A cay spelled caye or key, is a small, low-elevation, sandy island on the surface of a coral reef. Cays occur in tropical environments throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans; the 1492 indigenous people of Bahamas were called "Lucayan", an Anglicization of the Spanish Lucayos, derived in turn from the Taíno Lukku-Cairi, meaning "people of the islands". The Taíno word for "island", became cayo in Spanish and "cay" in English. A cay forms when ocean currents transport loose sediment across the surface of a reef to a depositional node, where the current slows or converges with another current, releasing its sediment load. Layers of deposited sediment build up on the reef surface; such nodes occur in windward or leeward areas of reef where surfaces sometimes occur around an emergent outcrop of old reef or beach rock. The island resulting from sediment accumulation is made up entirely of biogenic sediment – the skeletal remains of plants and animals – from the surrounding reef ecosystems. If the accumulated sediments are predominantly sand the island is called a cay.
Cay sediments are composed of calcium carbonate of aragonite and high magnesium calcite. They are produced by myriad animals. Small amounts of silicate sediment are contributed by sponges and other creatures. Over time and vegetation may develop on a cay surface, assisted by the deposition of sea bird guano. A range of physical and chemical influences determines the ongoing development or erosion of cay environments; these influences include: the extent of reef surface sand accumulations, changes in ocean waves, tides, sea levels and weather conditions, the shape of the underlying reef, the types and abundance of carbonate producing biota and other organisms such as binders and bioturbators living in surrounding reef ecosystems. Significant changes in cays and their surrounding ecosystems can result from natural phenomena such as severe El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles. Tropical cyclones can help build or destroy these islands. There is much debate and concern over the future stability of cays in the face of growing human populations and pressures on reef ecosystems, predicted climate changes and sea level rise.
There is debate around whether these islands are relict features that stopped expanding two thousand years ago during the late Holocene or, as recent research suggests, they are still growing, with significant new additions of reef sediments. Understanding the potential for change in the sediment sources and supply of cay beaches with environmental change is an important key to predicting their present and future stability. Despite, or because of all the debate around the future of cays, there is consensus that these island environments are complex and somewhat fragile. Examples of cays include: The Florida Keys are composed of exposed ancient coral reefs and oolite beds formed behind reefs. A few of the Florida Keys, such as Sand Key, are "cays" as defined above. Heron Island, Australia, a coral cay on the southern Great Barrier Reef Prickly Pear Cays, Anguilla Rama Cay, Nicaragua Tobacco Caye, Belize Warraber Island in central Torres Strait, Australia, a small ‘vegetated sand cay’ according to the classification schemes of McLean and Stoddart and Hopley.
750 m × 1,500 m, this island is situated on the leeward surface of a large 11 km2 emergent reef platform. This cay and the surrounding reef flat are Holocene in origin, having formed over an antecedent Pleistocene platform. Elbow Cays, Bahamas Great Goat Island, Jamaica Archipelago
Albany Island or Pabaju is an island at the tip of Cape York Peninsula in the Adolphus Channel and part of the Manar Group of islands Queensland, Australia, in the Cape York Peninsula about 20 km East of Bamaga, 6 km southeast of the tip of Cape York. The island is a part of the Torres Strait Islands, it is said to have been part of the territory of the Djagaraga or Gudang people. The island was surveyed early in the region's history and part of the island was named Port Albany. A bêche-de-mer station was established on the island in 1862 by J. Frazer. After an inspection by Queensland's Governor Bowen, a settlement was planned for the island but it was built instead on the adjacent mainland in 1863 at Somerset, Queensland. There was still a trochus shell farm there in 1995, there is now an operational pearl farm; the wreck of the RMS Quetta, a passenger ship that sank in 1890, lies just off Albany Island. The ship hit an uncharted rock and sank in a short time killing 134 people. Bowen, George.
“New Settlement at Cape York, Survey within Great Barrier Reef,” Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 114-121. Firth, Dawn W. and Clifford B.. Cape York Peninsula. Reed Books. ISBN 0-7301-0469-9. Ganter, Regina; the Pearl-Shellers of Torres Strait. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0-522-84547-9. Moore, David R.. Islanders and Aborigines at Cape York. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. ISBN 0-85575-076-6. USA edition: ISBN 0-391-00946-X.
Darnley Island (Queensland)
Darnley Island or Erub in the native language, is an island formed by volcanic action and situated in the eastern section of the Torres Strait, Australia. It is one of the Torres Strait Islands and is located near the Great Barrier Reef and just south of the Bligh entrance; the town on the island is called Darnley but the locality is called Erub Island, both being within the local government area of Torres Strait Island Region. 400 people live on Darnley Island. There are one school and a health centre. Accommodation is available through the council run ` five star' dongas; the effective community language is Brokan, though many people still speak Meriam Mir, the traditional language. Darnley Island became better known around Australia in 2015 when the acting school principal asked via social media for donations of books to assist her primary school children and their education, her efforts resulted in more than 18000 shares on Facebook and hundreds of books being sent to the island. The island was named by Captain William Bligh in 1792 during his second breadfruit voyage to the Pacific, after his distant relative, the Earl of Darnley.
Christianity was first introduced to Darnley and the Torres Strait region by the London Missionary Society on 1 July 1871. Before this and beche-de-mer gatherers visited the island. Over many years, these industries attracted an influx of seamen from the Pacific Islands, the Philippines and Malaya, many of whom married local women and settled on the island. Early in the twentieth century, the Queensland Government started installing various facilities such as a school, medical aid, post office and an Island Industries Board store. Darnley people have been at the forefront of the movement for adequate recognition of Torres Strait Islanders' rights, with George Mye among the most prominent advocates of Islander interests from the 1960s to the 90s and Carlemo Wacando among the first to challenge the legal notion of terra nullius. Pau Enterprises Indigenous Corporation was established in 2015 to manage and maintain the Pau family native title lands and interests on Darnley Island, it seeks to create social enterprises on Darnley Island and other locations where community members have migrated to, such as Cairns.
The Kinabalu giant earthworm, Pheretima darnleiensis, is named after Darnley Island, although it is not a native but an introduced species there. Darnley Island has a number including the All Saints Anglican Church; the Torres Strait Island Regional Council operate an Indigenous Knowledge Centre at Madige Village on Erub. Darnley Island Airport List of Torres Strait Islands Media related to Darnley Island, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Mye on behalf of the Erubam Le v State of Queensland FCA 1573 Passion and Professionalism by Dorothy Walker and Lynetee Griffiths about an education project for indigenous students on Darnley Island, a 2 min 42 sec video, published by State Library of Queensland as part of Storylines:Q150 digital stories
The Duncan Islands are a group of islands in the Torres Strait Islands archipelago, located northwest of the Bramble Channel of Torres Strait in Queensland, Australia. The islands are situated north of Thursday Island and 15 kilometres southwest of Badu Island; the Duncan Islands are located within the Torres Strait Island Region local government area. The Duncan Islands include three uninhabited islands: Kanig Island Maitak Island Meth Islet List of Torres Strait Islands
Warul Kawa Indigenous Protected Area
Warul Kawa Indigenous Protected Area is a small island, part of Australia's National Reserve System, located 34 kilometres south of Papua New Guinea and about 200 kilometres north of Thursday Island, Torres Strait. The protected area and island are the most north westerly of the Torres Strait Islands located in the water of Torres Strait, part of Queensland in Australia, 74 kilometres from Indonesia, at the border of West Papua province, it is a sand cay surrounded by a shallow reef platform interspersed with sandy patches, with little live coral present. Brown and green algae are predominating on the rocky substrate with some seagrass present; the island and surrounding reef support two internationally significant populations of sea turtles. It contains one of the largest rookeries for the Flatback turtle; the extensive shallow water habitats in the area support large numbers of migrating green turtles. The breeding assemblages in north and eastern Australia are the largest remaining rookeries for green turtles.
The island and surrounding reef system have retained their high natural value due to their remoteness. Although Warul Kawa has been inhabited periodically by Europeans in the past, there has been little impact on the natural environment as evident by the presence of only two-recorded exotic plant species; the area has maintained high vegetation integrity of considerable complexity. These habitats support thirty-three species of birds, including the yellow-footed scrubfowl, not reported on many other islands in Torres Strait. Due to the spiritual and cultural significance that the island has for local Indigenous people, Deliverance Island was declared an Indigenous Protected Area in February 2001; the local Indigenous name for the island, Warul Kawa, means "Island of turtles" in the Torres Strait Island language. Somerset Maugham's character German Harry from his book Cosmopolitans, a Danish mariner from Langebæk, in fact known as Old Harry but christened as Johannes Henrik Enevoldsen, lived on the island as a hermit from about 1888 until his death.
Indigenous Protected Areas List of Torres Strait Islands "Howard should bring true "Deliverance" to Papuans on the mainland". Www.safecom.org.au. "Papuan union leader misses the mark in bid for asylum". The Australian. "International focus on new West Papua refugee bid". Torres News. Warul Kawa Financial Assistance Agreement Warul Kawa Indigenous Protected Area
Torres Strait Islands
The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea. The islands are part of Queensland, a constituent State of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a special status fitting the native land rights, administered by the Torres Strait Regional Authority. A few islands close to the coast of mainland New Guinea belong to the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, most Daru Island with the provincial capital, Daru. Only 14 of the islands are inhabited; the Torres Strait Islands were formed when the land separating Australia and New Guinea was flooded by rising sea levels around 6000 BCE. The indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands are the Torres Strait Islanders, an ethnically Melanesian people who inhabited the northern tip of Cape York Peninsula, distinct from the Australian Aboriginals who are the Indigenous Australians in the rest of the country.
The Spanish navigator Luís Vaez de Torres explored Torres Strait in 1606. Torres had joined the Queirós expedition which sailed from Peru across the Pacific Ocean in search of Terra Australis. Lieutenant James Cook first claimed British sovereignty over the eastern part of Australia at Possession Island in 1770; the London Missionary Society mission led by Rev. Samuel Macfarlane arrived on Erub on 1 July 1871; the Islanders refer to this as "The Coming of the Light", all Island communities celebrate the occasion annually on 1 July. In 1879 Queensland annexed the Torres Strait Islands, they thus became part of the British colony of Queensland and of the Australian state of Queensland - although some of them lie just off the coast of New Guinea. In 1898–1899 the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition led by Alfred Cort Haddon visited the Torres Strait Islands. In 1904 the Torres Strait Islanders became subject to the Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act. From 1960 to 1973 Margaret Lawrie captured some of the Torres Strait Islander people's culture by recording the retelling of local myths and legends.
Her anthropological work, stored at the State Library of Queensland, has been recognized and registered with the Australian UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. The proximity of the islands to Papua New Guinea became an issue when it started moving towards independence from Australia, which it gained in 1975; the Papua New Guinea government objected to the position of the border close to the New Guinean mainland and the subsequent complete Australian control over the waters of the strait. The Torres Strait Islanders opposed being separated from Australia and insisted on no change to the border; the Australian Federal government wished to cede the northern islands to appease Papua New Guinea, but were opposed by the Queensland government and Queensland Premier Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen. An agreement was struck whereby the islands and their inhabitants remained Australian, but the maritime boundary between Australia and Papua New Guinea runs through the centre of the strait. In practice the two countries co-operate in the management of the strait's resources.
In 1982, Eddie Mabo and four other Torres Strait Islanders from Mer started legal proceedings to establish their traditional land-ownership. Because Mabo was the first-named plaintiff, it became known as the Mabo Case. In 1992, after ten years of hearings before the Queensland Supreme Court and the High Court of Australia, the latter court found that Mer people had owned their land prior to annexation by Queensland; this ruling overturned the long-established legal doctrine of terra nullius, which held that native title over Crown land in Australia had been extinguished at the time of annexation. The ruling thus had far-reaching significance for the land claims of both Torres Strait Islanders and Australian Aborigines. On 1 July 1994 the Torres Strait Regional Authority was created; the islands span an area of some 48,000 km2. The strait from Cape York to New Guinea has a width of 150 kilometres at its narrowest point; the total land area of the islands comprises 566 km2. 21,784 hectares of land are used for agricultural purposes.
The Torres Strait itself was a land bridge which connected the present-day Australian continent with New Guinea. This land bridge was most submerged by rising sea levels at the end of the last ice-age glaciation 12,000 years ago, forming the Strait which now connects the Arafura and Coral seas. Many of the western Torres Strait Islands are the remaining peaks of this land bridge which were not submerged when the ocean levels rose; the islands and their surrounding waters and reefs provide a diverse set of land and marine ecosystems, with niches for many rare or unique species. Saltwater crocodiles inhabit the islands along with neighboring areas of Queensland and Papua New Guinea. Marine animals of the islands include dugongs, as well as green, ridley and flatback sea turtles; the Torres Strait Islands may be grouped into five distinct clusters, which exhibit differences of geology and formation as well as location. The Torres Strait provides a habitat for numerous birds, including the Torresian imperial-pigeon, seen as the iconic national emblem to the islanders.
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. It is 150 km wide at its narrowest extent. To the south is Cape York Peninsula, the northernmost extremity of the Australian mainland. To the north is the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, it is named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres, who passed through the Strait in 1606. The strait links the Coral Sea to Gulf of Carpentaria in the west. Although it is an important international sea lane, it is shallow, the maze of reefs and islands can make it hazardous to navigate. In the south the Endeavour Strait is located between Prince of the mainland. Shipping enters Torres Strait via the Adolphus Channel which joins to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon to the southeast. Strong tidal currents occur in the narrow channels between islands and reefs, large submarine sand dunes migrate across the seafloor; some 580 coral reefs, including the Warrior Reefs and Eastern Patch Reefs, cover a total area of 2,400 km2 in the region, as well as some of the most extensive seagrass beds in the world.
Several clusters of islands lie in the Strait, collectively called the Torres Strait Islands. There are at least 274 of these islands. Over 6,800 Torres Strait Islanders live on the Islands and 42,000 live on the mainland; these islands have a variety of topographies and formation history. Several of those closest to the New Guinea coastline are low-lying, formed by alluvial sedimentary deposits borne by the outflow of the local rivers into the sea. Many of the western islands are hilly and steep, formed of granite, are peaks of the northernmost extension of the Great Dividing Range now turned into islands when sea levels rose at the end of the last ice age; the central islands are predominantly coral cays, those of the east are of volcanic origins. The islands are administered from Thursday Island. There are several major policy and institutional frameworks in the Torres Strait region that support the sustainable use and management of marine resources while protecting habitats and the traditional islander way of life.
Most important of these is the Torres Strait Treaty entered into by Australia and Papua New Guinea in February 1985. The Treaty defines maritime boundaries in the area between the two countries, it guides decision makers on protecting the way of life and livelihood of traditional inhabitants, on managing the protection of habitats, on sharing the commercial and traditional fisheries resources. The Treaty established a Torres Strait Protected Zone within which both nations manage access to fisheries resources; each country exercises sovereign jurisdiction for resources on either side of the agreed jurisdiction lines. The islands' indigenous inhabitants are the Torres Strait Islanders, who are distinct from both the Papuans of adjoining New Guinea and from Aboriginal groups on the nearby Australian mainland but related to both; the various Torres Strait Islander communities have a unique culture and long-standing history with the islands and nearby coastlines. Their maritime-based trade and interactions with the Papuans to the north and the Australian Aboriginal communities have maintained a steady cultural diffusion between the three societal groups, dating back thousands of years at least.
Two indigenous languages are spoken on the Torres Strait Islands: Kala Lagaw Ya/Kalaw Kawaw Ya/Kawalgau Ya/Muwalgau Ya/Kulkalgau Ya, Miriam Mir, as well as Brokan, otherwise called Torres Strait Creole. In the 2001 Australian national census, the population of the islands was recorded as 8,089, though many more live outside of Torres Strait in Australia. Environmental issues facing the region include the risk of mining waste from the Fly River in southern Papua New Guinea, the impacts of global climate change and the sustainable management of natural resources; the islands of the Torres Strait have been inhabited for at least 2,500 years and much longer. The first recorded European navigation of the strait was by Luís Vaz de Torres, a pilot, second-in-command on the Spanish expedition led by navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós who sailed from Peru to the South Pacific in 1605. After Queirós's ship returned to Mexico, Torres resumed the intended voyage to Manila via the Maluku Islands, he sailed along the south coast of New Guinea, may have sighted the northernmost extremity of the Australian mainland, however no specific records exist that indicate he did so.
In 1769 the Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple, whilst translating some Spanish documents captured in the Philippines in 1762, had found Luís Vaz de Torres' testimony proving a passage south of New Guinea now known as Torres Strait. This discovery led Dalrymple to publish the Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1770–1771, which aroused widespread interest in his claim of the existence of an unknown continent, it was Dalrymple. Dalrymple was bitterly disappointed that it was James Cook and not he, appointed commander of the expedition that led in 1770 to the British encounter and charting of the eastern coastline of Australia. In 1770 Lieutenant James Cook turned south-west and landed on Possession Island. From the top of a hill, he signalled down to the ship that he could see a navigable passage through the dangerous Strait. In Batavia, where he learnt that the French had preceded him across the Pacific, Cook re-wrote this signalling drill as a possession ceremony, saying he had claimed Austral