Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise. Shaving is most practiced by men to remove their facial hair and by women to remove their leg and underarm hair. A man is called clean-shaven if he has had his beard removed. Both men and women sometimes shave their chest hair, abdominal hair, leg hair, underarm hair, pubic hair, or any other body hair. Head shaving is much more common among men, it is associated with religious practice, the armed forces and some competitive sports such as swimming and extreme sports. Head shaving has been used to humiliate and show submission to an authority, in more recent history as part of fund-raising efforts for cancer research organizations and charitable organizations which serve cancer patients; the shaving of head hair is sometimes done by cancer patients when their treatment may result in partial hair loss. Before the advent of razors, hair was sometimes removed using two shells to pull the hair out or using water and a sharp tool.
Around 3000 BC when copper tools were developed, copper razors were invented. The idea of an aesthetic approach to personal hygiene may have begun at this time, though Egyptian priests may have practiced something similar to this earlier. Alexander the Great promoted shaving during his reign in the 4th century BC because he believed it looked tidier. In some Native American tribes, at the time of contact with British colonists, it was customary for men and women to remove all bodily hair using these methods. Straight razors are known to have been manufactured in England since the 18th century. In the United States, getting a straight razor shave in a barbershop and self-shaving with a straight razor were still common in the early 1900s; the popularisation of self-shaving changed this. According to an estimate by New York City barber Charles de Zemler, barbers' shaving revenue dropped from about 50 percent around the time of the Spanish–American War to 10 percent in 1939 due to the invention of the safety razor and electric razor.
Safety razors have been known to exist since at least 1876 when the single-edge Star safety razor was patented by brothers Frederick and Otto Kampfe. The razor was a small piece of a straight razor attached to a handle using a clamp mechanism. Before each shave the blade had to be attached to a special holder, stropped with a leather belt, placed back into the razor. After a time, the blade needed to be honed by a cutler. In 1895, King Camp Gillette invented the double-edged safety razor, which utilised inexpensive, disposable blades sharpened from two sides, it took him until 1901 to build a working, patentable model, commercial production began in 1903. The razor gained popularity during World War I when the U. S. military started issuing Gillette shaving kits to its servicemen: in 1918, the Gillette Safety Razor Company sold 3.5 million razors and 32 million blades. After the First World War, the company changed the pricing of its razor from a premium $5 to a more affordable $1, leading to another big surge in popularity.
The Second World War led to a similar increase in users when Gillette was ordered to dedicate its entire razor production and most blade production to the U. S. military. During the war, 12.5 million razors and 1.5 billion blades were provided to servicemen. In 1970, Wilkinson Sword introduced the'bonded blade' razor, which consisted of a single blade housed in a plastic cartridge. Gillette followed in 1971 with its Trac II cartridge razor. Gillette built on this twin blade design for a time, introducing new razors with added features such as a pivoting head, lubricating strip, spring-mounted blades until their 1998 launch of the triple-bladed Mach3 razor. Schick launched a four-blade Quattro razor the same year, in 2006 Gillette launched the five-blade Fusion. Since razors with six and seven blades have been introduced. Wholly disposable razors gained popularity in the 1970s after Bic brought the first disposable razor to market in 1974. Other manufacturers, Gillette included, soon introduced their own disposable razors, by 1980 disposables made up more than 27 percent of worldwide unit sales for razors.
Shaving can be done with an electric razor or beard trimmer. The removal of a full beard requires the use of scissors or an electric trimmer to reduce the mass of hair, simplifying the process. There are two types of manual razors: straight safety razors. Safety razors are further subdivided into double-edged razors, single edge, injector razors, cartridge razors and disposable razors. Double-edge razors are named so because the blade that they use has two sharp edges on opposite sides of the blade. Current multi-bladed cartridge manufacturers attempt to differentiate themselves by having more or fewer blades than their competitors, each arguing that their product gives a greater shave quality at a more affordable price. Before wet shaving, the area to be shaved is doused in warm to hot water by showering or bathing or covered for several minutes with a hot wet towel to soften the skin and hair. A lathering or lubricating agent such as cream, shaving soap, foam or oil is applied after this. Lubricating and moisturizing the skin to be shaved helps prevent irritation and damage known as razor burn.
Many razor cartridges include a lubricating strip, made of polyethylene glycol, to function instead of or in supplement to extrinsic agents. It lifts and softens the hairs, causing them to swell; this enhances the cutting action and sometimes permits cutting the ha
Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
Charlotte Amalie, located on the island of St. Thomas, is the capital and the largest city of the United States Virgin Islands, founded in 1666 as Taphus. In 1691, the town was renamed to Amalienborg after Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel, queen consort to King Christian V of Denmark-Norway, it has a deep-water harbor, once a haven for pirates and is now one of the busiest ports of call for cruise ships in the Caribbean, with about 1.5 million cruise ship passengers landing there in 2004. Protected by Hassel Island, the harbor has docking and fueling facilities, machine shops, shipyards and was a U. S. submarine base until 1966. The town has been inhabited for centuries; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493, the area was inhabited by Island Taíno. It is on the southern shore at the head of Saint Thomas Harbor. In 2010 the city had a population of 18,481, which makes it the largest city in the Virgin Islands Archipelago. Hundreds of ferries and yachts pass through town each week, at times the population more than doubles.
The city is known for its Danish colonial architecture, building structure and history, a dozen streets and places throughout the city have Danish names. Charlotte Amalie has buildings of historical importance including St. Thomas Synagogue, the second-oldest synagogue in the Western Hemisphere, Frederick Lutheran Church; the town has a long history of pirates stories of Bluebeard and Blackbeard. In the 17th century, the Danes built both Blackbeard's Castle and Bluebeard's Castle attributed to the pirates. Blackbeard's Castle is a U. S. National Historic Landmark. Another tourist attraction is Fort Christian, the oldest standing structure in the Virgin Islands Archipelago. A copy of the Liberty Bell is in Emancipation Park, a tourist attraction. Before the time of the Danish West Indies, the city was known as Taphus for its many beer halls. Taphus is Danish and directly translates to "beer houses", "beer halls", or "taphouse". In 1691 the town received a more respectable name by being named Amalienborg in honor of Danish king Christian V’s wife, Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel.
Between 1921 and 1936, the city was named St. Thomas. In 1936 it was renamed Charlotte Amalie. On his second voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus encountered Native Americans living in the present-day archipelago of the United States Virgin Islands. Archaeological records indicate that the islands have been home to Indian tribes, including the Taíno people, Arawak people, Kalinago people, the Ciboney people. Several of them lived in present-day Charlotte Amalie in small fishing communities; as was the case in most of the Americas, the native population died quickly from disease when the Europeans settled. As the Spanish early focused their energy on Puerto Rico and other Caribbean Islands, Saint Thomas remained unprotected for a long time, leaving Charlotte Amalie’s sheltered coves to be frequented by pirates, including Bluebeard and Blackbeard, as well as mariners and European settlers; the Danish West India Company chartered Charlotte Amalie in 1671 after King Christian V decided to secure them for plantations.
As early as in 1672, the Danish government began the construction of Fort Christian on Saint Thomas Harbor in Charlotte Amalie. In 1675, the Danes constructed four pubs near the water’s edge on the western side of the fort; the Danish government supplied convicts to work the plantations but soon allowed colonists from neighboring islands to settle there, as well to permit the importation of slaves from Africa. In 1680, there were more black African slaves than white European settlers. Adjacent Water and Buck Islands served as pasture lands for the city, Taphus was renamed Charlotte Amalie in 1691 after King Christian V's wife, it was the main port of the Virgin Islands Archipelago and was connected to about 50 plantations by one road, which remains the main highway today. In the early 18th century, more than 3000 white settlers lived in town, sugar production and slave trading were the economic mainstay. After the Danish government wanted direct administration of the archipelago in 1754, the capital was moved from Charlotte Amalie to Christiansted on the island of Saint Croix.
That made the economy in town to transition from slave trading and agriculture to general commerce. The slight couldn’t hamper the city’s growth, as merchants profiteered in arms and rum trades to belligerent countries. In 1764, Charlotte Amalie was declared a free port by king Frederick V, the town became the busiest harbor in the Caribbean; the American Revolution in the 1770s was good news for the city, as it was thriving times for the local businessfolk and the town begun to be filled by immigrants from Europe and the Caribbean, most of them from other islands of the Lesser Antilles. By 1778, the Danish government had strengthened their military position by building Bluebeard’s Castle and Blackbeard's Castle, lookout towers on the crests of the two hills by the city; the city prospered as a free port and American, Sephardic, French, British and Spanish importing houses operated here. In the end of the 18th century, American founding father and future architect of the American Constitution, Alexander Hamilton, decided the town was so wealthy that “gold moved through the streets in wheel-barrows”.
At one point, the city of Charlotte Amalie in the Danish West Indies was the second-largest city in the Danish Realm, only smaller than the capital of Copenhagen. A growing share of the West Indian trade passed through the port in the beginning of the 1800s, the rise of steamships made Charlotte Amalie an ideal coalin
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Saint Thomas is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and, together with Saint John, Water Island and Saint Croix, a former Danish colony, form a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. Located on the island is the territorial capital and port of Charlotte Amalie; as of the 2010 census, the population of Saint Thomas was 51,634 about 48.5% of the US Virgin Islands total. The district has a land area of 32 square miles; the island was settled around 1500 BC by the Ciboney people. They were replaced by the Arawaks and the Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted the island in 1493 on his second voyage to the New World; the Dutch West India Company established a post on Saint Thomas in 1657. The first congregation was the St. Thomas Reformed Church, established in 1660 and was associated with the Dutch Reformed Church. Denmark-Norway's first attempt to settle the island in 1665 failed. However, the Danes did resettle St. Thomas in 1671, under the sponsorship of the Glueckstadt Co. the Danish West India Company.
The first slave ships arrived in 1673, St. Thomas became a slave market; the island became a Danish crown colony in 1754, was granted free port status in 1764. The land was divided into plantations and sugarcane production became the primary economic activity; as a result, the economies of Saint Thomas and the neighboring islands of Saint John and Saint Croix became dependent on slave labor and the slave trade. In 1685, the Brandenburgisch-Africanische Compagnie took control of the slave trade on Saint Thomas, for some time the largest slave auctions in the world were held there. Saint Thomas's fine natural harbor became known as "Taphus" for the drinking establishments located nearby. In 1691, the primary settlement there was renamed Charlotte Amalie in honor of the wife of Denmark's King Christian V, it was declared a free port by Frederick V. In December 1732, the first two of many Moravian Brethren missionaries came from Herrnhut Saxony in present-day Germany to minister to them. Distrusted at first by the white masters, they soon won their confidence.
From 1796 a small Jewish community developed in Charlotte Amalie. It established a historic synagogue, Beracha Veshalom Vegmiluth Hasidim, the oldest synagogue in continuous use anywhere in the United States or its external territories; the first British invasion and occupation of the island occurred in 1801. The islands were returned to Denmark under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. Fire destroyed hundreds of homes in Charlotte Amalie in 1804; the second British occupation of the island occurred from 1807-1815, after the Invasion of the Danish West Indies, during which they built Fort Cowell on Hassel Island. While the sugar trade had brought prosperity to the island's free citizens, by the early 19th century Saint Thomas was in decline; the continued export of sugar was threatened by hurricanes and American competition. Following the Danish Revolution of 1848, slavery was abolished and the resulting rise in labor costs further weakened the position of Saint Thomas's sugar producers. Given its harbors and fortifications, Saint Thomas still retained a strategic importance, thus, in the 1860s, during the American Civil War and its aftermath, the United States government considered buying the island and its neighbors from Denmark for $7.5 million.
However, the proponents of the purchase failed to gain legislative support for the bid. As the islands were poorly managed by the Danes, a local islander, David Hamilton Jackson, was instrumental in persuading the Danish to allow the US to purchase the islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John, Saint Croix. In 1915, he traveled to Denmark and convinced the King of Denmark to allow freedom of the press in the islands, he began the first newspaper in the islands, known as The Herald. After this, he organized labor unions among the islanders for better working conditions; the islands now have an annual celebration in November to honor the legacy of David Hamilton Jackson. In 1917, Saint Thomas was purchased by the United States for $25 million in gold, as part of a defensive strategy to maintain control over the Caribbean and the Panama Canal during the First World War; the transfer occurred on March 31, 1917, behind Fort Christian before the barracks that now house the Legislature of the U. S Virgin Islands.
The baccalaureate service for the transfer was held at the St. Thomas Reformed Church as it was identified as the American church in the Danish West Indies; the United States granted citizenship to the residents in 1927. The U. S. Department of the Interior took over administrative duties in 1931. American forces were based on the island during the Second World War. In 1954, passage of the U. S. Virgin Islands Organic Act granted territorial status to the three islands, allowed for the formation of a local senate with politics dominated by the American Republican and Democratic parties. Full home rule was achieved in 1970; the post-war era saw the rise of tourism on the island. With cheap air travel and the American embargo on Cuba, the numbers of visitors increased. Despite natural disasters such as Hurricane Hugo and Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn, the island's infrastructure continues to improve as the flow of visitors continues. Hotels have been built from the West End to the East End; the island has a number of natural bays and harbors including Magens Bay, Great Bay, Jersey Bay, Long Bay, Fortuna Bay, Hendrik Bay.
Passenger ships dock and
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a spoken language. Writing is not a language. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols; the result of writing is called text, the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, correspondence, record keeping and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems; as human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws and recording history. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.
In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, writing may have evolved through calendric and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events. H. G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to "put agreements, commandments on record, it made the growth of states larger. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible; the command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death". The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into five categories: logographic, alphabetic and ideographic. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but forms the core of logographies. A logogram is a written character which represents a morpheme. A vast number of logograms are needed to write Chinese characters and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both—. Many logograms have an ideographic component. For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka", was used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram.
In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa; the main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for the various languages or dialects of China and sometimes in Korean despite the fact that in South and North Korea, the phonetic Hangul system is used. A syllabary is a set of written symbols. A glyph in a syllabary represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables may have dedicated glyphs. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar. Syllabaries are best suited to languages with a simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek.
Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an abugida, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point where it is learned as if it were a syllabary. An alphabet is a set of symbols, each of which represents or represented a phoneme of the language. In a phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling; as languages evolve independently of their writing systems, writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies from one language to another and within a single language. In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks. Writing systems based on marking the consonant phonemes alone date back to the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt.
Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for "alphabet". In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant; these are called abugidas. Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, so are called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable. Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet, although abugidas and abjads may be accepted as alphabets; because of this use, Greek is considered to be the first alphabet. A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes. For instance, all sounds pronounced. In the Latin alphabet, this is acciden
Plainfield, New Jersey
Plainfield is a city in Union County, New Jersey, United States, known by its nickname as "The Queen City." As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population increased to 49,808, its highest recorded population in any decennial census, with the population having increased by 1,979 from the 47,829 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,262 from the 46,567 counted in the 1990 Census. The area of present-day Plainfield was formed as Plainfield Township, a township, created on April 5, 1847, from portions of Westfield Township, while the area was still part of Essex County. On March 19, 1857, Plainfield Township became part of the newly created Union County. Plainfield was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 21, 1869, from portions of Plainfield Township, based on the results of a referendum held that same day; the city and township coexisted until March 6, 1878, when Plainfield Township was dissolved and parts were absorbed by Plainfield city, with the remainder becoming Fanwood Township.
The name "Plainfield" used in both North Plainfield and South Plainfield, is derived from a local estate or from its scenic location. Plainfield was settled in 1684 by Quakers, incorporated as a city in 1869. A bedroom suburb in the New York metropolitan area, it has become the urban center of 10 allied municipalities, with diversified industries, including printing and the manufacture of chemicals, electronic equipment, vehicular parts. Among the several 18th-century buildings remaining are a Friends' meetinghouse, the Martine house, the Nathaniel Drake House, known as George Washington's headquarters during the Battle of Short Hills in June 1777. Nearby Washington Rock is a prominent point of the Watchung Mountains and is reputed to be the vantage point from which Washington watched British troop movements; the "Queen City" moniker arose in the second half of the 19th century. Plainfield had been developing a reputation during this period as featuring a climate, beneficial for respiratory ailments.
In 1886, in an effort to publicize the climate, local newspaper publisher Thomas W. Morrison began to use the slogan "Colorado of the East" to promote Plainfield; as Denver, was known as the "Queen City of the Plains," the slogan for Plainfield became abbreviated to "The Queen City."In 1902, the New Jersey Legislature approved measures that would have allowed the borough of North Plainfield to become part of Union County and to allow for a merger of North Plainfield with the City of Plainfield subject to the approval of a referendum by voters in both municipalities. Plainfield is the birthplace of P-Funk. George Clinton founded The Parliaments while working in a barber shop. Parliament-Funkadelic was inducted in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997. Plainfield has been home to former New Jersey governor James McGreevey. In sports history, Plainfield is the birthplace and/or home of several current and former athletes, including professionals and well-known amateurs. Included in their number are Milt Campbell, the 1956 Olympic Decathlon gold medalist, Joe Black, the first African-American pitcher to win a World Series game, Jeff Torborg, former MLB player and manager, Vic Washington, NFL player.
Plainfield's history as a place to call home for the 19th and 20th century wealthy has led to a significant and preserved suburban architectural legacy. An influx of Wall Street money led to the creation of what was called Millionaires' Row after the opening of the railway in the 19th century. There are numerous sites, including homes and districts in the city that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. While not listed, the Plainfield Armory, a prominent landmark completed in 1932, was sold by the state in 2013 as surplus property. Plainfield's wealthy northeast corner, known as the "Sleepy Hollow" section of the city and still is characterized by its array of finely landscaped streets and neighborhoods with homes defined by a broad array of architectural styles, most built during the first half of the twentieth century. From the tree-lines neighborhoods, it can be seen that the lot sizes vary, but the stateliness and distinction of each house is evident, whether a stately Queen Anne mansion or gingerbread cottage.
Most lots are nicely landscaped and semi or private. Plainfield was affected by the Plainfield Rebellion in July 1967; this civil disturbance occurred in the wake of the larger Newark riots. A Plainfield police officer was killed, about fifty people were injured, several hundred thousand dollars of property was damaged by looting and arson; the New Jersey National Guard restored order after three days of unrest. This civil unrest caused a massive white flight, characterized by the percentage of black residents rising from 40% in 1970 to 60% a decade later. Author and Plainfield native Isaiah Tremaine published Insurrection in 2017 as a mournful accounting of the Plainfield riots—and subsequent racial tensions at Plainfield High School—from his perspective as a black teenager living in the city with both white and black friends at the time. Prior to the rebellion, Plainfield was a regional entertainment center. Residents of nearby Union and Somerset counties would drive to shop and explore the business districts of Plainfield.
Other than during the holidays, peak shopping times Plainfield were Thursday nights and Saturday, when Front Street and the areas around it bustled. Plainfield had several entertainment venues at that time. At the peak, there were four operating movie theaters: the Strand, the Liberty, the Paramount and the Oxford theat