Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks. However, in small military forces, such as those of Iceland or the Vatican. It is used in police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, a colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army, the rank of colonel is typically above the rank of lieutenant colonel. The rank above colonel is typically called brigadier, brigade general or brigadier general, equivalent naval ranks may be called captain or ship-of-the-line captain. In the Commonwealth air force rank system, the equivalent rank is group captain, the word colonel derives from the same root as the word column and means of a column, and, by implication, commander of a column. The word colonel is therefore linked to the column in a similar way that brigadier is linked to brigade. By the end of the medieval period, a group of companies was referred to as a column of an army. Since the word is believed to derive from sixteenth-century Italian, it was presumably first used by Italian city states in that century.
The first use of colonel as a rank in an army was in the French National Legions created by King Francis I by his decree of 1534. Building on the reforms of Louis XIIs decree of 1509. Each colonel commanded a legion with a strength of six thousand men. With the shift from primarily mercenary to primarily national armies in the course of the seventeenth century, the Spanish equivalent rank of coronel was used by the Spanish tercios in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, nicknamed the Great Captain, divided his armies in coronelías or colonelcies, the Spanish word probably derives from a different origin, in that it appears to designate an officer of the crown, rather than an officer of the column. This makes the Spanish word coronel probably cognate with the English word coroner and this regiment, or governance, was to some extent embodied in a contract and set of written rules, referred to as the colonels regiment or standing regulation. By extension, the group of companies subject to a colonels regiment came to be referred to as his regiment as well, the position, was primarily contractual and it became progressively more of a functionless sinecure.
By the late 19th century, colonel was a military rank though still held typically by an officer in command of a regiment or equivalent unit. As European military influence expanded throughout the world, the rank of colonel became adopted by every nation
Oscar I of Sweden
Oscar I was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. Oscar was the son of French marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte and his wife. As Charles XIII & II of Sweden was without heirs, his father was elected Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810, Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm where Oscar quickly learned the Swedish language. His mother, had difficulty adjusting to the Swedish court and she left Sweden in the summer of 1811 and did not return until 1823. Oscars father eventually succeeded Charles upon his death in 1818 as King Carl XIV John, seeking to legitimise the new dynasty, Oscars father had selected four European princesses as potential brides for his son. Oscar eventually married Josephine of Leuchtenberg in 1823 and had five children with her, during his fathers lifetime Oscar served as viceroy of Norway twice, in 1824 and 1833. Oscar was more liberal compared to his father and took progressive views on education, freedom of the press and he succeeded his father upon his death in 1844 and continued with his reform plans.
Among these reforms was the inheritance rights for men and women. He broke with his fathers foreign policy. Later, he introduced new flags and symbols for Sweden and Norway in an effort to show equality between his two kingdoms, in the 1850s, his health began to rapidly deteriorate, By September 1857, Oscar was paralyzed and his eldest son Carl was declared Regent. He was named Joseph after his godfather Joseph Bonaparte who was married to his mothers sister, Julie Clary. The latter name was chosen by Napoleon after one of the heroes in the Ossian cycle of poems, in August 1810, his father Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected Crown Prince of Sweden. Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm, Oscars father was the first ruler of the current House of Bernadotte and his mother was Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonapartes first fiancée. Her sister, Julie Clary, was married to Napoleons brother, Désirée is said to have chosen Napoleon to be Oscars godfather. From King Charles XIII of Sweden, on the day of the adoption of his father, Oscar received the style of Royal Highness.
He quickly acquired the Swedish language, on January 17,1816, he was elected an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1818, he was appointed chancellor of Uppsala University, where he spent one semester. In 1832-34 he completed the opera Ryno, the errant knight which had left unfinished on the death of the young composer Eduard Brendler. In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, twice during his fathers lifetime he was viceroy of Norway
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel was a cadet member of the house of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general field marshal. Brought up with relatives at the Danish court, he spent most of his life in Denmark and his mother was a daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach and a sister of Queen Louise of Denmark. His father, the future landgrave, left the family in 1747, in 1755 he formally ended the marriage with Mary. The grandfather, William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse, granted the county of Hanau and its revenues to Mary, the young Prince Charles and his two brothers and Frederick, were raised by their mother and fostered by Protestant relatives since 1747. In 1756, Mary moved to Denmark, to care of the underage children of her sister, Queen Louise of Denmark. With her, she took her sons who were raised at the court at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. The Hessian princes remained in Denmark, becoming its important lords, only the eldest brother William returned to Hesse, in 1785, upon ascending the landgraviate.
Charles began a career in Denmark. In 1758 he was appointed colonel, at the age of 20 major general, in 1766, he was appointed Governor-General of Norway, a position he held until 1768 but which remained mostly titular, as he never went to Norway during this period. In 1763, his elder brother William married their first cousin, Charles followed suit on 30 August 1766 at Christiansborg Palace — his wife was Louise of Denmark, and Charles thus became brother-in-law to his cousin, King Christian VII. The marriage took place despite advice given against it, due to accusations of debauchery by Prince Charles. Shortly after, Charles fell into disfavour at court, and in early 1767 he and they would have their first child, Marie Sophie, there in 1767 and their second child, William, in 1769. In 1768, Charles purchased the property and village of Offenbach-Rumpenheim from the Edelsheim family. In 1771 he had the manor expanded into a castle and princely seat and his mother Mary lived in the palace until her death in 1772.
In 1781, Charles sold the Rumpenheim Palace to his younger brother, Charles took up residence at Gottorp Castle in Schleswig with his family. They would have their third child Frederick there in 1771, in 1770, King Christian VII gave his sister the estate of Tegelhof in Güby between the City of Schleswig and Eckernförde. From 1772 to 1776, Charles had a summer residence constructed on the site which he named Louisenlund in honour of his wife, in September 1772, Charles was appointed commander-in-chief of the Norwegian army and he and Louise moved to Christiana. The assignement was a consequence of the coup détat of King Gustav III of Sweden on 19 August 1772, while in Norway, Princess Louise gave birth to their fourth child Juliane in 1773
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was the second son of William I of the Netherlands and his wife, Wilhelmine of Prussia. The prince grew up at the court of his grandfather Frederick William II of Prussia, one of his tutors was Carl von Clausewitz. Aged 16, the fought in the Battle of Leipzig. The prince first entered the Netherlands in December 1813, as he spoke no Dutch, the prince was sent to Leiden University to get a further education. He was educated by Karl Ludwig von Phull in The Hague, based on a house treaty, Frederick was to inherit the familys German possessions upon his fathers death. After the treaty of Vienna these were no longer in the possession of the family and he instead was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. In 1816, Frederick relinquished this claim in exchange for land in the Netherlands, as a further compensation he received a yearly amount of 190,000 Dutch guilder. This made him the wealthiest member of the House of Orange-Nassau, with the money he bought a large estate in Germany, which made him the largest land owner from the Netherlands.
In 1826 Frederick was appointed Commissary-general of the Department of War, in this office, Frederick reorganized the army on a Prussian model. Frederick founded the academy in Breda and reequipped the army with modern weapons. In 1829 Frederick was a candidate for the Greek throne, but he declined because he did not want to be king of a country whose language, when the Belgian Revolution broke out in 1830, Frederick commanded the troops sent to Brussels to suppress the rebellion there. Frederick led these troops in several days of fighting in Brussels, Frederick took part in his brothers 1831 Ten Days Campaign in Belgium. When his father abdicated in 1840, Frederick withdrew from life to his estates at Wassenaar. The park had been out from 1815 onwards at the behest of Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau. In July 2004, Muskau Park was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, upon the death of his elder brother in 1849, the country was left with a large debt. Frederick managed to pay off a million guilder to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, the new King William III of the Netherlands did not want to inherent the kingship from his father, but Frederick managed to convince him to take up the position, offering to assist him.
William III recalled Frederick and made him Inspector-General of the army, Frederick held that office until 1868, when he resigned because of the lack of support for his plans to modernize the army. Frederick managed to prevent a divorce between King William III and Queen Sophie of Württemberg by establishing a legal separation and he retired to Muskau Castle which was remodeled in Renaissance revival style between 1863 and 1866
Royal Life Guards (Denmark)
The Royal Life Guards is an infantry regiment of the Danish Army, founded in 1658 by King Frederik III. It serves in two roles, as a front line unit, and as a guard/ceremonial unit to the Danish monarchy. Until its disbandment, the Royal Horse Guards, served the role as the mounted guard/ceremonial unit, during the time period 1684-1867, the Royal Life Guards were called The Royal Foot Guard, in order to distinguish between the regiment and the Royal Horse Guards. During his time in the Danish forces, Crown Prince Frederik served a tour in the Royal Life Guards with the rank of Sergeant. The Royal Life Guards provide a permanent guard at the Amalienborg Palace, Rosenborg Castle/garrison of the Royal Life Guards in Copenhagen, on occasions guard is kept at Fredensborg Palace, Marselisborg Palace, Gråsten Palace, Christiansborg Palace and other locations inside the Danish realm. The review order uniform of the Royal Life Guards, worn while they are on duty, consists of bearskin headdresses, dark blue tunics.
The ceremonial uniform, worn on special occasions, substitutes a scarlet tunic for the dark blue. The bearskin dates from 1803 and is decorated with the regiments cap badge. Symbolic infantry sabers are carried by the rank and file and these were part of the spoils from the First Schleswig War of 1848–1850 and were originally derived from a French infantry weapon. The regiment itself has three battalions and the Guards Company, 1st Battalion – Founded 1658, mechanized Infantry Battalion, part of 2nd Brigade. Mechanized Infantry Battalion, part of 2nd Brigade
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester was the son of Princess Anne, Queen of England and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George, Duke of Cumberland. He was their child to survive infancy. Gloucesters mother was estranged from her brother-in-law and cousin, William III, and her sister, Mary II and he grew close to his uncle William, who created him a Knight of the Garter, and his aunt Mary, who frequently sent him presents. Gloucesters precarious health was a constant source of worry to his mother and his death, in 1700 at the age of eleven, precipitated a succession crisis as his mother was the only individual remaining in the Protestant line of succession established by the Bill of Rights 1689. William and his wife, Jamess elder daughter Mary, were recognised by the English and Scottish parliaments as king, as they had no children, Marys younger sister, was designated their heiress presumptive in England and Scotland. The accession of William and Mary and the succession through Anne were enshrined in the Bill of Rights 1689.
Anne was married to Prince George of Denmark and Norway, and in their six years of marriage Anne had been pregnant six times, but none of her children had survived. At the end of her pregnancy, at 5 a. m. on 24 July 1689. As it was usual for the births of potential heirs to the throne to be attended by several witnesses, three days later, the newborn baby was baptised William Henry after his uncle King William by Henry Compton, Bishop of London. The King, who was one of the godparents along with the Marchioness of Halifax, Gloucester was second in line to the throne after his mother, and because his birth secured the Protestant succession, he was the hope of the revolutions supporters. The ode The Noise of Foreign Wars, attributed to Henry Purcell, was written in celebration of the birth, supporters of James, the Jacobites, spoke of Gloucester as a sickly and doomed usurper. His convulsions were possibly symptomatic of meningitis, likely contracted at birth, as was usual among royalty, Gloucester was placed in the care of a governess, Lady Fitzhardinge, and was suckled by a wet nurse, Mrs.
Pack, rather than his mother. As part of his treatment, Gloucester was driven outside every day in an open carriage, pulled by Shetland ponies. The effectiveness of Gloucesters treatment having exceeded their expectations, Princess Anne and Prince George acquired a permanent residence in the area, Campden House and it was here that Gloucester befriended Welsh body-servant Jenkin Lewis, whose memoir of his master is an important source for historians. Throughout his life, Gloucester suffered from a recurrent ague, which was treated with doses of Jesuits bark by his physician. Gloucester disliked the treatment intensely, and usually vomited after being given it, possibly as a result of hydrocephalus, he had an enlarged head, which his surgeons pierced intermittently to draw off fluid. He could not walk properly, and was apt to stumble, nearing the age of five, Gloucester refused to climb stairs without two attendants to hold him, which Lewis blamed on indulgent nurses who over-protected the boy.
His father birched him until he agreed to walk by himself, corporal punishment was usual at the time, and such treatment would not have been considered harsh
Louise of Sweden
Louise of Sweden, was Queen of Denmark as the spouse of King Frederick VIII. She was the surviving child of Charles XV of Sweden and his consort. After the death of her brother, Carl Oscar, she became a child at the age of three, and remained one because of her mothers inability to have more children due to an injury. This meant that the throne would pass to her uncle Oscar because, although Sweden had previously had the female monarch. Her father made repeated attempts to obtain a constitutional amendment which would recognize her as heir presumptive to the thrones of Sweden and this worried her mother, Queen Louise, herself a lady of refinement and grace. While her father often referred to her as Sessan, Louise was commonly known in Sweden as Stockholmsrännstensungen, and she often used that term in reference to herself. Her uncle, the future king Oscar II, found it shocking that the word was used for a princess and her academic education was provided by her governess Hilda Elfving. In 1862, she and her mother became students of Nancy Edberg, Louise became the subject of speculations regarding her marriage early on.
The most popular candidate was Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark and Frederick had been introduced to each other the first time in 1862. The marriage was considered desirable for several reasons, the situation between the royal houses of Sweden-Norway and Denmark was very tense at this time. Charles XV was critical toward Christian IX, whose qualities he doubted. In Denmark, there was disappointment over the fact that Sweden, after 1864, both Sweden-Norway and Denmark started to discuss plans of creating a form of symbolic peace between the two nations by arranging a marriage between Louise and Crown Prince Frederick. However, Charles XV did not wish to force his daughter in an arranged marriage. The 14 April 1868, a meeting was arranged between Louise and Frederick at Bäckaskog Manor in Scania, upon meeting each other, both were apparently pleased, and Louise agreed to the marriage. The engagement was declared at breakfast the day after, which shocked her aunt and uncle. During the engagement in the winter of 1868-1869, Louise studied the Danish language, culture, Louise married Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark in Stockholm on 28 July 1869.
The wedding was celebrated with pomp in Sweden. The dowry of the Princess had entirely been made in Sweden, the marriage was welcomed by all three countries as a symbol of the new Scandinavism
Frederick III of Denmark
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and he instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark and he was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647, in order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden and he was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy and he married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.
Frederick was born at Haderslev in Slesvig, the son of Christian IV, in his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, as his older brother Christian was elected heir apparent in 1608. Frederick was educated at Sorø Academy and studied in the Netherlands, as a young man, he demonstrated an interest in theology, natural sciences, and Scandinavian history. He was a reserved and enigmatic prince who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less, even though he lacked the impulsive and jovial qualities of his father, Frederick possessed the compensating virtues of moderation and self-control. On 1 October 1643 Frederick wed Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who had an energetic, passionate and he was an enthusiastic collector of books and his collection became the foundation for the Copenhagen Royal Library. In his youth, Frederick became the instrument of his fathers political schemes in the Holy Roman Empire and he was granted administration of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and named coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Thus, from an age, he had considerable experience as an administrator. At the age of eighteen, he was the commandant of the Bremian fortress of Stade. During the Torstenson War of 1643–45, Frederick lost control of his possessions within the empire and he was appointed commander in the royal shares in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein by his father. His command was not successful, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille and this was Fredericks first collision with the Danish nobility, who afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 opened the possibility for Frederick to be elected heir apparent to the Danish throne, this issue was still unsettled when Christian IV died on 28 February 1648. After long deliberation among the Danish Estates and in the Rigsraadet, on 6 July, Frederick received the homage of his subjects, and he was crowned on 23 November. The Haandfæstning included provisions curtailing the already diminished royal prerogative in favour of increased influence for the Rigsraadet, in the first years of his reign, the Rigsraadet was the main power center of Danish politics
Roskilde Cathedral, in the city of Roskilde on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark, is a cathedral of the Lutheran Church of Denmark. The first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick, it encouraged the spread of the Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe, constructed during the 12th and 13th centuries, the cathedral incorporates both Gothic and Romanesque architectural features in its design. Until the 20th century, it was Zealands only cathedral and its twin spires dominate the skyline of the town. The cathedral has been the burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century. As such, it has significantly extended and altered over the centuries to accommodate a considerable number of burial chapels. Following the Danish Reformation in 1536, the residence was moved to Copenhagen while the title was changed to Bishop of Zealand. Coronations normally took place in Copenhagens Church of Our Lady or in the chapel of Frederiksborg Palace, the cathedral is a major tourist attraction, bringing in over 125,000 visitors annually.
Since 1995, it has listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A working church, it hosts concerts throughout the year. Roskilde was named the new capital of Denmark by King Harald Bluetooth around the year 960, moving to Roskilde, Bluetooth built a royal farm and next to it, a small stave church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Little is known of the Trinity Church, let alone its architecture, in Adam of Bremens Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, there is an account of how the kings son, Sweyn Forkbeard, raised a rebellion against him, forcing him to flee to Jomsborg. When Bluetooth died in 985/986, the army that had raised against him brought his body to Roskilde. At Christmas in 1026, Ulf the Earl was murdered by one of Cnut the Greats housecarls, though the sources differ, this happened either inside the church or at the royal farm. Ulf had been married to Cnut the Greats sister Estrid, who was outraged by the murder, there is some doubt as to when Roskilde became the seat of the Bishop of Roskilde.
When Sweyn Forkbeard conquered England in 1013, he began sending English bishops to Denmark and this caused some conflict with the Archbishop of Hamburg, who regarded Scandinavia as belonging to the Archdiocese of Bremen. The earliest known bishop of Roskilde was Gerbrand, who had been a cleric with Cnut the Great, only after swearing allegiance to the archbishop was he allowed to continue his journey. The archbishop may have had reason to be suspicious, as documents of the time suggest that Cnut the Great may have planned to create an archdiocese in Roskilde. Funded by the weregild Estrid Svendsdatter had received, the old Trinity Church was torn down and this may have formed the base of the travertine cathedral, but it is difficult to tell, as two cathedrals have subsequently been built on the same site
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark was heir presumptive to the thrones of Denmark and Norway. He was the son of King Frederick V by his second wife. Hereditary Prince Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his half-brother King Christian VII from 1772 to 1784, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen on 11 October 1753. To provide for his position, at the age of 3 he was elected coadjutor in the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck. This meant that in time he would succeed the Prince-Bishop in office and this plan had to be abandoned and Frederick stayed in Denmark as a junior member of the royal family. He married Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in Copenhagen on 21 October 1774 and she was a daughter of Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Princess Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. His regency was mostly nominal, the power being held by his mother, Queen Juliane Marie and he acted as regent until the coup of 1784, when his 16-year-old half-nephew Frederick, took power and regency.
After the coup, Frederick was left without much influence at the court, after Christiansborg Palace was destroyed by fire in 1794, Hereditary Prince Frederick moved with his family to Amalienborg Palace. Sophia Frederica died the year, shortly after the move. Hereditary Prince Frederick outlived his wife by 11 years and died at Amalienborg Palace on 7 December 1805, his son Christian Frederick would succeed Frederick VI as king. Prince Frederick is an important character in Norah Lofts historical novel The Lost Queen, chronicling the tragic marriage of King Christian VII and Queen Caroline Matilda. The book suggests that Frederick was himself in love with the Queen, Princess Juliana Marie, died in infancy. Prince Christian Frederick, future King Christian VIII, Princess Juliane Sophie, married in 1812 to William, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld, they had no issue. Princess Louise Charlotte, married in 1810 to William, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Hereditary Prince Ferdinand, married in 1829 to Princess Caroline of Denmark, they had no issue.
Frederik the Heir Presumptive at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Rosenborg Castle