Prithvi Narayan Shah

Maharajadhiraja Prithivi Narayan Shah was the last ruler of the Gorkha Kingdom and first monarch of Kingdom of Nepal in the Indian subcontinent. He claimed to be a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India. Prithvi Narayan Shah is credited for starting the campaign for the unification of Nepal. Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah self proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan due to North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers, whom he referred to as foreigners; the self proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmaśāstra over his reign and refer to his country as being inhabitable for Hindus. The Gorkha dynasty was established by Khas king Dravya Shah where the king Rama Shah gained great popularity. After them, Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah and Prithvipati Shah ruled over the state of Gorkha in succession. King Prithvipati Shah had gained a good reputation as an able King as he maintained good relations with the neighboring state kings with the King of Lalitpur.

He had maintained a friendly relationship with Nripendra Malla, the King of the state named "Kantipur". Prithvipati had many sons among which the eldest son Birbhadra Shah had established himself as the heir-apparent and the prince, but on, the relationship started to worsen between Prithvipati Shah and Birbhadra Shah. The latter died on his way back to the capital of Gorkha after staying a while in the state of Bhaktapur. Prithvipati Shah's grandson and the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nara Bhupal Shah was born of Mallikavati. Nara Bhupal Shah married the princess of Khaachi state, Chandra Pravawati at around B. S. 1772. About a year he ascended to the throne of Gorkha after which he married Kausalyavati Devi, the daughter of Gundharva Sen, the King of Palpa. No children were born of Nara Bhupal Shah from either queen which prompted him to marry two royal princesses and Subhadramati, yet on, from Queen Kausalyavati Devi a child was born on the date B. S. 1779. The child was named Prithivi Narayan Shah.

His complete care was taken by the eldest of Chandra Pravawati. Prince Prithivi Narayan Shah showed his greatness from a early age, his education began at the age of five through the appropriate ceremony. At that time, the responsibility to educate him was given to Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal, They were the Upadhyayas who worked in the palace as Astrologers, where they were known as Jyotish or Jaisi. Though his primary education was provided by the Gurus, the duty of developing his character was taken by the Queen Chandra Pravawati, it is said that seeing the Prince of neighboring states Tanahun and Kaski being indulged in excess pleasure, Chandra Pravawati kept Prithivi Narayan Shah away from pleasurable and wrong pursuits. That is; the result of which, from young age virtuous qualities such as courage and positive character developed in him. From a young age, he took interest in the affairs of his father's state and soon began to take on these responsibilities. Prithivi Narayan Shah had an early dream of conquering Nuwakot as his father had lost it to the Mallas of Kathmandu in an earlier war.

After the death of his father in 1743 AD, Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20. As king, he enjoyed talking to his subjects about their general concerns; this practice helped him to build a rapport with his people and helped him to understand the requirements of the citizens of Gorkha. King Shah sealed his borders and maintained a peaceful environment except for distant relations with the British, who were refusing to trade with Nepal at the time. Before Prithivi Narayan Shah's unification movement, there were a total of 54 states in Nepal. In the South-Eastern Terai, there were three Sen states: Makawanpur and Chaudandi. In the West, from Gorkha to Gandaki Province, there were 24 states. In the province of Karnali, there were 22 states with Kalyan, Samaal and Chand dynasties. Along with Gorkha and Mustang, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur made up the remaining five states; when Prithivi Narayan Shah had ascended to the throne of Gorkha in the year 1743 A. D, it was yet a small state.

He started to contemplate on the methods to turn Gorkha into a huge and strong state. He went to Varanasi to gain first-hand knowledge about the neighboring states and about India to the south. During those days, Varanasi was one of the large trade centers of India where people from different places gathered, he met with different types of people and gained valuable understandings regarding the Political and Social condition of the Indian Sub-Continent. In Varanasi, his father-in-law Abhiman Singh, a Rajput Chief, procured for him some firearms and a quantity of ammunition, his first attempt at invasion of Nuwakot in 1743 CE failed and his reign began with an immediate military defeat. Conquering Nuwakot was essential for the unification, as it lay between Kathmandu and the Gorkha District, making it a vital trading route to Tibet. On his return to Gorkha from Varanasi, Prithivi Narayan Shah first took steps to defeat Nuwakot in the diplomatic field, he entered into friendly alliance with the chiefs of Lamjung and Palpa.

This done, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent an army against Nuwakot from three directions. The Chief of Nuwakot knowing that Gorkha is going to attack them in near future had gone to take help from Jaya Prakash Malla, the king of Kantipur, thus his son Jayant Rana commanded the Nuwakot army representing his father. The Nuwakot army

Hallo Spaceboy

"Hallo Spaceboy" is a song by David Bowie from his 1995 album Outside. The track was re-recorded the following year, issued as a remix featuring Pet Shop Boys as guest artists. Bowie and Brian Eno co-wrote the original album version of the song. Bowie wrote the song in mostly-improvised sessions with his band in 1995, intentionally wrote it with a Nine Inch Nails-like vibe. Of the track, Bowie said "I adore that track. In my mind, it was; when I heard it back, I thought,'Fuck me. It's like metal Doors.' It's an extraordinary sound." The commercial version of the single featured a remix by Pet Shop Boys as the lead track, not the original album version. In contrast to the original, the single remix was disco-oriented and featured additional lyrics sung by Neil Tennant; the introduction was sampled from the opener to Outside, "Leon Takes Us Outside". Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe of the Pet Shop Boys commented on this remix to journalist Mark Beaumont, writing for the NME, in February 2017. Tennant remarked that they regarded being asked by Bowie to work on the single as a "career high-point" for them.

Tennant explained that since the original song had only a single verse, Lowe suggested using lyrical fragments from Bowie's 1969 song "Space Oddity" to create a second verse. Bowie expressed reservation about the additions when Tennant told him during a telephone conversation, but agreed that they worked well. Tennant told Beaumont that he and Lowe, working alongside Bowie, had completed what Tennant called the "Major Tom trilogy", in reference to a fictional character who first appeared in Space Oddity and who had recurred in Bowie's 1980 song "Ashes to Ashes". Tennant explained: I said to David Bowie, "It's like Major Tom is in one of those Russian spaceships they can’t afford to bring down," and he said, "Oh wow, is that where he is?"Bowie and Lowe performed a live version of the remixed song at the Brit Awards in February 1996. The 12" Remix surfaced on Pet Shop Boys' remix collection Disco 4, released by EMI in October 2007; the three remixes by Dave Ball and Ingo Vauk are based on the Pet Shop Boys Remix, but only Double Click Mix uses Neil Tennant's vocals.

Instrumental is an instrumental version of Double Click Mix. Except the single mix, all remixes were released only on promo 12" singles. In 2004 they were included on the bonus disc of the re-released Outside album. All tracks by Bowie/Eno. "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "Under Pressure" – 4:07released in a card sleeve "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "Under Pressure" – 4:07 "Moonage Daydream" – 5:25 "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" – 4:56 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "Under Pressure" – 4:07 "Moonage Daydream" – 5:25 "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" – 4:56 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "Under Pressure" – 4:07 "Moonage Daydream" – 5:25 "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" – 4:56 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" – 3:33 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 6:34 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 7:47 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 7:41 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 6:29 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 6:45 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 4:25 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 7:47 "Hallo Spaceboy" – 6:29US promo Producers: David Bowie Brian Eno David Richards Musicians: David Bowie: lead and backing vocals, saxophone Brian Eno: synthesizers, drum machine Reeves Gabrels: rhythm guitar Carlos Alomar: lead guitar Erdal Kızılçay: bass Mike Garson: piano Sterling Campbell: drums Musicians: David Bowie: lead and backing vocals Neil Tennant: lead and backing vocals Chris Lowe: synthesizers, programming Bowie performed the song with Pet Shop Boys at the 1996 Brit Awards.

In the autumn 1995, Bowie performed this song together with Nine Inch Nails. A version recorded in 1996 at the Phoenix Festival in England was released on the various artist compilation Phoenix Festival in 1997 and on the live album in 2000. At Bowie's 50th Birthday Bash in New York January 1997, the song was performed together with Foo Fighters; this version featured Zachary Alford, William Goldsmith and Dave Grohl on three different drum sets and Nate Mendel and Gail Ann Dorsey on two bass guitars. Bowie's 25 June 2000 performance of the song at the Glastonbury Festival was released in 2018 on Glastonbury 2000. Bowie performed the song live at BBC Radio Theatre, London, on 27 June 2000, a recording of this performance was included on the bonus disc accompanying the first releases of Bowie at the Beeb in 2000. A November 2003 live performance from the A Reality Tour is included on the A Reality Tour DVD, released in 2004, as well as the A Reality Tour album, released in 2010.

Bowie performed the song live on Jools Holland's'Later' in December 1995.<> The Pet Shop Boys remix was released as an additional track on Outside – version 2 and is included on some editions of the compilation albums Best of Bowie, Nothing Has Changed, Bowie Legacy. Several of the remixes were released on the 2004 limited 2CD edition of Outside

Ames test

The Ames test is a employed method that uses bacteria to test whether a given chemical can cause mutations in the DNA of the test organism. More formally, it is a biological assay to assess the mutagenic potential of chemical compounds. A positive test indicates that the chemical is mutagenic and therefore may act as a carcinogen, because cancer is linked to mutation; the test serves as a quick and convenient assay to estimate the carcinogenic potential of a compound because standard carcinogen assays on mice and rats are time-consuming and expensive. However, false-positives and false-negatives are known; the procedure was described in a series of papers in the early 1970s by Bruce Ames and his group at the University of California, Berkeley. The Ames test uses several strains of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium that carry mutations in genes involved in histidine synthesis; these strains are auxotrophic mutants, i.e. they require histidine for growth, but cannot produce it. The method tests the capability of the tested substance in creating mutations that result in a return to a "prototrophic" state, so that the cells can grow on a histidine-free medium.

The tester strains are specially constructed to detect either frameshift or point mutations in the genes required to synthesize histidine, so that mutagens acting via different mechanisms may be identified. Some compounds are quite specific, causing reversions in two strains; the tester strains carry mutations in the genes responsible for lipopolysaccharide synthesis, making the cell wall of the bacteria more permeable, in the excision repair system to make the test more sensitive. Larger organisms like mammals have metabolic processes that could turn a chemical considered not mutagenic into one, or one, considered mutagenic into one, not. Therefore, to more test a chemical compound's mutagenicity in relation to larger organisms, rat liver enzymes can be added in an attempt to replicate the metabolic processes' effect on the compound being tested in the Ames Test. Rat liver extract is optionally added to simulate the effect of metabolism, as some compounds, like benzopyrene, are not mutagenic themselves but their metabolic products are.

The bacteria are spread on an agar plate with small amount of histidine. This small amount of histidine in the growth medium allows the bacteria to grow for an initial time and have the opportunity to mutate; when the histidine is depleted only bacteria that have mutated to gain the ability to produce its own histidine will survive. The plate is incubated for 48 hours; the mutagenicity of a substance is proportional to the number of colonies observed. Mutagens identified via Ames test are possible carcinogens, early studies by Ames showed that 90% of known carcinogens may be identified via this test. Studies however showed identification of 50–70% of known carcinogens; the test was used to identify a number of compounds used in commercial products as potential carcinogens. Examples include trisphosphate, used as a flame retardant in plastic and textiles such as children's sleepwear, furylfuramide, used as an antibacterial additive in food in Japan in 1960s and 1970s. Furylfuramide in fact had passed animal test, but more vigorous tests after its identification in the Ames test showed it to be carcinogenic.

Their positive tests resulted in those chemicals being withdrawn from use in consumer products. One interesting result from the Ames test is that the dose response curve using varying concentrations of chemical is always linear, indicating that there is no threshold concentration for mutagenesis, it therefore suggests that, as with radiations, there may be no safe threshold for chemical mutagens or carcinogens. However some proposed that organisms can tolerate low level of mutagens due to protective mechanisms such as DNA repair, threshold may exist for certain chemical mutagens. Bruce Ames himself argued against linear dose-response extrapolation from the high dose used in carcinogenesis tests in animal systems to the lower dose of chemicals encountered in human exposure, as the results may be false positives due to mitogenic response caused by the artificially high dose of chemicals used in such tests, he cautioned against the "hysteria over tiny traces of chemicals that may or may not cause cancer", that "completely drives out the major risks you should be aware of".

The Ames test is used as one of the initial screens for potential drugs to weed out possible carcinogens, it is one of the eight tests required under the Pesticide Act and one of six tests required under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Salmonella typhimurium is a prokaryote, therefore it is not a perfect model for humans. Rat liver S9 fraction is used to mimic the mammalian metabolic conditions so that the mutagenic potential of metabolites formed by a parent molecule in the hepatic system can be assessed; the test may therefore be improved by the use of human liver S9 fraction. An adapted in vitro model has been made for example yeast. Mutagens identified in the Ames test need not be carcinogenic, further tests are required for any potential carcinogen identified in the test. Drugs that contain the nitrate moiety sometimes come back positive for Ames when they are indeed safe; the nitrate compounds may generate nitric oxide, an important