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William Westcott Rundell

William Westcott Rundell, sometimes W W Rundell was an inventor and engineer from Falmouth in Cornwall. He is best known for his work on the magnetism of adjustment needed for compasses on iron ships, he campaigned for the better training of ships crews. The son of a shipwright, he was born at Stoke Damerel. In 1845 he was appointed secretary of The Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, he resigned in 1855 to take the position of secretary at the Liverpool Compass Committee. Concurrently he was the Secretary of underwriters Registry for Liverpool. In 1855 and 1886, Rundell presented two reports to the Board of Trade and the Houses of Parliament giving his observations on the deviation of the compass in vessels having the compasses corrected by magnets. At the 1851 Great Exhibition, Rundell exhibitied a carbonized cast-iron magnet He proposed a way of marking ships to mark percentages of every ships volume as a guide to determine her freeboard He conducted experiments on the SS Great Eastern with Frederick J Evans RN.

The work with Evans related to dealing with the disturbing elements arising from the iron and the magnetisation of the ships. Evans published his work in conjunction with Archibald Smith In 1889, Rundell created charts showing the horizontal variation in the magnetic force acting on a ship's compass needle by the iron within the ship for HMS Polyphemus, HMS Curlew and HMS Dreadnought are held at National Maritime Museum, GreenwichHe published many articles in The Engineer between 1857 and 1883. On the deviation of falling bodies to the south of the perpendicular. RCP Soc. 1847 pp 28–34 General Index to the first sixteen annual reports of the RPC Soc. 1848 On case hardening and tempering cast-iron magnets 1850 On Foucault's experiment for showing the rotation of the earth on its axis. 1851 Notice of certain peculiar circumstances in Gwinear Consols and Wheal Seton Mines. 1847. Trans RGSC

Otto Scheff

Otto Scheff, born Otto Sochaczewsky was an Austrian freestyle swimmer, water polo player, lawyer and sports official who competed in the 1906 Intercalated Games, in the 1908 Summer Olympics, in the 1912 Summer Olympics. Scheff was born in Berlin, he was still at school in 1906 and it was only for the intervention of the Austrian Olympic Committee he was allowed three weeks leave to compete in the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens. At those Games he competed in three events, first up was the 1 mile freestyle race, it was a straight final with Scheff coming in third for the bronze medal behind winner Henry Taylor and second place John Arthur Jarvis both from Great Britain, three days Scheff got revenge on the two British swimmers by winning the gold medal by two seconds in the 400 metre freestyle, he was part of the 4×250 metre freestyle relay team, but they didn't finish the race. Two years he was in London for the 1908 Summer Olympics, again he entered three events, in the 400 metre freestyle he won another bronze medal and again losing to Henry Taylor, he reached the final of the 1500 metre freestyle but didn't finish the race, he managed to reach the semi-finals of the 100 metre freestyle.

At the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm he participated in the water polo tournament as part of the Austrian team finishing in fourth place. From 1945 to 1953 he was elected to the National Council of Austria as a member of the Austrian People's Party, he was vice president of the Austrian Olympic Committee. He died at Maria Enzersdorf in 1956, his daughter Gertraud Scheff was qualified for the 1940 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, when the games were cancelled. Mödling named a street "Dr. Otto Scheff-Weg". List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame List of select Jewish swimmers World record progression 200 metres freestyle profile with picture Otto Scheff at at the Wayback Machine Otto Scheff at Olympics at Otto Scheff at the International Olympic Committee

Marcus Gunn phenomenon

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance, in which nursing infants will have rhythmic upward jerking of their upper eyelid. This condition is characterized as a synkinesis: when two or more muscles that are independently innervated have either simultaneous or coordinated movements. Common physiologic examples of synkineses occur during chewing, or conjugate eye movements. There are several abnormal cranial nerve synkineses, both acquired and congenital. Marcus Gunn jaw-winking is an example of a pathologic congenital synkinesis. First described by the ophthalmologist Marcus Gunn in 1883, this condition presents in 5% of neonates with congenital ptosis; this condition has been associated with amblyopia and strabismus. Although treatment may be unnecessary, there may be social implications in young children when venturing from a supportive home environment to a public environment. Continued support, including monitoring behavior and educating the child about his or her appearance as seen by others, is encouraged.

Gradual or sudden withdrawal from interaction with others is a sign that may or may not be related to such behavior. Studies are being conducted to elucidate these implications, it has been postulated that the synkinesis is due to damage to cranial nerve nuclei, caused by peripheral nerve injury and the nuclear lesion releases evolutionarily older mechanisms with their tendency toward associated movements, so primitive reflexes are not inhibited. Marcus Gunn jaw-winking is an exaggeration of a weak physiologic co-contraction, disinhibited secondary to a congenital brain stem lesion; the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve by contraction of the pterygoid muscles of jaw results in the excitation of the branch of the oculomotor nerve that innervates the levator palpebrae superioris ipsilaterally, so the patient will have rhythmic upward jerking of their upper eyelid. There are two major groups of trigemino-oculomotor synkineses: 1) External pterygoid-levator synkinesis is when the eyelid raises upon: Jaw thrust to opposite side Jaw is projected forward Mouth is opened widely2) Internal pterygoid-levator synkinesis is when the eyelid raises upon teeth clenching External pterygoid-levator synkinesis is the more common group.

Treatment is unnecessary. In severe cases, surgery with a bilateral levator excision and frontalis brow suspension may be used. Inverse Marcus Gunn phenomenon is a rare condition that causes the eyelid to fall upon opening of the mouth. In this case, trigeminal innervation to the pterygoid muscles of the jaw is associated with an inhibition of the branch of the oculomotor nerve to the levator palpebrae superioris, as opposed to stimulation in Marcus Gunn jaw-winking

Sancia di Castiglia

Sancia di Castiglia is an Italian opera seria in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti to a libretto by Pietro Salatino. It was first performed at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, on 4 November 1832 conducted by Nicola Festa. Place: Castile, Spain Time: the middle agesSancia, Queen of Castile, whose husband has been killed in battle believes that her son, has been killed, she plans to marry the Saracen prince, against the advice of her minister, Rodrigo. When Garcia, having survived an assassination attempt instigated by Ircano, reappears to claim the throne, Ircano tells Sancia that he will marry her only if she poisons her son. Garcia is about to drink from the poisoned goblet when a repentant Sancia snatches it and drinks it herself, she dies pleading for her son's forgiveness. Notes Sources Allitt, John Stewart, Donizetti: in the light of Romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury: Element Books, Ltd. Ashbrook, William and His Operas, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23526-X Ashbrook, William, "Donizetti, Gaetano" in Stanley Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. One.

London: Macmillan Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5 Ashbrook and Sarah Hibberd, in Holden, The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029312-4. Pp. 224 – 247. Black, Donizetti’s Operas in Naples, 1822—1848. London: The Donizetti Society. Loewenberg, Alfred. Annals of Opera, 1597-1940, 2nd edition. Rowman and Littlefield Osborne, The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini and Bellini, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-71-3 Sadie, Stanley,. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2. ISBN 0-19-517067-9 OCLC 419285866. Weinstock, Herbert and the World of Opera in Italy and Vienna in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, New York: Pantheon Books. LCCN 63-13703 Sancia di Castiglia: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Amadeus Almanac Donizetti Society website

LĂ­bano, Tolima

Líbano is a Andes town in the Tolima department of Colombia. The population of the municipality was 41,650, according to the Census made in 2005. Líbano is subsidiary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Líbano–Honda. Before the European invasion, the indigenous communities of the Panches, Pantagoras and Marquetones lived in this region, they were among the tribes most feared by the Muisca. These communities were feared by the Muiscas, his society was an aristocratic hierarchy headed by a chief. In the mid-nineteenth century, a group of Antioquia explorers sought vacant land to reforest, with the aim of contributing to the national economy. An caravan of Antioquia led by Isidro Parra found a small hamlet with some houses built in a valley planted with cedars and oaks; the village was called the Spanish word for Lebanon. The redesign of the urbanized area of Líbano was organized as a village in 1886. Since 1900, Líbano became an important village; the socioeconomic development of the region was guided by its founders on work, agriculture and subsequently the cultivation of coffee, the latter became the main characteristic element of the economy and culture of the area.

The city of Líbano is the seat of the Diocese of Líbano-Honda, created by Pope John Paul II on July 26, 1989 by the "Ita Iam". The territorial area of the diocese covers an area of 3,477 km² with 240,000 inhabitants, his first bishop was Monsignor José Luis Serna Alzate, in 1989. In 2015 José Luis Henao Cadavid was installed as the fourth bishop of the diocese. Líbano has a long tradition of writers, musicians and artists. Culture has been one of the main engines of its identity. Different intellectuals have reflected on their culture and traditions. Writers such as Alberto Machado Lozano, Alirio Vélez Machado, Luis Flores, Alberto Piedrahita Pacheco, Eduardo Santa, Alfonso Delgadillo Parra, Isidro Parra Peña, Gonzalo Sánchez Gómez, Leonidas Arango Loboguerrero, Fernando Morales Alarcón, Germán Santamaría, Antonio Gonzalez, Carlos Orlando Pardo, Jorge Eliecer Pardo, Antonio José Villegas Valero, Manuel Giraldo, Socrates Herrera Valencia, Alexander Prieto, Raúl Echeverry, Óscar Arboleda, Yamel López Forero.

Musicians like Alberto León, Alfonso Correa, Alfonso Domínguez, Alfredo Silva, Alirio Feo, Ancizar Bedoya. Arcadio Rojas, Arturo Bejarano, Arturo Vanegas, Carlos Espinel, Carlos Ruiz, Carlos Ruiz, Conrrado Londoño, Dairo Antonio Soto, Francisco Clavijo, Gildardo Alba, Guillermo Rubio, Gustavo Correa, Gustavo Rojas, Germán Morales Gustavo Sarmiento, Hernán Agudelo Arango, Óscar Arango, Hernán, Hernando Botero, Javier Agudelo, Javier Rozo, Jesús Tovar, Jorge Carvajal, Jorge Rozo, José Rozo, José Ruiz, Julio Ortiz, Ligia by Wilches, Lisímaco González, Luis Bejarano and Helena Castaño, Nicolás Wilches, Norman Díaz, Orlando Rico, Rafael Calvo, Raúl Correa, Ricardo Bernal, Roberto Aguirre, Rodolfo Bejarano, Rodrigo Soto, Rosa María Ruiz, Vicente Rozo, its agriculture has gone hand in hand with the development of the city and thanks to its intellectual and financial tradition it has established itself as one of the centers of commerce and culture of Tolima and the country. Its main line in the economy comes from coffee production.

It is part of the agricultural pantry of Tolima, given its fertile and productive lands of volcanic origin. Artistic production is recognized in the national territory; the municipality of Líbano is located in the north of the department of Tolima, about 56 kilometres north of Ibagué, the departmental capital. Líbano is bordered to the north by the municipalities of Armero and Villahermosa, to the West by the municipality of Murillo, to the East by the municipality of Lérida and to the south by Santa Isabel and Venadillo. Líbano is located in the Cordillera Central, east of Nevado del Ruiz; the town is at an altitude of 1,565 metres above sea level, putting it in the tierra templada, or temperate zone, of Colombia. The area is hilly and forested where it is not used for agriculture. Agriculture in the area includes growing of coffee, bananas and beans