A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style. It is both a Royal Peculiar, a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch, the Chapel of the Order of the Garter. Seating 800, it is located in the Lower Ward of the castle. St. George's castle chapel was established in the 14th century by King Edward III and began extensive enlargement in the late 15th century, it has been the location of many royal ceremonies and burials. Windsor Castle is a principal residence for Queen Elizabeth II; the day-to-day running of the Chapel is the responsibility of the Dean and Canons of Windsor who make up the religious College of St George, directed by a Chapter of the Dean and four Canons, assisted by a Clerk and other staff. The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, a registered charity, was established in 1931 to assist the College in maintaining the Chapel. In 1348, King Edward III founded two new religious colleges: St Stephen's at Westminster and St George's at Windsor.
The new college at Windsor was attached to the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, constructed by Henry III in the early thirteenth century. The chapel was rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, George the Martyr and Edward the Confessor, but soon after became known only by the dedication to St. George. Edward III built the Aerary Porch in 1353–54, it was used as the entrance to the new college. St George's Chapel became the Mother Church of the Order of the Garter, a special service is still held in the chapel every June and is attended by the members of the order, their heraldic banners hang above the upper stalls of the choir. The period 1475–1528 saw a radical redevelopment of St George's Chapel under the designs of King Henry VII's most prized counsellor Sir Reginald Bray, set in motion by Edward IV and continued by Henry VII and Henry VIII; the thirteenth-century Chapel of Edward the Confessor was expanded into a huge new Cathedral-like chapel under the supervision of Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, the direction of the master mason Henry Janyns.
The Horseshoe Cloister was constructed for the new community of 45 junior members: 16 vicars, a deacon gospeller, 13 lay clerks, 2 clerks epistoler and 13 choristers. The choristers of St George's Chapel are still in existence to this day, although the total number is not fixed and is nearer to 20; the choristers are educated at Windsor Castle. They are full boarders at the school. In term time they attend practice in the castle every morning and sing Matins and Eucharist on Sundays and sing Evensong throughout the entire week, with the exception of Wednesdays. St George's Chapel was a popular destination for pilgrims during the late medieval period; the chapel was purported to contain several important relics: the bodies of John Schorne and Henry VI and a fragment of the True Cross held in a reliquary called the Cross of Gneth. It was taken from the Welsh by Edward II after his conquest along with other sacred relics; these relics all appear to have been displayed at the east end of the south choir aisle.
The Chapel suffered a great deal of destruction during the English Civil War. Parliamentary forces broke into and plundered the chapel and treasury on 23 October 1642. Further pillaging occurred in 1643 when the fifteenth-century chapter house was destroyed, lead was stripped off the chapel roofs, elements of Henry VIII's unfinished funeral monument were stolen. Following his execution in 1649, Charles I was buried in a small vault in the centre of the choir at St George's Chapel which contained the coffins of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. A programme of repair was undertaken at St George's Chapel following the Restoration of the monarchy; the reign of Queen Victoria saw further changes made to the architecture of the chapel. The east end of the choir was reworked in devotion to Prince Albert. In the 21st century, St George's accommodates 800 persons for services and events. On the roof of the chapel, standing on the pinnacles, on pinnacles on the sides, are seventy-six heraldic statues representing the Queen's Beasts, showing the Royal supporters of England.
They represent fourteen of the heraldic animals: the lion of England, the red dragon of Wales, the panther of Jane Seymour, the falcon of York, the black bull of Clarence, the yale of Beaufort, the white lion of Mortimer, the greyhound of Richmond, the white hart of Richard II, the collared silver antelope of Bohun, the black dragon of Ulster, the white swan of Hereford, the unicorn of Edward III and the golden hind of Kent. The original beasts dated from the sixteenth century, but were removed in 1682 on the advice of Sir Christopher Wren. Wren had condemned the calcareous sandstone of which they were constructed; the present statues date from 1925. Members of the Order of the Garter meet at Windsor Castle every June for the annual Garter Service. After lunch in the State Apartments in the Upper Ward of the Castle they process on foot, wearing their robes and insignia, down to St George's Chapel where the service is held. If any new members have been admitted to the Order they are installed at the service.
After the service, the members of the order return to the Upper Ward by car. The Order had frequent services at the chapel, after becoming infrequent in the 18
Gloucester House or Gloucester Lodge is a former royal residence on the esplanade in the seaside resort of Weymouth on the south coast of England. It was the summer residence of Prince William Henry Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, brother of King George III. During his recovery from porphyria in 1789, George III spent some time convalescing there; the king occupied the right-hand part of the building, had use of the garden, where the left wing stands. His doctors encouraged him to visit the resort to benefit from the sea salt water; the patronage of the king was important in drawing fashionable society to the south coast town. Having been a hotel for most of the 20th century, the building became a private residence, having been renamed Gloucester Lodge after conversion into flats; the lower ground floor contains a restaurant known as the Cork and Bottle. Gloucester House is a Grade II* listed building, having been added to the register on 12 December 1953.
The house was built in about 1780 and a major extension was added on the south side in 1850. A fire destroyed much of the interior and it was refurbished in 1927; the whole building has a double mansard roof with a valley in the centre. The original building occupying the right side of the range was built as an eight-bay two storey house but now has three storeys, with two levels of attics and a basement; the centre four bays are recessed and the main doorway is in bay 6, with a pedimented portico and flight of steps up from the pavement. There is a range of six recessed, sashed dormer windows at parapet level; the other two storeys have sashed windows, those on the upper floor with twelve panes and those on the lower one six panes.= The more modern range to the south was added in 1850 and has three storeys and basement. The esplanade front has six dormer windows with segmented roofs, the floors underneath having sash windows with stone surrounds. There is a large projecting balcony at ground level.
The verandah is supported by cast iron columns rising from the basement, the part of the building now occupied by the Cork and Bottle Public house
William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover. William served in the Royal Navy in his youth, spending time in North America and the Caribbean, was nicknamed the "Sailor King". In 1789, he was created Duke of St Andrews. In 1827, he was appointed as Britain's first Lord High Admiral since 1709; as his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act 1832. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament.
Through his brother Adolphus, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. At the time of his death William had no surviving legitimate children, but he was survived by eight of the ten illegitimate children he had by the actress Dorothea Jordan, with whom he cohabited for twenty years. Late in life, he married and remained faithful to the young princess who would become Queen Adelaide. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece Victoria and in Hanover by his brother Ernest Augustus. William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III and Queen Charlotte, he had two elder brothers and Frederick, was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St James's Palace on 20 September 1765, his godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke of Gloucester and Prince Henry, his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
He spent most of his early life in Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors. At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman, was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1780, his experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking and got arrested with his shipmates after a drunken brawl in Gibraltar, he served in New York during the American War of Independence, making him the only member of the British royal family to visit America up to and through the American Revolution. While William was in America, George Washington approved a plot to kidnap him, writing: "The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry and Admiral Digby merits applause. I am persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral..."
The plot did not come to fruition. In September 1781, William held court at the Manhattan home of Governor Robertson. In attendance were Mayor David Mathews, Admiral Digby, General Delancey, he became captain of HMS Pegasus the following year. In late 1786, he was stationed in the West Indies under Horatio Nelson, who wrote of William: "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the list; the two were great friends, dined together nightly. At Nelson's wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away, he was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year. William sought to be made a duke like his elder brothers, to receive a similar parliamentary grant, but his father was reluctant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon. Appalled at the prospect of his son making his case to the voters, George III created him Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and Earl of Munster on 16 May 1789 saying: "I well know it is another vote added to the Opposition."
William's political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be ascribed to a single party. He allied himself publicly with the Whigs as well as his elder brothers George, Prince of Wales, Frederick, Duke of York, who were known to be in conflict with the political positions of their father. William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790; when Britain declared war on France in 1793, he was anxious to serve his country and expected a command, but was not given a ship at first because he had broken his arm by falling down some stairs drunk, but perhaps because he gave a speech in the House of Lords opposing the war. The following year he spoke in favour of the war; the Admiralty did not reply to his request. He did not lose hope of being appointed to an active post. In 1798 he was made an admiral. Despite repeated petitions, he was never given a command throughout the Napoleonic Wars. In 1811, he was appointed to the honorary position of Admiral of the Fleet.
Weymouth is a seaside town in Dorset, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. The town is 8 kilometres north of the Isle of Portland; the town's population is 52,323. Weymouth has a metropolitan population of 71,083; the town is the third largest settlement in Dorset after the unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole. Weymouth is a tourist resort, its economy depends on its harbour and visitor attractions. Weymouth Harbour has included cross-channel ferries, is home to pleasure boats and private yachts, nearby Portland Harbour is home to the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy, where the sailing events of the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games were held; the A354 road bridge connects Weymouth to Portland, which together form the borough of Weymouth and Portland. The history of the borough stretches back to the 12th century. Weymouth originated as a settlement on a constricted site to the south and west of Weymouth Harbour, an outlying part of Wyke Regis.
The town developed from the mid 12th century was not noted until the 13th century. By 1252 it became a chartered borough. Melcombe Regis developed separately on the peninsula to the north of the harbour. French raiders found the port so accessible. Melcombe Regis is thought to be the first port at which the Black Death came into England in June 1348 either aboard a spice ship or an army ship. In their early history Weymouth and Melcombe Regis were rivals for trade and industry, but the towns were united in an Act of Parliament in 1571 to form a double borough. Both towns have become known despite Melcombe Regis being the main centre; the villages of Upwey, Preston, Wyke Regis, Southill and Littlemoor have become part of the built-up area. King Henry VIII had two Device Forts built to protect the south Dorset coast from invasion in the 1530s: Sandsfoot Castle in Wyke Regis and Portland Castle in Castletown. Parts of Sandsfoot have fallen into the sea due to coastal erosion. During the English Civil War, around 250 people were killed in the local Crabchurch Conspiracy in February 1645.
In 1635, on board the ship Charity, around 100 emigrants from the town crossed the Atlantic Ocean and settled in Weymouth, Massachusetts. More townspeople emigrated to the Americas to bolster the population of Weymouth, Nova Scotia and Salem, Massachusetts. There are memorials to this on the side of Weymouth Harbour and near to Weymouth Pavilion and Weymouth Sea Life Tower; the architect Sir Christopher Wren was the Member of Parliament for Weymouth in 1702, controlled nearby Portland's quarries from 1675 to 1717. When he designed St Paul's Cathedral, Wren had it built out of Portland Stone, the famous stone of Portland's quarries. Sir James Thornhill was born in the White Hart public house in Melcombe Regis and became the town's MP in 1722. Thornhill became an artist, coincidentally decorated the interior of St Paul's Cathedral; the resort is among the first modern tourist destinations, after King George III's brother the Duke of Gloucester built a grand residence there, Gloucester Lodge, passed the mild winter there in 1780.
A painted statue of the King stands on the seafront, called the King's Statue, renovated in 2007/8 by stripping 20 layers of paintwork, replacing it with new paints and gold leaf, replacing the iron framework with a stainless steel one. A mounted white horse representing the King is carved into the chalk hills of Osmington. Weymouth's esplanade is composed of Georgian terraces, which have been converted into apartments, shops and guest houses; the buildings were constructed in the Georgian and Regency periods between 1770 and 1855, designed by architects such as James Hamilton, were commissioned by wealthy businessmen, including those that were involved in the growth of Bath. These terraces form a continuous arc of buildings which face Weymouth Bay along the esplanade; the earliest purpose-built hotel there was the first incarnation of the Royal Hotel. The esplanade features the multi-coloured Jubilee Clock, erected in 1887 to mark the 50th year of Queen Victoria's reign. Statues of Victoria, George III and Sir Henry Edwards, Member of Parliament for the borough from 1867 to 1885, two war memorials stand along the Esplanade.
In the centre of the town lies Weymouth Harbour. Since the 18th century they have been linked by successive bridges over the narrowest part of the harbour; the present Town Bridge, built in 1930, is a lifting bascule bridge allowing boats to access the inner harbour. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution stationed a lifeboat at Weymouth for the first time on 26 January 1869. A boathouse was built with a slipway by the harbour and is still in use, although the lifeboat is now moored at a pontoon. During World War I 120,000 ANZAC personnel convalesced in Weymouth after being injured at Gallipoli or other theatres
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, KG, PC, PC was a British courtier and politician. Hertford was born in Chelsea, the son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Baron Conway, Charlotte Shorter, daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook, he was a descendant of 1st Duke of Somerset. He succeeded to the barony on the death of his father in 1732; the first few years after his father's death were spent in Paris. On his return to England he took his seat, as 2nd Baron Conway, among the Peers in November 1739. Henry Seymour Conway and soldier, was his younger brother. In August 1750 he was created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford, both of which titles had earlier been created for and forfeited by his ancestor Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, following his attainder and execution in 1552; the Seymour family had inherited a moiety of the feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp, in Somerset, by marriage to the heiress Cicely Beauchamp. In 1755, according to Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, "The Earl of Hertford, a man of unblemished morals, but rather too gentle and cautious to combat so presumptuous a court, was named Ambassador to Paris."
He appointed David Hume as his Secretary, who wrote of him, "I do not believe there is in the World a man of more probity & Humanity, endowd with a good Understanding, adornd with elegant Manners & Behaviour". However, due to the demands of the French, the journey to Paris was suspended. From 1751 to 1766 he was Lord of the Bedchamber to George II and George III. In 1756 he was made a Knight of the Garter and, in 1757, Lord-Lieutenant and Guardian of the Rolls of the County of Warwick and City of Coventry. In 1763 he became Privy Councillor and, from October 1763 to June 1765, was a successful ambassador in Paris, he witnessed the sad last months of Madame de Pompadour, whom he admired, wrote a kindly epitaph for her. In the autumn of 1765 he became Viceroy of Ireland where, as an honest and religious man, he was well liked. An anonymous satirist in 1777 described him as "the worst man in His Majesty's dominions", emphasised Hertford's greed and selfishness, adding "I cannot find any term for him but avaricious."
However, this anonymous attack does not seem to be justified. In 1782, when she was only fifty-six, his wife died after having nursed their grandson at Forde's Farm, Thames Ditton, where she caught a violent cold. According to Walpole, "Lord Hertford's loss is beyond measure, she was not only the most affectionate wife, but the most useful one, the only person I saw that never neglected or put off or forgot anything, to be done. She was always proper, either in the highest life or in the most domestic." Within two years of the tragedy, Lord Hertford had sold Forde's Farm to Mrs Charlotte Boyle Walsingham, a further two years she had re-developed the estate, building a new mansion which she called Boyle Farm, a name still in use today. In July 1793 he was created Marquess of Hertford, with the subsidiary title of Earl of Yarmouth, he enjoyed this elevation for a year until his death at the age of seventy-six, on 14 June 1794, at the house of his daughter, the Countess of Lincoln. He died as the result of an infection following a minor injury.
He was buried in Warwickshire. Lord Hertford married Lady Isabella Fitzroy, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, on 29 May 1741, her grandfather was Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. By his wife he had thirteen children: Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford Lady Anne Seymour-Conway, married Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda. Lord Henry Seymour-Conway Lady Sarah Frances Seymour-Conway, married Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry. Lord Robert Seymour-Conway Lady Gertrude Seymour-Conway, married George Mason-Villiers, 2nd Earl Grandison. Lady Frances Seymour-Conway, married Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, a son of Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Rev. Hon. Edward Seymour-Conway, canon of Christ Church, unmarried Lady Elizabeth Seymour-Conway died unmarried Lady Isabella Rachel Seymour-Conway, married George Hatton, a member of parliament. Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour, married Lady Anne Horatia Waldegrave, a daughter of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave Lord William Seymour-Conway Lord George Seymour-Conway.
He married Isabella Hamilton, granddaughter of James Hamilton, 7th Earl of Abercorn, was the father of Sir George Hamilton Seymour, a British diplomatist. He is not known to have suffered himself from any mental abnormality, but a noted strain of eccentricity madness, appeared among his descendants: the debauched behaviour of his grandson, the 3rd Marquess, the suicide of another grandson, Viscount Castlereagh, were both attributed to a strain of madness supposed to be hereditary in the Seymour Conway family. Lord Hertford died in Surrey, England
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel was a younger member of the dynasty that ruled the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general. He was born as the youngest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, he was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain, dying one month before Queen Victoria ascended to the throne. His father, the hereditary prince had in 1747 left the family and soon converted Catholicism, in 1755 formally ended his marriage; the young prince Frederick, together with his two elder brothers, were with their mother the Landgravine Mary and became fostered by Protestant relatives in 1747. Soon the family moved to Denmark to be guests of her sister Louise of Great Britain, who died in 1751, his two elder brothers married Danish princesses - their first cousins - in 1763 and 1766 respectively. They remained in Denmark. Only his eldest brother returned in 1785 when ascending the landgraviate. In 1815, the prince was in command of the Royal Danish Auxiliary Corps mobilized as part of the Seventh Coalition against Napoleonic France.
He married Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen, a remarkable heiress of a family which became extinct in male line. 1781 he bought the castle of Rumpenheim, from his brother Carl, it became the family's seat. His descendants are known as the Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim branch of the House of Hesse, one of only two branches that survived to the present day. William, was the father of Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Karl Friedrich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl Georg Karl Luise Karoline Marie Friederike, married Graf George von der Decken, King's Hanoverian General of the Cavalry Marie Wilhelmine Friederike, married Georg, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Augusta Wilhelmine Luise, married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge