Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II. Margaret spent much of her childhood with her parents and sister, her life changed in 1936, when her paternal uncle King Edward VIII abdicated to marry divorcée Wallis Simpson. Margaret's father became king, her sister became heir presumptive, with Margaret second in line to the throne. During the Second World War, the two sisters stayed at Windsor Castle despite suggestions to evacuate them to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was considered too young to perform any official duties and instead continued her education. After the war, Margaret fell in love with Group Captain Peter Townsend. In 1952, her father died, her sister became queen, Townsend divorced his wife, Rosemary, he proposed to Margaret early the following year. Many in the government believed that he would be an unsuitable husband for the Queen's 22-year-old sister, the Church of England refused to countenance marriage to a divorced man.
Margaret abandoned her plans with Townsend and married photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones in 1960. The couple had a son, a daughter, Sarah. Margaret was viewed as a controversial member of the British royal family, her divorce in 1978 received much negative publicity, she was romantically associated with several men. Her health deteriorated in the final two decades of her life, she was a heavy smoker for most of her adult life and had a lung operation in 1985, a bout of pneumonia in 1993, at least three strokes between 1998 and 2001. She died at King Edward VII's Hospital in London after suffering a final stroke on 9 February 2002. Margaret was born on 21 August 1930 at Glamis Castle in Scotland, her mother's ancestral home, was affectionately known as Margot within the royal family, she was delivered by the royal obstetrician. The Home Secretary, J. R. Clynes, was present to verify the birth; the registration of her birth was delayed for several days to avoid her being numbered 13 in the parish register.
At the time of her birth, she was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne. Her father was the Duke of the second son of King George V and Queen Mary, her mother was the Duchess of York, the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl and the Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. The Duchess of York wanted to name her second daughter Ann Margaret, as she explained to Queen Mary in a letter: "I am anxious to call her Ann Margaret, as I think Ann of York sounds pretty, & Elizabeth and Ann go so well together." King George V disliked the name Ann but approved of the alternative "Margaret Rose". Margaret was baptised in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1930 by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Margaret's early life was spent at the Yorks' residences at 145 Piccadilly and Royal Lodge in Windsor; the Yorks were perceived by the public as an ideal family: father and children, but unfounded rumours that Margaret was deaf and mute were not dispelled until Margaret's first main public appearance at her uncle Prince George's wedding in 1934.
She was educated alongside her sister, Princess Elizabeth, by their Scottish governess Marion Crawford. Margaret's education was supervised by her mother, who in the words of Randolph Churchill "never aimed at bringing her daughters up to be more than nicely behaved young ladies"; when Queen Mary insisted upon the importance of education, the Duchess of York commented, "I don't know what she meant. After all I and my sisters only had governesses and we all married well—one of us well". Margaret was resentful about her limited education in years, aimed criticism at her mother. However, Margaret's mother told a friend that she "regretted" that her daughters did not go to school like other children, the employment of a governess rather than sending the girls to school may have been done only at the insistence of King George V; as children she and her sister were read stories by author of Peter Pan. Margaret's grandfather, George V, died when she was five, her uncle acceded as King Edward VIII. Less than a year on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American, whom neither the Church of England nor the Dominion governments would accept as queen.
The Church would not recognise the marriage of a divorced woman with a living ex-husband as valid. Edward's abdication left a reluctant Duke of York in his place as King George VI, Margaret unexpectedly became second in line to the throne, with the title The Princess Margaret to indicate her status as a child of the sovereign; the family moved into Buckingham Palace. Margaret was a Brownie in the 1st Buckingham Palace Brownie Pack, formed in 1937, she was a Girl Guide and a Sea Ranger. She served as President of Girlguiding UK from 1965 until her death in 2002. At the outbreak of World War II, Margaret and her sister were at Birkhall, on the Balmoral Castle estate, where they stayed until Christmas 1939, enduring nights so cold that drinking water in carafes by their bedside froze, they spent Christmas at Sandringham House before moving to Windsor Castle, just outside London, for much of the remainder of the war. Viscount Hailsham wrote to Prime Minister Winston Churchill to advise the evacuation of the princesses to the greater safety of Canada, to which their mother famously replied, "The children won't go without me.
I won't leave without the King. And the King will never l
Rockefeller Center is a large complex consisting of 19 commercial buildings covering 22 acres between 48th Street and 51st Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The 14 original Art Deco buildings, commissioned by the Rockefeller family, span the area between Fifth Avenue and Sixth Avenue, split by a large sunken square and a private street called Rockefeller Plaza. Additions include 75 Rockefeller Plaza across 51st Street at the north end of Rockefeller Plaza, four International Style buildings located on the west side of Sixth Avenue. In 1928, the site's then-owner, Columbia University, leased the land to John D. Rockefeller Jr., the main person behind the complex's construction. Envisioned as the site for a new Metropolitan Opera building, the current Rockefeller Center came about after the Met could not afford to move to the proposed new building. Various plans were discussed before the current one was approved in 1932. Construction of Rockefeller Center started in 1931, the first buildings opened in 1933.
The core of the complex was completed by 1939. The original center has several sections. Radio City, along Sixth Avenue and centered on 30 Rockefeller Plaza, includes Radio City Music Hall and was built for RCA's radio-related enterprises such as NBC; the International Complex along Fifth Avenue was built to house foreign-based tenants. The remainder of the original complex hosted printed media as well as Eastern Air Lines. While 600 Fifth Avenue is located at the southeast corner of the complex, it was built by private interests in the 1950s and was only acquired by the center in 1963. Described as one of the greatest projects of the Great Depression era, Rockefeller Center was declared a New York City landmark in 1985 and a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it is noted for the large quantities of art present in all of its Art Deco buildings, its expansive underground concourse, its ice-skating rink. The complex is famous for its annual lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the first private owner of the site was physician David Hosack, who purchased twenty acres of rural land from New York City in 1801 for $5,000 and opened the country's first botanical garden, the Elgin Botanic Garden, on the site.
The gardens operated until 1811, by 1823, ended up in the ownership of Columbia University. Columbia moved its main campus north to Morningside Heights by the turn of the century. In 1926, the Metropolitan Opera started looking for locations to build a new opera house to replace the existing building at 39th Street and Broadway. By 1928, Benjamin Wistar Morris and designer Joseph Urban were hired to come up with blueprints for the house. However, the new building was too expensive for the Met to fund by itself, John D. Rockefeller Jr. gave his support to the project. Rockefeller hired Todd and Todd as design consultants to determine its viability. John R. Todd put forth a plan for the Met. Columbia leased the plot to Rockefeller for 87 years at a cost of $3 million per year; the initial cost of acquiring the space, razing some of the existing buildings, constructing new buildings was estimated at $250 million. The lease excluded a strip along Sixth Avenue on the west side of the plot, as well as another property on Fifth Avenue between 48th and 49th Streets.
Rockefeller hosted a "symposium" of architectural firms to solicit plans for the complex, but it did not yield any meaningful plans. He hired Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray, they worked under the umbrella of "Associated Architects" so none of the buildings could be attributed to any specific firm. The principal builder and "managing agent" for the massive project was John R. Todd, one of the co-founders of Todd and Todd; the principal architect and leader of the Associated Architects was Raymond Hood, a student of the Art Deco architectural movement. The other architects included Wallace Harrison. L. Andrew Reinhard and Henry Hofmeister had been hired by John Todd as the "rental architects", who designed the floor plans for the complex; the Metropolitan Square Corporation was formed in December 1928 to oversee construction. However, the Metropolitan Opera wanted to hold out for a more favorable lease because it worried about the site's profitability. After the stock market crash of 1929, the Metropolitan Opera could not afford to move anymore, on December 6, 1929, the plans for the new opera house were abandoned completely.
In order to make a profit on the site as as possible, Rockefeller devised new plans within a month so that the site could become profitable. The developers entered into talks with Radio Corporation of America and its subsidiaries, National Broadcasting Company and Radio-Keith-Orpheum, to build a mass media entertainment complex on the site. By May, RCA and its affiliates had made an agreement with Rockefeller Center managers to lease space and develop part of the complex. Todd released a new plan "G-3" in January 1930. Two months an "H plan" was released with facilities for "television, radio, talking pictures and plays", as well as four theaters. Under Rockefeller's plan, the demolition of the site's existing structures would start in the fall, the complex would be complete by 1933. Another plan was announced in March 1931, but the proposal received negative feedback from the public. An oval-shaped building with rooftop gardens, included in the original plan, was replaced with four small retail buildings and a 41-story tower, comprising the current International Complex.
The updated plan i
Yin Hailin is a former Chinese politician, Vice-mayor of Tianjin, a municipality of China. He was dismissed from his position in August 2016 for investigation by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. Yin was born in Tianjin in April 1960, he was graduated from Tianjin Red Army High School in 1978, he entered the Department of Architecture of Tsinghua University in the same year and graduated in 1983. After graduating, he entered to China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, worked as Planner, he backed to Tianjin and became the planner of Tianjin Urban and Rural Planning and Design Institute. Yin was the Deputy Director of Tianjin Planning and Land Resources Bureau since 2000 and promoted to the post of director in 2007. In 2012, he was elected as Vice-mayor of Tianjin and deputy-secretary of the CPC Political and Legal Affairs Commission of Tianjin. On August 22, 2016, Yin was placed under investigation by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's internal disciplinary body, for "serious violations of regulations".
Yin Hailin was expelled from the Communist Party, demoted to sub-division level on January 20, 2017