The AgustaWestland AW109 is a lightweight, twin-engine, eight-seat multi-purpose helicopter built by the Italian manufacturer Leonardo. The rotorcraft had the distinction of being the first all-Italian helicopter to be mass-produced, developed as the A109 by Agusta, it originally entered service in 1976 and has since been used in various roles, including light transport, search-and-rescue, and military roles. The AW109 has been in production for 40 years. The AgustaWestland AW119 is a derivative of the AW109, the difference being that it is powered only by a single engine instead. In the late 1960s, Agusta designed the A109 originally as a commercial helicopter. However, it was realised that a twin-engine design was needed. A projected military version was considered early on but Agusta initially chose not to pursue immediate development, the first of three prototypes made its maiden flight on 4 August 1971. On 1 June 1975, certification for visual flight rules upon the A109 was received from the Federal Aviation Administration, in 1976, deliveries of production A109 to customers began.
Advantages over the then-market leading Bell 206 were the A109s superior speed, twin-engine redundancy, two military versions emerged from this program, one was intended for light attack/close support missions and the other for shipboard operations. Improved civil versions quickly followed on from the production model, in 1981. According to AgustaWestland, the A109 Power was in service in 46 countries by 2008, in 2006, an enlarged variant, the A109S Grand, was introduced. The Agusta A109 was renamed the AW109 following the July 2000 merger of Finmeccanica S. p. A. and GKN plcs respective helicopter subsidiaries Agusta, since the mid-1990s, fuselages for the AW109 have been manufactured by PZL-Świdnik, which became a subsidiary company of AgustaWestland in 2010. In June 2006, the 500th fuselage was delivered by PZL-Świdnik, in February 2014, AgustaWestland revealed that it was developing the AW109 Trekker, an updated variant of the AW109. The Trekker reportedly advances upon the standard AW109s utility capabilities, as per prior AW109 versions, the final assembly of the Trekker is undertaken at sites in both the US and Italy.
The AW109 is a lightweight helicopter, known for its speed, elegant appearance. Since entering commercial service, several revisions and iterations have been made, frequently introducing new avionics, AgustaWestland have promoted the type for its multirole capabilities and serviceability. The type has proven popular with VIP/corporate customers, according to AgustaWestland. Other roles for the AW109 have included emergency medical services, law enforcement, homeland security missions, harbor pilot shuttle duty and rescue, maritime operations, in 2008, AgustaWestland claimed the AW109 to be one of the industry’s best-selling helicopters
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a cover over the nose and mouth. Some gas masks are respirators, though the gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment. The user of the gas mask is not protected from gas that the skin can absorb, most gas mask filters will last around 24 hours in a nuclear biological chemical situation. Airborne toxic materials may be gaseous or particulates, many gas masks include protection from both types. During demonstrations and protests where tear gas or CS-gas is employed by police, gas masks are commonly used by police. Aside from serving their functional purposes, gas masks are used as emblems in industrial music, with the most notable example. Later, the discovery of polycarbonate allowed for gas masks with a large full-face window, some have one or two filters attached to the face mask while others have a large filter connected to the face mask with a hose, that is sometimes confused with respirators.
Absorption is the process of being drawn into a body or substrate and this can be used to remove both particulate and gaseous hazards. Although some form of reaction may take place, it is not necessary, for example, if the target particles are positively charged, a negatively charged substrate may be used. Examples of substrates include activated carbon, and zeolites and this effect can be very simple and highly effective, for example using a damp cloth to cover the mouth and nose while escaping a fire. While this method can be effective at trapping particulates produced by combustion, gas masks have a limited useful lifespan that is related to the absorbent capacity of the filter. Once the filter has been saturated with hazardous chemicals, it ceases to provide protection, World War II gas masks contained blue asbestos in their filters. It is unknown how long for certain the material was used in filters, breathing blue asbestos in the factories resulted in the death of 10% of the workforce due to pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma.
This rate was between 2.5 and 3.2 times the incidence of lung or respiratory cancers. Many scare stories have originated from various Russian gas masks and their filters that are now common in surplus stores, in October 2013, an asbestos lab in Salt Lake City found out that the particle filter is made of 7. 5% asbestos. The filter is made so that the asbestos fibres cannot be breathed in, nearly all Russian Cold War period masks contain asbestos. Modern gas masks are quite safe and do not use asbestos, masks using 40 mm connections are a more recent design
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017 the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained Regular, or full-time and just over 26,500 trained Reserve, or part-time personnel. Therefore, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, day to day the Army comes under administration of the Ministry of Defence and is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the leading military. In 1660 the English and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II, Charles favoured the foundation of a new army under royal control and began work towards its establishment by August 1660. The Royal Scots Army and the Irish Army were financed by the Parliament of Scotland, the order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army.
At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, after William and Marys accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Marys father, James II. Spain, in the two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to Englands early transatlantic ambitions. The territorial ambitions of the French, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. From the time of the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, Great Britain was the naval power. As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought the Kingdoms of Spain and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War, the British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada. The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars and served in campaigns across Europe.
The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies under the Duke of Wellington, the English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War, the English Army stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution, the British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster in the 1798 rebellion. The Haldane Reforms of 1907 formally created the Territorial Force as the Armys volunteer reserve component by merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Great Britains dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, in the 20th century, most notably Germany
USCGC Eagle (WIX-327)
USCGC Eagle (WIX-327 is a 295-foot barque used as a training cutter for future officers of the United States Coast Guard. She is the only active commissioned sailing vessel in American military service and she is the seventh Coast Guard cutter to bear the name in a line dating back to 1792, including the Revenue Cutter Eagle, which famously fought the British man-of-war Dispatch during the War of 1812. Each summer, Eagle deploys with cadets from the United States Coast Guard Academy, the primary mission is training the cadets and officer candidates, but the ship performs a public relations role for the Coast Guard and the United States. Often, Eagle makes calls at ports as a goodwill ambassador. The ship was built as the German sail training ship Horst Wessel in 1936, the vessel was given anti-aircraft armament and re-commissioned in 1942. At the end of the war, Horst Wessel was taken by the U. S. as war reparations, Eagle commenced its existence in Nazi Germany as Horst Wessel, a ship of the Gorch Fock class and designed by John Stanley.
Horst Wessel was an improvement on the original design and she was larger in dimension and her spars were all steel, unlike Gorch Focks wooden yards. SSS Horst Wessel began life as Schiff 508 at Blohm & Voss in Hamburg and her keel was laid on 15 February, she was launched on 13 June, completed on 16 September, and commissioned on 17 September. She was the ship in the class to be built. Rudolf Hess gave the speech at her launch in the presence of Adolf Hitler, the name was given in tribute to SA leader Horst Wessel, who had been accorded martyr status by the Nazi Party. He wrote the song came to be known as Horst-Wessel-Lied and used in the Nazi national anthem. Shortly after work began on Horst Wessel, the Blohm & Voss shipyard laid the keel of the German battleship Bismarck, SSS Horst Wessel served as the flagship of the Kriegsmarine sail training fleet, which consisted of Gorch Fock, Albert Leo Schlageter, and Horst Wessel. Horst Wessel was commanded by Captain August Thiele, a previous Captain of Gorch Fock, in the three years before World War II, she undertook numerous training cruises in the North Atlantic waters, sailing with trainee groups consisting of both future officers and future petty officers.
On 21 August 1938, Adolf Hitler visited the ship and sailed for approximately one hour before departing, that year, Horst Wessel and Albert Leo Schlageter undertook a four-month voyage to the Caribbean and visited St. Thomas and Venezuela. Along the way, they caught numerous sharks and turtles at sea, numerous weapons were installed throughout the decks, including two 20 mm anti-aircraft guns on the bridge wings, two on the foredeck, and two 20 mm Flakvierling quad mounts on the waist. From late 1942 through early 1945, she sailed on numerous training deployments in the Baltic sea with cadets fresh out of basic training, Horst Wessel took Albert Leo Schlageter in a stern tow to keep her from running aground until larger ships could arrive the next day to assist. In April 1945, after the last German cadet class had departed and she sailed to Flensburg where Captain Barthold Schnibbe surrendered to the British, and the ship ran up the Union Jack. Horst Wessel was ordered to Bremerhaven and tied to a temporary pier, at the end of World War II, the four German sailing vessels extant were distributed to various nations as war reparations
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English but listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries, is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. In a military context, materiel relates to the needs of a force to complete a specific mission. The term is often used in a general sense to describe the needs of a functioning army. It includes provisioning, requirements determination, distribution, the terms materiel management, materiel control, inventory control, inventory management, and supply management are synonymous. Military materiel is often shipped to and used in severe climates without controlled warehouses and labeling often needs to meet stringent technical specifications to help ensure proper delivery and final use. Matériel Inventory Military acquisition Military logistics Military supply chain management Supply chain Anti-materiel rifle The dictionary definition of materiel at Wiktionary
Daniel V. Gallery
Daniel Vincent Gallery was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. He saw extensive action during World War II, fighting U-Boats during the Battle of the Atlantic, after the war, Gallery was a prolific author of fiction and non-fiction. During the post-war military cutbacks, he wrote a series of articles criticizing the heavy reductions being made to the US Navy and these articles placed him at odds with the administration during the episode which became known as the Revolt of the Admirals. In 1917, at the age of 16, Gallery entered the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis and he graduated a year early, in 1920, and competed in the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp on the U. S. wrestling team. He had three brothers, all of whom had careers in the U. S. Navy. Two brothers, William O. Gallery and Philip D. Gallery, the fourth brother, John Ireland Gallery, was a Catholic priest and Navy chaplain. Their grandfather Daniel, born about 1839, emigrated to the U. S. from Ennistymon, Co Clare, Gallery was an early naval aviator.
He flew seaplanes, torpedo bombers and amphibians, in the late 1930s, he won at the National Air Races in a race-tuned Douglas TBD Devastator torpedo plane. In 1941, while the U. S. was still neutral, while in Britain, he earned his flight pay by ferrying Supermarine Spitfires from the factory to Royal Air Force aerodromes. He liked to claim that he was the only U. S. Navy aviator who flew Spitfires during the Battle of Britain, but they were unarmed. In 1942, Gallery took command of the Fleet Air Base in Reykjavík, Iceland and it was there that he conceived his plan to capture a U-boat. In 1943, Gallery was appointed commander of the escort carrier USS Guadalcanal, in January 1944, he commanded antisubmarine Task Group 21.12 out of Norfolk, with Guadalcanal as the flagship. TG21.12 sank the German submarine U-544, in March 1944, Task Group 22.3 was formed with Guadalcanal as the flagship. On this cruise, Gallery pioneered 24-hour flight operations from escort carriers in order to hunt U-boats, on April 9, the task group sank U-515, commanded by U-boat ace Kapitänleutnant Werner Henke.
After prolonged depth charging, the submarine was forced to the surface among the attacking ships, the deserted U-515 was hammered by rockets and gunfire before she finally sank. Gallery saw that this would have been an opportunity to capture the vessel. He decided to be ready the next time such an opportunity presented itself, the next night, aircraft from the task group caught U-68 on the surface, in broad moonlight, and sank her with one survivor, a lookout caught on-deck when the U-boat crash dived. On the next cruise of TG22.3, Gallery took the step of forming boarding parties
The Argentine Army is the land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of the country. Under the Argentine Constitution, the President of Argentina is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the Armys official foundation date is May 29,1810, four days after the Spanish colonial administration in Buenos Aires was overthrown. Several armed expeditions were sent to the Upper Peru, Paraguay and Chile to fight Spanish forces and secure Argentinas newly gained independence. The most famous of these expeditions was the one led by General José de San Martín, the Army was briefly re-unified during the war with the Brazilian Empire. It was only with the establishment of a Constitution and a government recognized by all the provinces that the Army became a single force. The Army went on to fight the War of the Triple Alliance in the 1860s together with Brazil, after that war, the Army became involved in Argentinas Conquista del Desierto, the campaign to occupy Patagonia and root out the natives, who conducted looting raids throughout the country.
The Army prevented the fall of the government in a number of Radical-led uprisings, the military in general and the Army in particular contributed to develop Argentinas unsettled southern frontier and its nascent industrial complex. The main foreign influence during this period was, by and large, partly because of that, during both World Wars most of the officers supported the Germans, more or less openly, while the Argentine Navy favored the British instead. In 1930, a group of Army forces deposed President Hipólito Yrigoyen without much response from the rest of the Army. This was the beginning of a history of political intervention by the military. Another coup, in 1943, was responsible for bringing an obscure colonel into the political limelight and it should be noted that political infighting eroded discipline and cohesion within the army, to the extent that there was armed fighting between contending military units during the early 1960s. The military government which ruled Argentina between 1966 and 1973 saw the activities of groups such as Montoneros and the ERP.
During Héctor Cámporas first months of government, a moderate and left-wing Peronist, approximatively 600 social conflicts, strikes. But Isabel Perón herself was ousted during the March 1976 coup by a military junta, batallón de Inteligencia 601 became infamous during this period. It was a military intelligence service set up in the late 1970s, active in the Dirty War and Operation Condor. Its personnel collected information on and infiltrated guerrilla groups and human rights organisations, the unit participated in the training of Nicaraguan Contras with US assistance, including from John Negroponte. It started the campaign with no more than 100 men and women of the Marxist ERP guerrilla force and ended with about 300 in the mountains, which the Argentine Army managed to defeat, but at a cost. On 5 January 1975, an Army DHC-6 transport plane was downed near the Monteros mountains, all thirteen on board were killed
A privateer was a private person or ship that engaged in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, a percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was common to trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships, the letter of marque of a privateer would typically limit activity to one particular ship, and specified officers. Typically, the owners or captain would be required to post a performance bond, in the United Kingdom, letters of marque were revoked for various offences. Some crews were treated as harshly as naval crews of the time, some crews were made up of professional merchant seamen, others of pirates and convicts. Some privateers ended up becoming pirates, not just in the eyes of their enemies, william Kidd, for instance, began as a legitimate British privateer but was hanged for piracy.
The investors would arm the vessels and recruit large crews, much larger than a merchantman or a vessel would carry. Privateers generally cruised independently, but it was not unknown for them to form squadrons, a number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588. Privateers generally avoided encounters with warships, as such encounters would be at best unprofitable, for instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late, in this instance, the privateer prevailed. The United States used mixed squadrons of frigates and privateers in the American Revolutionary War, the practice dated to at least the 13th century but the word itself was coined sometime in the mid-17th century. England, and the United Kingdom, used privateers to great effect and these privately owned merchant ships, licensed by the crown, could legitimately take vessels that were deemed pirates. The increase in competition for crews on armed merchant vessels and privateers was due, in a large part, because of the chance for a considerable payoff.
Whereas a seaman who shipped on a vessel was paid a wage and provided with victuals. This proved to be a far more attractive prospect and privateering flourished as a result, during Queen Elizabeths reign, she encouraged the development of this supplementary navy. Over the course of her rule, she had allowed Anglo-Spanish relations to deteriorate to the point where one could argue that a war with the Spanish was inevitable. By using privateers, if the Spanish were to take offense at the plundering of their ships, some of the most famous privateers that fought in the Anglo-Spanish War included the Sea Dogs. In the late 16th century, English ships cruised in the Caribbean and off the coast of Spain, at this early stage the idea of a regular navy was not present, so there is little to distinguish the activity of English privateers from regular naval warfare
Prize money has a distinct meaning in warfare, especially naval warfare, where it was a monetary reward paid out under prize law to the crew of a ship for capturing or sinking an enemy vessel. The claims for the bounty are usually heard in a Prize Court, in the 16th and 17th centuries, captured ships were legally Crown property. This practice was formalised via the Cruisers and Convoys Act of 1708, an Admiralty Prize Court was established to evaluate claims and condemn prizes, and the scheme of division of the money was specified. This system, with changes, lasted throughout the colonial, Revolutionary. If the prize were an enemy merchantman, the money came from the sale of both ship and cargo. If it were a warship, and repairable, usually the Crown bought it at a price, additionally. Prizes were keenly sought, for the value of a ship was often such that a crew could make a years pay for a few hours fighting. Hence boarding and hand-to-hand fighting remained common long after naval cannons developed the ability to sink the enemy from afar, all ships in sight of a capture shared in the prize money, as their presence was thought to encourage the enemy to surrender without fighting until sunk.
The distribution of money to the crews of the ships involved persisted until 1918. The following scheme for distribution of money was used for much of the Napoleonic wars. Two eighths of the money went to the captain or commander. One eighth of the went to the admiral or commander-in-chief who signed the ships written orders. One eighth was divided among the lieutenants, sailing master, and captain of marines, one eighth was divided among the wardroom warrant officers, standing warrant officers, lieutenant of marines, and the masters mates. One eighth was divided among the junior warrant and petty officers, their mates, sergeants of marines, captains clerk, surgeons mates, the final two eighths were divided among the crew, with able and specialist seamen receiving larger shares than ordinary seamen and boys. Perhaps the greatest amount of money awarded was for the capture of the Spanish frigate Hermione on 31 May 1762 by the British frigate Active. The two captains, Herbert Sawyer and Philemon Pownoll, received about £65,000 apiece, while each seaman, in January 1807, the frigate Caroline took the Spanish ship San Rafael as a prize, netting Captain Peter Rainier £52,000.
For more on the Prize Court during World War I, see Maxwell Hendry Maxwell-Anderson, the Command of the Ocean, A Naval History of Britain 1649-1815. Nelsons Navy - Prize Money The Gunroom, a site on the Aubrey-Maturin novels with many historical links
Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago)
The Museum of Science and Industry is located in Chicago, Illinois, in Jackson Park, in the Hyde Park neighborhood between Lake Michigan and The University of Chicago. It is housed in the former Palace of Fine Arts from the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, based on 2009 attendance, the Museum of Science and Industry was the second largest cultural attraction in Chicago. David R. Mosena has been President and CEO of the Museum since 1998, the Palace of Fine Arts at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition was designed by Charles B. Atwood for D. H. Burnham & Co, unlike the other White City buildings, it was constructed with a brick substructure under its plaster facade. After the Worlds Fair, it housed the Columbian Museum. When the Field Museum moved to a new building near downtown Chicago in 1920, Art Institute of Chicago professor Lorado Taft led a public campaign to restore the building and turn it into another art museum, one devoted to sculpture. However, after a few years, the building was selected as the site for a new science museum, at this time, the Commercial Club of Chicago was interested in establishing a science museum in Chicago.
Julius Rosenwald, the Sears and Company president and philanthropist, during its conversion into the MSI, the buildings exterior was re-cast in limestone to retain its 1893 Beaux Arts look. The interior was replaced with a new one in Art Moderne style designed by Alfred P. Shaw, Rosenwald established the museum organization in 1926 but declined to have his name on the building. For the first few years, the museum was called the Rosenwald Industrial Museum. In 1928, the name of the museum was changed to the Museum of Science. Rosenwalds vision was to create a museum in the style of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, sewell Avery, another businessman, had supported the museum within the Commercial Club and was selected as its first president of the board of directors. The museum conducted a search for the first director. MSIs Board of Directors selected Waldemar Kaempffert, the editor of The New York Times. He assembled the museums staff and directed the organizing and constructing the exhibits. In order to prepare the museum and his staff visited the Deutsches Museum in Munich, the Science Museum in Kensington, Kaempffert was instrumental in developing close ties with the science departments of the University of Chicago, which supplied much of the scholarship for the exhibits.
The new Museum of Science and Industry opened to the public in three stages between 1933 and 1940, the first opening ceremony took place during the Century of Progress Exposition. Two of the presidents, a number of curators and other staff members
The Iraqi Armys occupation of Kuwait that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. US President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, an array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost, the war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN. The war has earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm. The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991 and this was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait.
The coalition ceased its advance, and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself, Gulf War, a problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts, see Gulf War. The use of the term Persian Gulf is disputed, see Persian Gulf naming dispute, with no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Other language terms include French, la Guerre du Golfe and German, German, Zweiter Golfkrieg, most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the wars operational phases. Operation Desert Storm was the US name of the conflict from 17 January 1991. Operation Desert Sabre was the US name for the offensive against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations from 24–28 February 1991, in itself.
Operation Desert Farewell was the given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwaits liberation. Operation Granby was the British name for British military activities during the operations, Opération Daguet was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. Operation Friction was the name of the Canadian operations Operazione Locusta was the Italian name for the operations, in addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name. The US divided the conflict into three campaigns, Defense of Saudi Arabian country for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991
It began on Friday,2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval force to engage the Argentine Navy. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, in total,649 Argentine military personnel,255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was an episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories sovereignty. Argentina asserted that the islands are Argentine territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory, the British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are descendants of British settlers. The conflict has had an effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles and songs.
Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the military government. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two governments issued a joint statement. No change in either countrys position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit, in 1994, Argentinas claim to the territories was added to its constitution. In December 1981 there was a change in the Argentine military regime, bringing to office a new junta headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo. Anaya was the architect and supporter of a military solution for the long-standing claim over the islands. Such action would bolster its dwindling legitimacy, the newspaper La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the islands, ending in direct actions late in 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless.
The Royal Navy ice patrol vessel HMS Endurance was dispatched from Stanley to South Georgia in response, the Argentine military junta, suspecting that the UK would reinforce its South Atlantic Forces, ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands to be brought forward to 2 April. Britain was initially taken by surprise by the Argentine attack on the South Atlantic islands, despite repeated warnings by Royal Navy captain Nicholas Barker, on 2 April 1982, Argentine forces mounted amphibious landings off the Falkland Islands. The invasion was met with a defence organised by the Falkland Islands Governor Sir Rex Hunt. Word of the invasion first reached Britain from Argentine sources, a Ministry of Defence operative in London had a short telex conversation with Governor Hunts telex operator, who confirmed that Argentines were on the island and in control