Gray's Creek, where it flows into the James River. Neighboring Sussex County was formed from the southwestern end of Surry County in 1754. After the American Revolutionary War, during which Tarleton's raiders looted the county, Surry County became part of the new Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the first 13 United States. During the American Civil War, the Confederate Army included the Surry Light Artillery and the Surry Cavalry. In 1873, a New Jersey timberman, David Steele, with financing from Baltimore interests, began a lumber business in Surry county, but went bankrupt a decade later. Baltimore investors and Company, incorporated the Surry Lumber Company in 1885. In 1886 it incorporated the Surry and Southampton Railway, which delivered lumber to Scotland wharf on the James River.
The company and SS&S railroad grew, reaching their heyday around 1920. However, the company did not replant after it cut the old growth pine, found further logging in the area difficult after 1925. In 1927 it closed its mills in Dendron, causing considerable economic distress in the county; the railway went bankrupt in 1930. Gray Lumber Company of Waverly, which replanted its timber cuts, bought 15,000 acres from the Surry Lumber Company in 1941, other companies soon bought the rest of the company's acreage; as part of Virginia's "Massive Resistance" to integration following the landmark U. S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, Surry County closed its white public schools so no Black students would be able to attend. Of course, various provisions were made to provide public support for private segregated education for the white students affected; the two-unit Surry Nuclear Power Plant was commissioned in 1972 and 1973, expected to remain active until 2053. US 460 SR 10 SR 31 SR 40State Route 31 and State Route 40 bisect the county.
Its major artery is the historic path along the south bank of the James River now known as State Route 10 between Prince George County and Isle of Wight County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 310 square miles, of which 279 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water. Charles City County Isle of Wight County James City County Prince George County Southampton County Sussex County As of the census of 2010, there were 7,058 people, 2,619 households, 1,917 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 3,294 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.3% White, 46.1% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 1.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,619 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families.
23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,558, the median income for a family was $41,234. Males had a median income of $31,123 versus $21,143 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,682. About 9.70% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.40% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over. Blackwater Regional Library is the regional library system that provides services to the citizens of Surry. Claremont Dendron Surry Scotland Bacon's Castle Cabin Point Carsley Elberon Spring Grove Bacon's Cast
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Prince George of Denmark
Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland, was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702 to 1714. His marriage to Anne was arranged in the early 1680s with a view to developing an Anglo-Danish alliance to contain Dutch maritime power; as a result, George was unpopular with his Dutch brother-in-law, William III of Orange, married to Anne's elder sister, Mary. William and Mary became joint monarchs of Britain, with Anne as their heir presumptive, in 1689 after the "Glorious Revolution" deposed James II and VII, the father of both Anne and Mary. William excluded George from active military service, neither George nor Anne wielded any great influence until after the deaths of Mary and William, at which point Anne became queen. During his wife's reign, George used his influence in support of his wife when disagreeing with her views, he had an easy-going manner and little interest in politics. Anne's seventeen pregnancies by George resulted in twelve miscarriages or stillbirths, four infant deaths, a chronically sick son, who died at the age of eleven.
Despite the history of their children and Anne's marriage was a strong one. George died aged 55 from a recurring and chronic lung disease, much to the devastation of his wife, he was buried in Westminster Abbey. George was born in Copenhagen Castle, was the younger son of Frederick III, King of Denmark and Norway, Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his mother was the sister of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Elector of Hanover. From 1661, his governor was Otto Grote Hanoverian minister to Denmark. Grote was "more courtier and statesman than educator" and when he left for the Hanoverian court in 1665, he was replaced by the more effective Christen Lodberg. George received military training, undertook a Grand Tour of Europe, spending eight months in 1668–69 in France and mid-1669 in England, his father died in 1670, while George was in Italy, George's elder brother, Christian V, inherited the Danish throne. George returned home through Germany, he travelled through Germany again in 1672–73, to visit two of his sisters, Anna Sophia and Wilhelmine Ernestine, who were married to the electoral princes of Saxony and the Palatinate.
In 1674, George was a candidate for the Polish elective throne, for which he was backed by King Louis XIV of France. George's staunch Lutheranism was a barrier to election in Roman Catholic Poland, John Sobieski was chosen instead. In 1677, George served with distinction with his elder brother Christian in the Scanian War against Sweden, his brother was captured by the Swedes at the Battle of Landskrona, George "cut his way through the enemies' numbers, rescued him at the imminent danger of his own life."As a Protestant, George was considered a suitable partner for the niece of King Charles II of England, Lady Anne. They were distantly related, had never met. George was hosted by Charles II in London in 1669, but Anne had been in France at the time of George's visit. Both Denmark and Britain were Protestant, Louis XIV was keen on an Anglo-Danish alliance to contain the power of the Dutch Republic. Anne's uncle Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, the English Secretary of State for the Northern Department, Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, negotiated a marriage treaty with the Danes in secret, to prevent the plans leaking to the Dutch.
Anne's father, Duke of York, welcomed the marriage because it diminished the influence of his other son-in-law, Dutch Stadtholder William III of Orange, unhappy with the match. George and Anne were married on 28 July 1683 in the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace, London, by Henry Compton, Bishop of London; the guests included King Charles II, Queen Catherine, the Duke and Duchess of York. Anne was voted a parliamentary allowance of £20,000 a year, while George received £10,000 a year from his Danish estates, although payments from Denmark were late or incomplete. King Charles gave them a set of buildings in the Palace of Whitehall known as the Cockpit as their London residence. George was not ambitious, hoped to live a quiet life of domesticity with his wife, he wrote to a friend: "We talk here of going to tea, of going to Winchester, everything else except sitting still all summer, the height of my ambition. God send me a quiet life somewhere, for I shall not be long able to bear this perpetual motion."Within months of the marriage, Anne was pregnant but the baby, a girl, was stillborn in May.
Anne recovered at the spa town of Tunbridge Wells, over the next two years, she gave birth to two daughters in quick succession and Anne Sophia. In early 1687, within a matter of days and his two young daughters caught smallpox, Anne suffered another miscarriage. George recovered. Lady Rachel Russell wrote that George and Anne had "taken heavily; the first relief of that sorrow proceeded from the threatening of a greater, the Prince being so ill of a fever. I never heard any relation more moving than that of seeing them together. Sometimes they wept, sometimes they mourned in words, he returned to Denmark for a two-month visit in mid-1687. That year, after his return, Anne gave birth to another dead child, this time a son. In February 1685, King Charles II died without legitimate issue, George's f
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c