National Shooting Centre
The National Shooting Centre in Bisley, Surrey is the largest civilian shooting range in the United Kingdom, the headquarter of the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom. The National Shooting Centre has a number of ranges to cater for differing firearms and shooting disciplines. Short Siberia is the situated furthest away from the Range Office at the end of Hobson's way, the Road at the back of Century Range, it is a rifle range with 9 x 200 yard targets. Century Range was the first range built at Bisley when the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom moved here in 1890, it has 108 targets and firing points at distances between 600 yards. Century Range is the home of the 300m discipline and the new NRA electronic targets at Butt 19; the longest range on the Bisley Complex, Stickledown is a Gallery Range with 50 targets to be shot at distances from 800 to 1200 yards. Stickledown is the home of the Bisley Buffalo. Following successful trials in the Spring of 2017, the NRA have purchased 11 electronic targets that have been installed on Stickledown.
The National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom has installed a steel silhouette of a buffalo on its Stickledown range, allowing Bisley shooters the chance to use a reactive target at long range for the first time. “Target 51” on Stickledown consists of a 2.4m x 1.7m steel buffalo silhouette, painted white. It is available from 800yds, 900yds and 1,000yds and was installed after consultation with the Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain. Any rifle that fits within the existing Stickledown range restrictions may be used to engage the buffalo. According to version 2/2015 of the Bisley range regulations, for non-High Muzzle Energy firearms these are a maximum muzzle velocity of 1000 m/s and a maximum muzzle energy of 4500 J. HME rifles are limited to a maximum muzzle velocity of 1000 m/s and a maximum muzzle energy of 7000 J; this range is available for fullbore rifle prone shooting only. This range is only available to shooters who are booked to use another range, as it is intended for the safe zeroing of a rifle prior to use.
This range has 4 prone-only bays. Melville range has a total of 5 bays each containing 10 targets; these are gallery pistol turning targets at 25 and 50 metres. Gallery rifles and pistols** only can be shot on this range. Prone.22 calibre rifles can be shot by special arrangement. Cheylesmore Range is a 25m no danger area range for gallery pistols. A maximum calibre of.577" and a maximum muzzle velocity of 3,275 feet per second and a maximum muzzle energy of 3,319 foot-pounds. A maximum calibre of.455" and a maximum muzzle velocity of 2,150 feet per second, maximum muzzle energy of 1,496 foot-pounds. Shooting sport The Official Website on the National Shooting Centre
Sherbrooke is a city in southern Quebec, Canada. Sherbrooke is situated at the confluence of the Saint-François and Magog rivers in the heart of the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. With 161,323 residents at the 2016 census, Sherbrooke was the sixth largest city in the province of Quebec and the thirtieth largest in Canada; the Sherbrooke Census Metropolitan Area had 212,105 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Quebec and nineteenth largest in Canada. Known as Hyatt's Mill, it was renamed after Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, a British general, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, Governor General of British North America. Sherbrooke is the primary economic, political and institutional centre of Estrie, was known as the Queen of the Eastern Townships at the beginning of the 20th century. There are eight institutions educating 40,000 students and employing 11,000 people, 3,700 of whom are professors and researchers.
The direct economic impact of these institutions exceeds 1 billion dollars. The proportion of university students is 10.32 students per 100 inhabitants. In proportion to its population, Sherbrooke has the largest concentration of students in Quebec. Since the nineteenth century, Sherbrooke has been a manufacturing centre; this segment of the economy has experienced a considerable transformation in recent decades as a result of the decline of the city's traditional manufacturing sectors. The service sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of the city, as well as a growing knowledge-based economy; the Sherbrooke region is surrounded by mountains and lakes. There are various tourist attractions in regional flavour. Mont-Bellevue Park, a large park in the city, is used for downhill skiing; the First Nations were the first inhabitants, having settled the region between 8,000 and 3,000 years ago. Traces of seasonal camps, characterized by arrowheads and other similar tools have been found. Ceramic objects dating from the Woodland period were found, indicating that the region continued to be occupied by nomadic people during this period.
Upon the arrival of Samuel de Champlain in Quebec in 1608, this region was under the control of the Mohawks. France created an alliance through its missionaries with the Abenaki, located in Vermont; the French were driven to the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Trois-Rivières after a Mohawk victory in the war of 1660; the area around present-day Sherbrooke became a battlefield between the two peoples who had to travel to the region, both of whom sought to obtain control of the territory. For the Abenaki, the confluence of Pskasewantekw and Alsigôntekw, present day Sherbrooke, which they named Shacewanteku, was an important resting point during the seasonal passages. During the Seven Years' War between France and Britain, the Abenaki, still allied with the French, travelled along the rivers of the Eastern Townships near present-day Sherbrooke, during raids against British forts; the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, ending the Revolutionary War and recognizing the Independence of the United States.
During this time, the Eastern Townships were under Abekani control for a few years, having practised hunting and fishing for centuries. However, the American Revolution attracted British loyalists from America to the region, who began to covet the land and obtain government grants; the first European settler to reside in the Sherbrooke region was a French Canadian named Jean-Baptiste Nolain, of whom few details are known, except that he arrived in 1779 to engage in agriculture. The first attempts at colonization occurred in 1792 on the banks of the St. Francis River; this settlement was known as Cowan's Clearance. In 1793, loyalist Gilbert Hyatt, a farmer from Schenectady, New York, established his farm not far from the confluence of the Massawippi River and Coaticook River, before the governor of Lower Canada awarded the land. Over the next two years, 18 families came to live on the site; the Crown acknowledged Hyatt's ownership of the land in 1801. Hyatt built the first dam on the Magog River, in collaboration with another loyalist named Jonathan Ball, who had bought land on the north bank of the river.
Hyatt built a gristmill in 1802 on the south bank of the river, while Ball built a sawmill on the north shore. By constructing the mill, Hyatt founded the small village that became known as "Hyatt's Mills"; the village was named "Hyatt's Mills" until 1818, when the village was renamed after Governor General Sir John Sherbrooke at the time of his retirement and return to Britain. In 1832, the village attracted most of the activities of the British American Land Company and benefited from the injection of British capital into the region. Manufacturing activities were established. From 1835 Sherbrooke began to seek government support to establish a railway line, but this only became a reality in 1852 through the line connecting the cities of Montreal and Portland. From 1867 to 1892, the manufacturing system was based on hydraulic power; the Gorge of the Magog River is considered one of the best industrial sites in Quebec, since the waters never freeze there, allowing year-long production of energy.
At that time, BALC invested significant sums in the reconstruction of several dams in the gorge upstream to Magog Lake, in order to regulate the flow of the river, an
Between 1866 and 1871, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Republican organization based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on the UK to withdraw from Ireland. They divided Catholic Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians; the Protestant Irish were loyal to the UK and fought with the Orange Order against the Fenians. While US authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms, there is speculation that some in the US government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at actions that could have been construed as British assistance to the Confederate States during the American Civil War. There were all of them ended in failure. Led by John O'Mahony, this Fenian raid occurred at Campobello Island, New Brunswick. A Fenian Brotherhood war party of over 700 members arrived at the Maine shore opposite the island intending to seize Campobello from the British.
British commander Charles Hastings Doyle, stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia responded decisively. On 17 April 1866 he left Halifax with Royal Navy warships carrying over 700 British regulars and proceeded to Passamaquoddy Bay, where the Fenian force was concentrated; this show of British might discouraged the Fenians, they dispersed. The invasion reinforced the idea of protection for New Brunswick by joining with the British North American colonies of Nova Scotia, the United Province of Canada Upper Canada and Lower Canada, to form the Dominion of Canada. After the Campobello raid, the "Presidential faction" led by Fenian founders James Stephens and John O'Mahony focused more on fundraising for rebels in Ireland; the more militant "Senate Faction" led by William R. Roberts believed that a marginally successful invasion of the Province of Canada or other parts of British North America would provide them with leverage in their efforts. After the failure of the April attempt to raid New Brunswick, blessed by O'Mahony, the Senate Faction implemented their own plan for invading Canada.
Drafted by the senate "Secretary for War" General T. W. Sweeny, a distinguished former Union Army officer, the plan called for multiple invasions at points in Canada West and Canada East intended to cut Canada West off from Canada East and possible British reinforcements from there. Key to the plan was a diversionary attack at Fort Erie from Buffalo, New York, meant to draw troops away from Toronto in a feigned strike at the nearby Welland Canal system; this would be the only Fenian attack, other than the Quebec raid several days that would be launched in June 1866. 1000 to 1300 Fenians crossed the Niagara River in the first 14 hours of June 1 under Colonel John O'Neill. Sabotaged by Fenians in its crew, the U. S. Navy's side-wheel gunboat USS Michigan did not begin intercepting Fenian reinforcements until 2:15 p.m. — 14 hours after Owen Starr's advance party had crossed the river ahead of O'Neill's main force. Once the USS Michigan was deployed, O'Neill's force in the Niagara Region was cut off from further supplies and reinforcements.
After assembling with other units from Canada and travelling all night, Canadian troops advanced into a well-laid ambush by 600–700 Fenians the next morning north of Ridgeway, a small hamlet west of Fort Erie. The Canadian militia at the Battle of Ridgeway consisted of inexperienced volunteers with no more than basic drill training but armed with Enfield rifled muskets equal to the armaments of the Fenians. A single company of the Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto had been armed the day before on their ferry crossing from Toronto with state-of-the-art seven-shot Spencer repeating rifles, but had not had an opportunity to practise with them and were issued with only 28 rounds per man; the Fenians were battle-hardened American Civil War veterans, armed with weapons procured from leftover war supplies, either Enfield rifled muskets or the comparable Springfield. The opposing forces exchanged volleys for about two hours, before a series of command errors threw the Canadians into confusion; the Fenians took advantage of it by launching a bayonet charge that broke the inexperienced Canadian ranks.
Seven Canadians were killed on the battlefield, two died shortly afterwards from wounds, four would die of wounds or disease while on service. Two Fenians were sixteen wounded. After the battle, the Canadians retreated to Port Colborne, at the Lake Erie end of the Welland Canal; the Fenians rested at Ridgeway, before returning to Fort Erie. Another encounter, the Battle of Fort Erie, followed that saw several Canadians wounded and the surrender of a large group of local Canadian militia who had moved into the Fenian rear. After considering the inability of reinforcements to cross the river and the approach of large numbers of both militia and British regulars, the remaining Fenians released the Canadian prisoners and returned to Buffalo early in the morning of June 3, they were surrendered to the American navy. The traditional historical narrative alleges that the turning point in the Battle of Ridgeway was when Fenian cavalry was erroneously reported and the Canadian militia ordered to form square, the standard tactic for infantry to repel cavalry.
When the mistake was recognized, an attempt was made to reform in column. In his 2011
A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the arm of service. In Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader, also the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the end of the 17th century, regiments in most European armies were permanent units, numbering about 1,000 men and under the command of a colonel. During the modern era, the word "regiment" – much like "corps" – may have two somewhat divergent meanings, which refer to two distinct roles: a front-line military formation. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. However, these non-regimental units tend to be short-lived. A regiment may be a variety of sizes: smaller than a standard battalion, e.g. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment. S. Infantry Regiment and Royal Regiment of Scotland; the French term régiment is considered to have entered military usage in Europe at the end of the 16th century, when armies evolved from collections of retinues who followed knights, to formally organised, permanent military forces.
At that time, regiments were named after their commanding colonels, disbanded at the end of the campaign or war. It was customary to name the regiment by its precedence in the line of battle, to recruit from specific places, called cantons; the oldest regiments which still exist, their dates of establishment, include the Spanish 9th Infantry Regiment “Soria”, Swedish Life Guards, the British Honourable Artillery Company and the King's Own Immemorial Regiment of Spain, first established in 1248 during the conquest of Seville by King Ferdinand the Saint. In the 17th century, brigades were formed as units combining infantry and artillery that were more effective than the older, single-arms regiments. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, each under the command of a colonel; when at full strength, an infantry regiment comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies.
In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment. A cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers. On campaign, these numbers were soon reduced by casualties and detachments and it was sometimes necessary to amalgamate regiments or to withdraw them to a depot while recruits were obtained and trained. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification. Prior to World War I, an infantry regiment in the French, German and other smaller armies would comprise four battalions, each with a full strength on mobilization of about 1,000 men; as far as possible, the separate battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized and campaign as a 4,000 strong linked group of sub-units. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up a single entity of up to 1,000 troopers. A notable exception to this practice was the British line infantry system where the two regular battalions constituting a regiment alternated between "home" and "foreign" service and came together as a single unit.
In the regimental system, each regiment is responsible for recruiting and administration. The regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a soldier's military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be administrative units or both; this is contrasted to the "continental system" adopted by many armies. In the continental system, the division is the functional army unit, its commander is the administrator of every aspect of the formation: his staff train and administer the soldiers and commanders of the division's subordinate units. Divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations: thus, in divisional administration, a battalion commanding officer is just another officer in a chain of command. Soldiers and officers are transferred out of divisions as required; some regiments recruited from specific geographical areas, incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from a given age group within a nation, an ethnic group, or foreigners.
In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army.
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia. The French military founded the Fortress of Louisbourg in 1713 and its fortified seaport on the southwest part of the harbour, naming it in honour of Louis XIV; the harbour had been used by European mariners since at least the 1590s, when it was known as English Port and Havre à l'Anglois. The French settlement that dated from 1713 was much altered after its final capture in 1758, its fortifications were demolished in 1760 and the town-site abandoned by British forces in 1768. A small civilian population continued to live there after the military left. English settlers subsequently built a small fishing village across the harbour from the abandoned site of the fortress; the village grew with additional Loyalists settlers in the 1780s. The harbour grew more accessible with the construction of the second Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1842 on the site of the original French lighthouse destroyed in 1758.
A railway first reached Louisbourg in 1877, but it was poorly built and abandoned after a forest fire. However the arrival of Sydney and Louisburg Railway in 1894 brought heavy volumes of winter coal exports to Louisbourg Harbour's ice-free waters as a winter coal port; the harbour was used by the Canadian government ship Montmagny in 1912 to land bodies from the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Incorporated in 1901, the Town of Louisbourg was disincorporated when all municipal units in Cape Breton County were merged into a single tier regional municipality in 1995. Pronounced "Lewisburg" by its English-speaking population, the present community has been identified by different spellings over the years by both locals and visitors; the town was spelled Louisburg and several companies, including the Sydney and Louisburg Railway adopted this spelling. On 6 April 1966, the Nova Scotia House of Assembly passed "An Act to Change the Name of the Town of Louisburg" which resulted in the town changing its official name to the original French spelling Louisbourg.
Louisbourg's economy is dominated by the seasonal tourism seafood processing. The depletion of ground fish stocks has negatively affected local fish processing operations in recent decades. In the 1960s, Parks Canada completed a partial reconstruction of the Fortress of Louisbourg. Today this National Historic Site of Canada is the town's dominant economic engine, employing many residents and attracting thousands of tourists every year; the fortress holds large scale Historical reenactments every few years to mark important historical events and attract visitors to the town. The most recent in July 2008, commemorated the 250th anniversary of the first British siege victory over French forces in July 1758; the town's more recent history is preserved at the Sydney and Louisburg Railway Museum located in the restored railway station in the centre of town. Annually, the community hosts the Louisbourg Crab Fest. A large golf course and residential resort is planned near the community. Louisbourg is home to the Louisbourg Playhouse, a theatre company operating in an Elizabethan theatre, used as a prop in the live action 1994 Disney film Squanto: A Warrior's Tale.
Louisbourg experiences. The highest temperature recorded in Louisbourg was 34.0 °C on 2 September 2010 and 15 July 2013. The coldest temperature recorded was −26.0 °C on 18 January 1982. Louisbourg was mentioned in Nathaniel Hawthorne's story Feathertop; the town is a major setting for Thomas H. Raddall's 1946 novel Roger Sudden; the town "Louisburg" is mentioned in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Evangeline. The 2011 film Take This Waltz begins with a re-enactment scene from the fortress and features the lighthouse in several shots. Fortress of Louisbourg Royal eponyms in Canada Places Names of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, p. 375 Johnston, A. J. B.. Louisbourg: Past, Future. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-771080-52-1. Jedidiah Morse. "Louisbourg". The American Gazetteer. Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, Thomas & Andrews. "Louisburg". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Louisburg". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Operation Medusa was a Canadian-led offensive during the second Battle of Panjwaii of the war in Afghanistan. The operation was fought by the 1st Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment Battle Group and other elements of the International Security Assistance Force, supported by the Afghan National Army and a team from the United States Army's 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group augmented by A Company, 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment of the 10th Mountain Division, its goal was to establish government control over an area of Kandahar Province centered in the district of Panjwayi some 30 kilometres west of Kandahar city. A tactical victory, it resulted in the deaths of 12 Canadian soldiers. Fourteen British military personnel were killed when their plane crashed. Despite suffering a brutal battlefield defeat, the Taliban retained their presence in Kandahar province and did not lose their will to fight, leading to the subsequent Operation Falcon Summit. Nonetheless, Operation Medusa was at the time the most significant land battle undertaken by NATO.
This area is characterized by numerous small farming villages in the valley of the Arghandab River southwest of Kandahar City. NATO forces believed it to be a Taliban stronghold, it was assaulted in the Battle of Panjwaii during the summer of 2006, but Taliban forces re-asserted their presence after the operation ended. Operation Medusa involved most of the Canadian Forces' combat troops in Afghanistan, which provided the bulk of the force there, including troops from 1st Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment Battle Group as well various company-sized formations from the US Army. Dutch and Danish soldiers were involved–albeit peripherally, as well as hundreds of Afghan soldiers; the Dutch PzH 2000 howitzer was positioned with the Canadian M777 Howitzers of Echo Battery and made its combat debut with the Dutch Army as fire support. NATO said on September 3, 2006 that the previous day, Afghan and NATO forces killed more than 200 suspected Taliban fighters in a major operation in southern Afghanistan.
Four Canadian soldiers were killed and nine others were wounded in the fighting. A further statement from the alliance said: Reports indicate that more than 200 Taliban fighters have been killed since Operation Medusa began early morning on September 2, 2006; this figure was arrived at by reviewing information from ISAF surveillance and reconnaissance assets operating in Panjwaye and Zhari districts, as well as information reported by various Afghan officials and citizens living nearby, More than 80 suspected Taliban fighters were captured by Afghan police and a further 180 insurgents were seen fleeing the district, the statement said. The air-offensive commenced on September 2 while ground forces positioned themselves in a pincer and south of the Panjwayi District; the air attacks led to the killing, in the first two days, of around 200 Taliban fighters and the arrest of another 80. While supporting the operation a British Nimrod MR2 reconnaissance aircraft crashed, killing all 14 on board.
This represented the largest single fatal incident involving British troops in Afghanistan. The UK Ministry of Defence believed. Stronger than expected resistance was put up by the Taliban forces, whom NATO expected to retreat. Instead, they prepared for the decisive engagement, deciding to take advantage of the defensively advantageous ground of the district, laid traps for the coming NATO troops; the NATO troops' objective was to capture a grouping of villages known as Pashmul, the site of repeated battles throughout the summer of 2006 and where several Canadian soldiers were killed on August 3. An odd decision made at RC changed the tone of the battle. Charles Company of the 1 RCR Battle Group was positioned for a feint in the south while the bombing went on. Three days ahead of schedule C Company was ordered to cross the Arghandab River and move into Pashmul. Enemy resistance was severe. Several Canadian vehicles were lost and four Canadian soldiers were killed and nine were wounded in the intense fighting.
Explosions echoed across grape and pomegranate fields and clouds of dust rose amid the greenery and dried-mud houses of the Panjwayi district, about 12 miles from Kandahar city. After Operation Medusa started, authorities in Kandahar warned people not to travel off the main highway in the province, which leads into Panjwayi; the road was blocked by soldiers -- not far from. Some military Humvees were parked nearby. Observers reported. On September 4 there was a friendly fire incident. U. S. warplanes mistakenly strafed Charles Company, as they were preparing to once again attack Pashmul. The A-10 killed one soldier and wounded at least 30, five of whom were wounded, including all the leadership. NATO said the incident happened after ground troops battling Taliban militants requested air support. NATO said in a statement, "Two USAF aircraft provided the support but regrettably engaged friendly forces during a strafing run, using cannons." NATO identified the planes as US A-10 Thunderbolt II. The incident rendered C Company combat ineffective.
Emphasis was switched from the southern flank of Panjwayi to the north. As forces reoriented themselves the Canadian and Dutch artillery as well as NATO air power resumed their attacks. Canadian and Dutch artillery
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor