Paul Mellon was an American philanthropist and an owner/breeder of thoroughbred racehorses. He is one of five people ever designated an Exemplar of Racing by the National Museum of Racing. He was co-heir to one of Americas greatest business fortunes, derived from the Mellon Bank created by his grandfather Thomas Mellon, his father Andrew W. Mellon, Mellons autobiography, Reflections in a Silver Spoon, was published in 1992. He died at his home, Oak Spring, in Upperville, Virginia and he was survived by his wife, his children, Catherine Conover and Timothy Mellon, and two stepchildren, Stacy Lloyd III and Eliza, Viscountess Moore. Paul Mellon was the son of Andrew W. Mellon, US Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 to 1932, and Nora McMullen of Hertfordshire and brother of Ailsa Mellon-Bruce. He was a benefactor of his alma maters, donating the Mellon Arts Center and the Mellon Science Center to Choate. After graduating from Yale he went to England to study at Clare College, receiving a BA in 1931, in 1930 he was a founding member, alongside Sir Timothy William Gowers, of the CRABS, the Clare Rugby And Boating Society.
In 1938 he received an MA from Clare College and he was a major benefactor to Clare Colleges Forbes-Mellon library, opened in 1986. Mellon returned to Pittsburgh, to work for Mellon Bank and other businesses for six months, in 1935, he married Mary Conover Brown and the couple, who had two children and Timothy, moved to Virginia. He enrolled at St. Johns College in Annapolis, Maryland in 1940 but six months joined the United States Army, Mellon served with the Office of Strategic Services in Europe. He rose to the rank of major and was the recipient of four Bronze Stars, after his wife Marys death in 1946 from an asthma attack, he married Rachel Lambert Lloyd, known as Bunny, the former wife of Stacy Barcroft Lloyd Jr. She was a descendant of the Lambert family who formulated and marketed Listerine, Bunny Mellon was an avid horticulturist and gardener, whose fondness for French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painting, as well as American art, Mellon came to share. By this marriage, he had two stepchildren, Stacy Lloyd III and Eliza Lambert Lloyd, while Mellon did not share his fathers interest in business, the two found common ground in their love of art and philanthropy.
Shortly before Andrew Mellons death in 1937, construction began on the West Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, four years Paul Mellon presented both the building by John Russell Pope and his fathers collection of 115 paintings to the nation. He served on the board for more than four decades, as trustee, as president, as board chair. Mellon commissioned I. M. Pei to build the East Building and, with his sister Ailsa, over the years he and his wife Bunny donated more than 1,000 works to the National Gallery, among them many French and American masterworks. In 1936 Mellon purchased his first British painting, Pumpkin with a Stable-lad by George Stubbs, beginning in the late 1950s, with the help of English art historian Basil Taylor, Mellon amassed a major collection by the mid-1960s. London art dealer Geoffrey Agnew once said of his acquisitions, “It took an American collector to make the English look again at their own paintings. ”Mellon granted his extensive collection of British art, rare books, and related materials to Yale University in the 1960s, along with the funding to create an appropriate museum to house it
Significant historical documents can be deeds, accounts of battles, or the exploits of the powerful. Though these documents are of historical interest, they do not detail the lives of ordinary people. It is this information allows them to try to understand. Greek ostraka provide good examples of documents from among the common people. Many documents that are produced today, such as letters, contracts, newspapers. However most of these will be lost in the future since they are printed on ordinary paper which has a limited lifespan, or even stored in digital formats. Diplomatics Internet History Sourcebooks Project See Internet History Sourcebooks Project, collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly for educational use
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Joseph John Campbell was an American mythologist and lecturer, best known for his work in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work covers many aspects of the human experience, Campbells magnum opus is his book titled The Hero with a Thousand Faces in which he discusses his theory of the journey of the archetypal hero found in world mythologies. Since publication of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbells theory has been applied by a wide variety of modern writers. His philosophy has been summarized by his own often repeated phrase, Joseph Campbell was born in White Plains, New York, the son of Josephine and Charles William Campbell. He was from an upper-middle-class Irish Catholic family, during his childhood, he moved with his family to nearby New Rochelle, New York. In 1919 a fire destroyed the home in New Rochelle. In 1921 Campbell graduated from the Canterbury School in New Milford, while at Dartmouth College he studied biology and mathematics, but decided that he preferred the humanities.
He transferred to Columbia University, where he received a BA in English literature in 1925, at Dartmouth he had joined Delta Tau Delta. An accomplished athlete, he received awards in track and field events, in 1924 Campbell traveled to Europe with his family. In 1927 Campbell received a fellowship from Columbia University to study in Europe, Campbell studied Old French, Provençal and Sanskrit at the University of Paris in France and the University of Munich in Germany. He learned to read and speak French and German, on his return to Columbia University in 1929, Campbell expressed a desire to pursue the study of Sanskrit and Modern Art in addition to Medieval literature. Lacking faculty approval, Campbell withdrew from graduate studies, in life he said while laughing but not in jest that it is a sign of incompetence to have a PhD in the liberal arts, the discipline covering his work. With the arrival of the Great Depression a few later, Campbell spent the next five years living in a rented shack on some land in Woodstock.
There, he contemplated the next course of his life engaged in intensive. He said that he would divide the day into four four-hour periods, I would get nine hours of sheer reading done a day. And this went on for five years straight, Campbell traveled to California for a year, continuing his independent studies and becoming close friends with the budding writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol. On the Monterey Peninsula, like John Steinbeck, fell under the spell of marine biologist Ed Ricketts, Campbell began writing a novel centered on Ricketts as a hero but, unlike Steinbeck, did not complete his book. Bruce Robison writes that Campbell would refer to days as a time when everything in his life was taking shape
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Ingram Content Group
Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl. It was named Publisher of the Year in 2007 by Publishers Weekly magazine for its role in taking on publishers formerly distributed by Publishers Group West, in April 2016, its publishing business was acquired by Hachette Book Group and its distribution business by Ingram Content Group. After the death of Frank Pearl, Perseus was sold to Centre Lane Partners, the Perseus Books Group currently has 12 imprints, Before Avalon Publishing Group was integrated into the Perseus Books Group, it published on 14 imprint presses. In 2007, some of these imprints were integrated into the Perseus Books Group, Perseus sold one of their imprints in the restructuring process. Publishers Group West, founded in 1976, based in Berkeley, consortium Book Sales and Distribution, founded in 1985, based in St. Paul, Minnesota. Perseus Distribution, founded in 1999, based in New York City, legato Publishers Group, founded in 2013, based in Chicago
The Hero with a Thousand Faces
The Hero with a Thousand Faces is a work of comparative mythology by American mythologist Joseph Campbell. In this book, Campbell discusses his theory of the journey of the hero found in world mythologies. Since publication of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbells theory has been applied by a wide variety of modern writers. The best known is perhaps George Lucas, who has acknowledged Campbells influence on the Star Wars films, in 2011, Time placed the book in its list of the 100 best and most influential books written in English since the magazine was founded in 1923. Campbell explores the theory that important myths from around the world which have survived for thousands of all share a fundamental structure. In laying out the monomyth, Campbell describes a number of stages or steps along this journey, the hero starts in the ordinary world, and receives a call to enter an unusual world of strange powers and events. If the hero accepts the call to enter this world, the hero must face tasks and trials.
At its most intense, the hero must survive a severe challenge, if the hero survives, the hero may achieve a great gift, which often results in the discovery of important self-knowledge. The hero must decide whether to return with this boon, if the hero is successful in returning, the boon or gift may be used to improve the world. These stages may be organized in a number of ways, including division into three sections, Departure and Return, the alleged similarities between these shared hero legends is one of the basic arguments of the Christ myth theory. While Campbell offers a discussion of the journey by using the Freudian concepts popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Similarly, Campbell uses a mixture of Jungian archetypes, unconscious forces, Campbell used the work of early 20th century theorists to develop his model of the hero, including Freud, Carl Jung, and Arnold Van Gennep. Campbell looked to the work of ethnographers James Frazer and Franz Boas, Campbell called this journey of the hero the monomyth.
Campbell was a scholar of James Joyce, and Campbell borrowed the term monomyth from Joyces Finnegans Wake. In addition, Joyces Ulysses was influential in the structuring of The Hero with a Thousand Faces. The book was published by the Bollingen Foundation through Pantheon Press as the seventeenth title in the Bollingen Series. This series was taken over by Princeton University Press, who published The Hero through 2006, originally issued in 1949 and revised by Campbell in 1968, The Hero with a Thousand Faces has been reprinted a number of times. Reprints issued after the release of Star Wars in 1977 used the image of Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker on the cover
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
Charles Scribner II
Charles Scribner II was the president of Charles Scribners Sons and a trustee at Skidmore College. He was born in New York City on October 18,1854 and he joined his fathers publishing company in 1875 after his Princeton graduation. When the other partners in the sold their stake to the family. In 1884, Scribners younger brother, Arthur Hawley Scribner, joined Charles Scribners Sons, the book publishing business was highly successful, and in 1886 Scribners Magazine was relaunched. It too was a great success, in 1889, Scribner was a founding member of the American Publishers Association. He was a trustee at Skidmore College and he died on April 19,1930. His summer house in Cornwall, New York, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Scribners brother-in-law, Ernest Flagg, was an architect and designed two Beaux-Arts buildings for the firms New York headquarters
The Daily Princetonian
The Daily Princetonian is the award-winning daily independent student newspaper of Princeton University. Founded in 1876 and daily since 1892, the Prince is among the oldest college newspapers in the country and its alumni have pursued careers in journalism at The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and have won the Pulitzer Prize. In addition to the print and online editions, the Prince publishes The Prox, a blog, Intersections. The Daily Princetonian, nicknamed the Prince, was the college newspaper in America to publish daily. The paper, founded in 1876 as a publication named The Princetonian. Produced by a staff of nearly 200 undergraduate students, the organization has a budget of more than $600,000. The Prince has a print circulation of 2,000. The Prince is fully independent from Princeton University and it is directed by a graduate board of trustees, consisting of former editors and business staffers. The paper supports itself financially and does not receive support from the university or from alumni donations.
The paper currently has an endowment of 1.3 million dollars, no staff member on the Prince is paid. The papers editorial staff consists entirely of Princeton students, Daily operations at the Prince are run by the Editor-in-Chief, who directs the editorial side of the paper, and the Business Manager, who directs the business and financial side. The Business Manager and the Editor-in-Chief report independently to the board of trustees, in order to prevent business. The Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager are chosen in December and appoint the remainder of their respective boards, the current Editor-in-chief is Sarah Sakha and the business manager is Matt McKinlay. Those boards take control of the newspaper with the beginning of the second semester, the editorial boards serve for two semesters. Typically, the Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager begin their service in the spring of their junior year and this staggered system was created in part to allow graduating seniors time to finish their senior theses.
The first woman elected editor of the Prince was Anne C. Mackay- Smith, Class of 1980, Judy E. Piper, the staff is grouped into several sections, including news, opinion, copy editing, design and web. In December 2006, Larry DuPraz, an employee of the newspaper who directed its publication and guided its editors from 1946 to 1987. In 2012, the papers digitized archives was launched and named in his honor
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau was an American essayist, philosopher, naturalist, tax resister, development critic and historian. Thoreaus books, essays and poetry amount to more than 20 volumes and he was a lifelong abolitionist, delivering lectures that attacked the Fugitive Slave Law while praising the writings of Wendell Phillips and defending the abolitionist John Brown. Amos Bronson Alcott and Thoreaus aunt each wrote that Thoreau is pronounced like the word thorough, Edward Waldo Emerson wrote that the name should be pronounced Thó-row, with the h sounded and stress on the first syllable. Among modern-day American speakers, it is more commonly pronounced thə-ROH—/θəˈroʊ/—with stress on the second syllable. Thoreau was a man, with a nose that he called my most prominent feature. Of his appearance and disposition, Ellery Channing wrote, His face, once seen, Henry David Thoreau was born David Henry Thoreau in Concord, into the modest New England family of John Thoreau, a pencil maker, and Cynthia Dunbar.
His paternal grandfather was born in Jersey and his maternal grandfather, Asa Dunbar, led Harvards 1766 student Butter Rebellion, the first recorded student protest in the American colonies. David Henry was named after his recently deceased uncle, David Thoreau. He began to call himself Henry David after he finished college and he had two older siblings and John Jr. and a younger sister, Sophia. Thoreaus birthplace still exists on Virginia Road in Concord, the house has been restored by the Thoreau Farm Trust, a nonprofit organization, and is now open to the public. He studied at Harvard College between 1833 and 1837 and he lived in Hollis Hall and took courses in rhetoric, philosophy and science. He was a member of the Institute of 1770, according to legend, Thoreau refused to pay the five-dollar fee for a Harvard diploma. He commented, Let every sheep keep its own skin, a reference to the tradition of using sheepskin vellum for diplomas, after he graduated in 1837, he joined the faculty of the Concord public school, but he resigned after a few weeks rather than administer corporal punishment.
He and his brother John opened the Concord Academy, a school in Concord in 1838. They introduced several concepts, including nature walks and visits to local shops. The school closed when John became fatally ill from tetanus in 1842 after cutting himself while shaving, upon graduation Thoreau returned home to Concord, where he met Ralph Waldo Emerson through a mutual friend. Emerson urged Thoreau to contribute essays and poems to a periodical, The Dial. Thoreaus first essay published in The Dial was Aulus Persius Flaccus and it consisted of revised passages from his journal, which he had begun keeping at Emersons suggestion