Princess Ariane of the Netherlands
Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the third and youngest daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. Princess Ariane is a member of the Dutch Royal House and third in the line of succession to the Dutch throne. Princess Ariane was born in the HMC Bronovo in The Hague at 21:56 local time on 10 April 2007 as the third child and youngest daughter of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Queen Máxima of the Netherlands. Prime Minister Balkenende addressed the nation shortly afterwards and said both mother and child were healthy and doing well; the next morning, Her father appeared on television with his new daughter. The names of the baby were announced on 13 April. Princess Ariane was baptised in the Abbey Church in The Hague on 20 October 2007. Vicar Deodaat van der Boon used water from the Jordan River to baptize the princess, wearing the christening gown that Princess Wilhelmina first wore in 1880. Over 850 guests were invited to attend, including Princess Máxima's parents and Dutch prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende.
Her godparents are Valeria Delger, Inés Zorreguieta, Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume of Luxembourg, Tijo Baron Collot d’Escury, Anton Friling. Princess Ariane speaks Dutch and some Spanish. On 2 May 2007, Princess Ariane was admitted to the Leiden University Medical Center with a suspected lung infection, she was released from the hospital on 5 May 2007 after treatment for her bacterial and viral infection. On 13 June 2007, Prince Willem-Alexander and Princess Máxima released a thank you note "not only for the congratulations upon Ariane's birth but for the best wishes they received upon her hospitalisation" and released a third official picture with their newborn daughter; the couple received over 30,000 letters of well-wishers. On 8 October 2009, Princess Ariane was again admitted to a hospital, in which she had to stay for one night, due to a respiratory infection. Ariane's full title and style is: Her Royal Highness Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau.. Royal House of the Netherlands
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the second daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. Princess Alexia is a member of the Dutch Royal House and second in the line of succession to the Dutch throne. Princess Alexia was born on 26 June 2005 at HMC Bronovo in The Hague as the second child of Willem-Alexander Prince of Orange, his wife, Máxima; the infant's uncles Prince Friso and Juan Zorreguieta, the Duchess of Brabant, Jonkvrouwe Alexandra Jankovich de Jeszenice, Jonkheer Frans Ferdinand de Beaufort stood as godparents at baptism on 19 November 2005 in Wassenaar. Alexia speaks Dutch and Spanish. In February 2016, while on a skiing holiday with her family in Austria, Princess Alexia broke her right femur, she was had surgery to repair the injury. After a few days in the hospital she was required the use of crutches while she healed. Updates on Princess Alexia's condition were posted on the official website of the Dutch monarchy; the accident occurred in the same area as the avalanche which resulted in fatal injuries to her paternal uncle and godfather, Prince Friso, in February 2012.
Princess Alexia attended the public primary school Bloemcampschool in Wassenaar. Since August 2017 she attends the Christelijk Gymnasium Sorghvliet in the Hague. Alexia's full title and style is: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau. Https://web.archive.org/web/20100326150940/http://www.koninklijkhuis.nl/english/index.html
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election, his government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in British South Africa, he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow.
Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1962, subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the state following the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president.
Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999, he declined a second presidential term, in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation. Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the far-left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid's supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism.
Regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name and described as the "Father of the Nation". Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata part of South Africa's Cape Province. Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker", in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba, his patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape province. One of Ngubengcuka's sons, named Mandela, was the source of his surname; because Mandela was the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognised as hereditary royal councillors.
Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, was a local chief and councillor to the monarch. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands. A devotee of the god Qamata, Gadla was a polygamist with four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of the Xhosa. Mandela stated that his early life was dominated by traditional Thembu custom and taboo, he grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy and spent much time outside with other boys. Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Baptised a Methodist, Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher.
When Mandela was about nine, his father came to stay at Qunu, where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Feeling "cut adrift", he said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". Mandela's mother took him to the "Great Place" palace at Mqhekezw
Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
Prince Floris Frederik Martijn of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven is the fourth and youngest son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven. Prince Floris has three older brothers: Prince Maurits, Prince Bernhard, Prince Pieter-Christiaan Prince Floris announced his engagement to Aimée Söhngen, the daughter of Hans Söhngen and Eleonoor Stammeijer, on 25 February 2005; the couple were married in a civil ceremony at the Stadhuis in Naarden on 20 October 2005 and in a religious ceremony on 22 October at the Grote Kerk in Naarden. Prince Floris had been 10th in the line of succession to the Dutch throne but decided not to seek parliamentary approval for his marriage, as would be required in the Netherlands; this means. Prince Floris and Princess Aimée's first child, Magali Margriet Eleonoor van Vollenhoven, was born at VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam on 9 October 2007, she is named for Aimée's sister, Magali Söhngen, her mother Eleonoor, as well as Princess Margriet.
Their second child, Eliane Sophia Carolina van Vollenhoven was born at VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam on 5 July 2009. Their third child, a son named Willem Jan Johannes Pieter Floris, was born at HMC Bronovo in The Hague on 1 July 2013. Floris van Oranje joined Gimv in 2014 as head of the Dutch office. Before joining Gimv, he worked at KPMG Corporate Finance where he focused on the gas sector, he was sectorhead at Deutsche Bank and Relationship Banker in the Telecom and Technology sector at ABN Amro Corporate Clients. In both functions he assisted several businesses. Floris has a master of Dutch Law in both business and criminal law. After he graduated, he worked for the Public Prosecution for five years
Kofi Atta Annan was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize, he was the founder and chairman of the Kofi Annan Foundation, as well as chairman of The Elders, an international organization founded by Nelson Mandela. Annan studied economics at Macalester College, international relations at the Graduate Institute Geneva, management at MIT. Annan joined the UN in 1962, he went on to work in several capacities at the UN Headquarters including serving as the Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping between March 1992 and December 1996. He was appointed the Secretary-General on 13 December 1996 by the Security Council, confirmed by the General Assembly, making him the first office holder to be elected from the UN staff itself, he was re-elected for a second term in 2001, was succeeded as Secretary-General by Ban Ki-moon on 1 January 2007. As the Secretary-General, Annan reformed the UN bureaucracy.
He was criticized for not expanding the Security Council and faced calls for resignation after an investigation into the Oil-for-Food Programme, but was exonerated of personal corruption. After the end of his term as UN Secretary-General, he founded the Kofi Annan Foundation in 2007 to work on international development. In 2012, Annan was the UN–Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria, to help find a resolution to the ongoing conflict there. Annan quit after becoming frustrated with the UN's lack of progress with regards to conflict resolution. In September 2016, Annan was appointed to lead a UN commission to investigate the Rohingya crisis. Kofi Annan was born in the Kofandros section of Kumasi in the Gold Coast on 8 April 1938, his twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shared the middle name Atta, which in the Akan language means'twin'. Annan and his sister were born into one of the country's Fante aristocratic families. In the Akan names tradition, some children are named according to the day of the week on which they were born, sometimes in relation to how many children precede them.
Kofi in Akan is the name. Annan said. From 1954 to 1957, Annan attended the elite Mfantsipim school, a Methodist boarding school in Cape Coast founded in the 1870s. Annan said that the school taught him that "suffering anywhere, concerns people everywhere". In 1957, the year Annan graduated from Mfantsipim, the Gold Coast gained independence from the UK and began using the name "Ghana". In 1958, Annan began studying economics at the Kumasi College of Science and Technology, now the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana, he received a Ford Foundation grant, enabling him to complete his undergraduate studies in economics at Macalester College in St. Paul, United States, in 1961. Annan completed a diplôme d'études approfondies DEA degree in International Relations at The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, from 1961–62. After some years of work experience, he studied at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the Sloan Fellows program and earned a master's degree in management.
Annan was fluent in English, French and some Kru languages as well as other African languages. In 1962, Kofi Annan started working as a budget officer for the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations. From 1974 to 1976, he worked as a manager of the state-owned Ghana Tourist Development Company in Accra. In 1980 he became the head of personnel for the office of the UN High Commission for Refugees in Geneva. In 1983 he became the director of administrative management services of the UN Secretariat in New York. In 1987, Annan was appointed as an Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management and Security Coordinator for the UN system. In 1990, he became Assistant Secretary-General for Program Planning and Finance, Control; when Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali established the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in 1992, Annan was appointed to the new department as Deputy to Under-Secretary-General Marrack Goulding. Annan was subsequently appointed in March 1993 as Under-Secretary-General of that department.
On 29 August 1995, while Boutros-Ghali was unreachable on an airplane, Annan instructed United Nations officials to "relinquish for a limited period of time their authority to veto air strikes in Bosnia." This move allowed NATO forces to conduct Operation Deliberate Force and made him a favorite of the United States. According to Richard Holbrooke, Annan's "gutsy performance" convinced the United States that he would be a good replacement for Boutros-Ghali, he was appointed a Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the former Yugoslavia, serving from November 1995 to March 1996. In 2003, retired Canadian General Roméo Dallaire, force commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, claimed that Annan was overly passive in his response to the imminent genocide. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, Dallaire asserted that Annan held back UN troops from intervening to settle the conflict, from providing more logistical and material support.
Dallaire claimed that Annan failed to provide responses to his repeated faxes asking for access to a weapons depository. In 2004, ten years after the genocide in which
Economics is the social science that studies the production and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, firms and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources, economic growth, the public policies that address these issues. See glossary of economics. Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is", normative economics, advocating "what ought to be". Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, in business, health care, government. Economic analysis is sometimes applied to such diverse subjects as crime, the family, politics, social institutions, war and the environment; the discipline was renamed in the late 19th century due to Alfred Marshall, from "political economy" to "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science".
At that time, it became more open to rigorous thinking and made increased use of mathematics, which helped support efforts to have it accepted as a science and as a separate discipline outside of political science and other social sciences. There are a variety of modern definitions of economics. Scottish philosopher Adam Smith defined what was called political economy as "an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations", in particular as: a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people... to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the publick services. Jean-Baptiste Say, distinguishing the subject from its public-policy uses, defines it as the science of production and consumption of wealth. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle coined "the dismal science" as an epithet for classical economics, in this context linked to the pessimistic analysis of Malthus. John Stuart Mill defines the subject in a social context as: The science which traces the laws of such of the phenomena of society as arise from the combined operations of mankind for the production of wealth, in so far as those phenomena are not modified by the pursuit of any other object.
Alfred Marshall provides a still cited definition in his textbook Principles of Economics that extends analysis beyond wealth and from the societal to the microeconomic level: Economics is a study of man in the ordinary business of life. It enquires how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. Lionel Robbins developed implications of what has been termed "erhaps the most accepted current definition of the subject": Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Robbins describes the definition as not classificatory in "pick out certain kinds of behaviour" but rather analytical in "focus attention on a particular aspect of behaviour, the form imposed by the influence of scarcity." He affirmed that previous economists have centred their studies on the analysis of wealth: how wealth is created and consumed. But he said that economics can be used to study other things, such as war, that are outside its usual focus.
This is because war has as the goal winning it, generates both cost and benefits. If the war is not winnable or if the expected costs outweigh the benefits, the deciding actors may never go to war but rather explore other alternatives. We cannot define economics as the science that studies wealth, crime and any other field economic analysis can be applied to; some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets. From the 1960s, such comments abated as the economic theory of maximizing behaviour and rational-choice modelling expanded the domain of the subject to areas treated in other fields. There are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment. Gary Becker, a contributor to the expansion of economics into new areas, describes the approach he favours as "combin assumptions of maximizing behaviour, stable preferences, market equilibrium, used relentlessly and unflinchingly."
One commentary characterizes the remark as making economics an approach rather than a subject matter but with great specificity as to the "choice process and the type of social interaction that analysis involves." The same source reviews a range of definitions included in principles of economics textbooks and concludes that the lack of agreement need not affect the subject-matter that the texts treat. A
Rabobank is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Utrecht, Netherlands. It is a global leader in sustainability-oriented banking; the group comprises 129 independent local Dutch Rabobanks, a central organisation, a large number of specialised international offices and subsidiaries. Food and agribusiness constitute the primary international focus of the Rabobank Group. Rabobank is the second-largest bank in the Netherlands in terms of total assets. A 2013 scandal resulted in a $1 billion fine for unscrupulous trading practices, which included the manipulation of LIBOR currency rates worldwide. Chief Executive Piet Moerland resigned as a result. In terms of Tier 1 capital, the organisation is among the 30 largest financial institutions in the world; as of December 2014, total assets amount to €681 billion with a net profit of €1.8 billion. Global Finance ranks Rabobank 25th in its survey of "the world's safest banks". Rooted in agriculture, Rabobank is set up as a federation of local credit unions, which offer services to the local markets.
The central organisation is a subsidiary of local branches—not the parent, as is the case with most banks. The bank is rooted in the ideas of Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen, the founder of the cooperative movement of credit unions, who in 1864 created the first farmers' bank in Germany. Being a countryside mayor he was confronted with the abject poverty of the farmers and their families, he tried to alleviate this need through charitable aid, but realised that self-reliance had more potential in the long run, thus converted his charitable foundation into a farmers' bank in 1864. In doing so he created the Darlehnskassen-Verein, which collected the savings of countryside dwellers and provided enterprising farmers with loans; this model found a lot of interest in the Netherlands at the end of the 19th century. One of the first of Raiffeisen's followers was Father Gerlacus van den Elsen, who stood at the basis of a number of local farmers' banks in the south of the Netherlands; the model caught on being championed by the countryside elites.
The mission of the farmers' lending banks was an idealistic one, but they always operated using strict business principles. Controversially, a founding principle of Rabobank's cooperative style was to cooperate in the interest of "warding off the Shylock"; the cooperative bank model assured a tight bond between the community. The bank's traditional headquarters are Eindhoven. In 1898, two cooperative bank conglomerates were formed: Coöperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen-Bank in Utrecht Coöperatieve Centrale Boerenleenbank in EindhovenThe first was formed as a cooperation of 6 local banks and the latter as a cooperation of 22 local banks; these two existed side by side for three-quarters of a century despite their obvious similarities. The reasons for this owed in part to legal disagreements; the most important difference, was cultural. The Eindhoven-based Boerenleenbank had a decidedly Catholic signature while the Raiffeisen-Bank had a Protestant background. In the past the Netherlands underwent a process of pillarisation or verzuiling, which in practice meant that members of different religious congregations and political movements lived side by side, without contact between the two.
A consequence of this pillarisation was that many villages hosted not one but two local banks, one each for Catholics and Protestants. The close-knit community banking that resulted helped these banks to better control their risks; when the Dutch banking sector was devastated by a financial crisis in the early 1920s, these local banks survived unscathed. The religious backgrounds found their way to their organisational structures, as well. By 1940, the two organisations cooperated with each other, albeit on a limited scale. Three major developments caused a further tightening of the bonds between the two: An increase in the number of branches, leading to increased local competition A gradual fading of the confessional differences between the two An increasing demand for capital in the Dutch industry, which in turn led to higher concentration in the banking businessIn 1972, the two organisation merged; the name Rabobank was created from Raiffeisen-Boerenleenbank. The organisation chose Amsterdam to be its statutory headquarter due to its historical neutrality in relation to the founding organisations.
Since 1980, the central organisation has been referred to as Rabobank Nederland. In 1980, Rabobank expanded its international activities as part of its mission to finance global agriculture. In 1990, it established a joint-venture bank in Indonesia by partnering with a local bank, Bank Duta, to form RabobankDuta. Bank Duta subsequently collapsed in the 1998 Asian financial crisis, Rabobank bought Duta's share to operate as PT Bank Rabobank International Indonesia. In 1994, it purchased Primary Industry Bank of Australia, which had operations in Australia and New Zealand, renamed it Rabobank Australia Limited in 2003. In 1997, it purchased New Zealand–based Wrightson Farmers Finance Limited and renamed it Rabobank New Zealand in 1999. Rabobank became a significant lender to the rural sector in New Zealand with this purchase and used this as a base to expand its lending business further. Rabo purchased Australian company Lend Lease Agro Business in 2003. In 2008, it expanded its operations in Indonesia by buying two retail banks, Bank Haga and Bank Hagakita.
In 2002, it launched a new internet only savings bank called Rabobank.b