Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Suda or Souda is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world attributed to an author called Soudas or Souidas. It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, derived from medieval Christian compilers; the derivation is from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name. The Suda is somewhere between an encyclopedia in the modern sense, it explains the source and meaning of words according to the philology of its period, using such earlier authorities as Harpocration and Helladios. It is a rich source of ancient and Byzantine history and life, although not every article is of equal quality, it is an "uncritical" compilation. Much of the work is interpolated, passages that refer to Michael Psellos are deemed interpolations which were added in copies.
This lexicon contains numerous biographical notices on political and literary figures of the Byzantine Empire to the tenth century, those biographical entries being condensations from the works of Hesychius of Miletus, as the author himself avers. Other sources were the encyclopedia of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus for the figures in ancient history, excerpts of John of Antioch for Roman history, the chronicle of Hamartolus for the Byzantine age; the biographies of Diogenes Laërtius, the works of Athenaeus and Philostratus. Other principal sources include a lexicon by "Eudemus," derived from the work On Rhetorical Language by Eudemus of Argos; the lexicon copiously draws from scholia to the classics, for writers, Josephus, the Chronicon Paschale, George Syncellus, George Hamartolus, so on. The Suda paraphrases these sources at length. Since many of the originals are lost, The Suda serves an invaluable repository of literary history, this preservation of the "literary history" is more vital than the lexicographical compilation itself, by some estimation.
The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet according to a system called antistoichia. The order is: α, β, γ, δ, αι, ε, ζ, ει, η, ι, θ, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, ω, π, ρ, σ, τ, οι, υ, φ, χ, ψIn addition, double letters are treated as single for the purposes of collation; the system is not difficult to learn and remember, but some editors—for example, Immanuel Bekker – rearranged the Suda alphabetically. Little is known about the author, named "Suidas" in its prefatory note, he lived in the second half of the 10th century, because the death of emperor John I Tzimiskes and his succession by Basil II and Constantine VIII are mentioned in the entry under "Adam", appended with a brief chronology of the world. At any rate, the work must have appeared by before the 12th century, since it is quoted from and alluded to by Eustathius who lived from about 1115 AD to about 1195 or 1196; the work deals with biblical as well as pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a Christian.
The standard printed edition was compiled by Danish classical scholar Ada Adler in the first half of the twentieth century. A modern translation, the Suda On Line, was completed on 21 July 2014; the Suda has the Kitab al-Fehrest of Ibn al-Nadim. Compare the Latin Speculum Maius, authored in the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais. Suidas. Gaisford, Thomas. Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. A - Theta. 1. Typographeo Academico. Volume 2, volume 3 Adler, Ada Suidae Lexicon. Reprinted 1967-71, Stuttgart. Citations Bibliography Index of the Suda on lineSuda On Line. An on-line edition of the Ada Adler edition with ongoing translations and commentary by registered editors. Suda lexicon at the Online Books Page Suda Lexicon in three volumes, Cambridge, 1705.
Aurora is the Latin word for dawn, the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology and Latin poetry. Like Greek Eos and Rigvedic Ushas, Aurora continues the name of an earlier Indo-European dawn goddess, Hausos. In Roman mythology, Aurora renews herself every morning and flies across the sky, announcing the arrival of the sun, her parentage was flexible: for Ovid, she could be Pallantis, signifying the daughter of Pallas, or the daughter of Hyperion. She has a brother and a sister. Roman writers imitated Hesiod and Greek poets by naming Aurora as the mother of the Anemoi, who were the offspring of Astraeus, the father of the stars. Aurora appears most in sexual poetry with one of her mortal lovers. A myth taken from the Greek by Roman poets tells that one of her lovers was the prince of Troy, Tithonus. Tithonus was a mortal, would therefore age and die. Wanting to be with her lover for all eternity, Aurora asked Jupiter to grant immortality to Tithonus. Jupiter granted her wish, but she failed to ask for eternal youth to accompany his immortality, he became forever old.
Aurora turned him into a cicada. From Homer's Iliad: Now when Dawn in robe of saffron was hastening from the streams of Okeanos, to bring light to mortals and immortals, Thetis reached the ships with the armor that the god had given her, but soon as early Dawn appeared, the rosy-fingered gathered the folk about the pyre of glorious Hector. Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Montague says of his lovesick son Romeo In traditional Irish folk songs, such as "Lord Courtown": In "On Imagination" by Phillis Wheatley: In the poem "Tithonus" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Aurora is described thus: In singer-songwriter Björk's Vespertine track, Aurora is described as The post-punk rock band The Sexual Side Effects's track "Aurora" alludes to the goddess: In Chapter 8 of Charlotte Brontë's Villette, Madame Beck fires her old Governess first thing in the morning and is described by the narrator, Lucy Snowe: All this, I say, was done between the moment of Madame Beck's issuing like Aurora from her chamber, that in which she coolly sat down to pour out her first cup of coffee.
Aurora, fresco by Guido Reni in Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi, Rome Aurora by Guercino The Countess de Brac as Aurora by Jean-Marc Nattier Aurora e Titone by Francesco de Mura Aurora and Cephalus, by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson The Gates of Dawn by Herbert James Draper Aurora and Cephalus by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Aurora by Odilon Redon. Aurore by Denys Puech. Dawn goddess Eos Mater Matuta Memnon Zorya Warburg Institute Iconographic Database "Aurora, the Roman goddess of the dawn". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Aurora, the goddess of the morning". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Piero di Cosimo
Piero di Cosimo known as Piero di Lorenzo, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance. He is most famous for the allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; the High Renaissance style of the new century had little influence on him, he retained the straightforward realism of his figures, which combines with an whimsical treatment of his subjects to create the distinctive mood of his works. Vasari has many stories of his eccentricity, the mythological subjects have an individual and quirky fascination, he trained under Cosimo Rosselli, whose daughter he married, assisted him in his Sistine Chapel frescos. He was influenced by Early Netherlandish painting, busy landscapes feature in many works forests seen close at hand. Several of his most striking secular works are in the long "landscape" format used for paintings inset into cassone wedding chests or spalliera headboards or panelling, he was famous for designing the temporary decorations for Carnival and other festivities. The son of a goldsmith, Lorenzo di Piero, Piero was born in Florence and apprenticed under the artist Cosimo Rosseli, from whom he derived his popular name and whom he assisted in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481.
In the first phase of his career, Piero was influenced by the Netherlandish naturalism of Hugo van der Goes, whose Portinari Triptych helped to lead the whole of Florentine painting into new channels. From him, most Cosimo acquired the love of landscape and the intimate knowledge of the growth of flowers and of animal life; the manner of Hugo van der Goes is apparent in the Adoration of the Shepherds, at the Berlin Museum. He journeyed to Rome in 1482 with Rosselli, he proved himself a true child of the Renaissance by depicting subjects of Classical mythology in such pictures as the Venus and Cupid, The Death of Procris, the Perseus and Andromeda series, at the Uffizi, many others. Inspired to the Vitruvius' account of the evolution of man, Piero's mythical compositions show the bizarre presence of hybrid forms of men and animals, or the man learning to use fire and tools; the multitudes of nudes in these works shows the influence of Luca Signorelli on Piero's art. During his lifetime, Piero acquired a reputation for eccentricity—a reputation enhanced and exaggerated by commentators such as Giorgio Vasari, who included a biography of Piero di Cosimo in his Lives of the Artists.
He was frightened of thunderstorms, so pyrophobic that he cooked his food. He resisted any cleaning of his studio, or trimming of the fruit trees of his orchard. If, as Vasari asserts, he spent the last years of his life in gloomy retirement, the change was due to preacher Girolamo Savonarola, under whose influence he turned his attention once more to religious art; the death of his master Roselli may have affected Piero's morose elder years. The Immaculate Conception with Saints, at the Uffizi, the Holy Family, at Dresden, illustrate the religious fervour to which he was stimulated by Savonarola. With the exception of the landscape background in Rosselli's fresco of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Sistine Chapel, there is no record of any fresco work from his brush. On the other hand, Piero enjoyed a great reputation as a portrait painter: the most famous of his work is in fact the portrait of a Florentine noblewoman, Simonetta Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici. According to Vasari, Piero excelled in designing pageants and triumphal processions for the pleasure-loving youths of Florence, gives a vivid description of one such procession at the end of the carnival of 1507, which illustrated the triumph of death.
Piero di Cosimo exercised considerable influence upon his fellow pupils Albertinelli and Bartolomeo della Porta, was the master of Andrea del Sarto. Vasari gave Piero's date of death as 1521, this date is still repeated by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica. However, contemporary documents reveal that he died of plague on 12 April 1522, he is featured in George Eliot's novel,'Romola.' Madonna and Child Enthroned with Sts. Peter, John the Baptist and Nicholas of Bari tempera and oil on panel, St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci Oil on panel, 57 x 42 cm, Musée Condé, France The Visitation with Saints Nicholas and Anthony Wood, 184 x 189, National Gallery of Art, Washington Venus and Cupid Wood panel, 72 x 182 cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin Vulcan and Aeolus Oil and tempera on canvas, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa St Mary Magdalene Tempera on panel, 72,5 x 76 cm, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria Oil on panel, Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence Jason and Queen Hypsipyle with the Women of Lemnos Private Collection Tritons and Nereids, Oil on Panel, 37x158 cm, Altomani collection Allegory Panel, National Gallery of Art, Washington St. John the Evangelest Oil on panel, Honolulu Museum of Art The Discovery of Honey Oil on panel, Art Museum, Massachusetts The Finding of Vulcan on Lemnos Oil and tempera on canvas, Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut Perseus Freeing Andromeda Oil on wood, 70 x 123 cm, Uffizi
Orithyia of Athens
In Greek mythology, Orithyia or Oreithyia was an Athenian princess. Orithyia was the fifth daughter of his wife, Praxithea, she had a beautiful sister called Beatka, Her brothers were Cecrops and Metion, her sisters were Protogeneia, Procris and Chthonia. Orithyia gave Boreas two daughters and Cleopatra and two sons and Zetes, both known as the Boreads; these sons joined the Argonauts in the quest for the golden fleece. Boreas, the north wind, fell in love with Orithyia. At first he attempted to woo her, but after failing at that he decided to take her by force, as violence felt more natural to him. While she was playing by the Ilissos River she was carried off to Sarpedon’s Rock, near the Erginos River in Thrace. There she was raped. Aeschylus wrote a satyr play about the abduction called Orithyia, lost. Plato writes somewhat mockingly, she may have been killed on the rocks of the river when a gust of northern wind came, so she was said to have been'taken by Boreas'. He mentions in another account she was taken by Boreas not along the Ilissos, but from the Areopagus, a rock outcropping near the Acropolis where murderers were tried.
However, many scholars regard this as a gloss. Plato mentions that Orithyia was playing with a companion nymph Pharmacea; because she was in Thrace with Boreas, she did not die when her sisters either committed suicide or were sacrificed so that Athens could win a war against Eleusis. Orithyia was made into the goddess of cold mountain winds, it is said that prior to the destruction of a large number of barbarian ships due to weather during the Persian War, the Athenians offered sacrifices to Boreas and Oreithyia, praying for their assistance. Boreas Abducting Orithyia, red chalk drawing by Giovanni Maria Morandi at the Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf; the Abduction of Orithyia, painting by Francesco Solimena at the National Art Museum of Azerbaijan, Baku. The Abduction of Orithyia, painting in the style of Francesco Solimena at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore; the Rape of Orithyia by Boreas, bronze sculpture by Giovanni Battista Foggini at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. The Rape of Orithyia by Boreas, porcelain from Doccia manufactory after Giovanni Battista Foggini at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
In Greek mythology, Minos was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in the underworld; the Minoan civilization of Crete has been named after him by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. "Minos" is interpreted as the Cretan word for "king", or, by a euhemerist interpretation, the name of a particular king, subsequently used as a title. There is a name in Minoan Linear A mi-nu-te. According to La Marle's reading of Linear A, criticised as arbitrary, we should read mwi-nu ro-ja on a Linear A tablet; the royal title ro-ja is read on several documents, including on stone libation tables from the sanctuaries, where it follows the name of the main god, Asirai. La Marle suggests that the name mwi-nu is expected to mean'ascetic' as Sanskrit muni, fits this explanation to the legend about Minos sometimes living in caves on Crete.
If royal succession in Minoan Crete descended matrilinearly— from the queen to her firstborn daughter— the queen's husband would have become the Minos, or war chief. Some scholars see a connection between Minos and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes of Egypt, Mannus of Germany, Manu of India, with Meon of Phrygia and Lydia, Mizraim of Egypt in the Book of Genesis and the Canaanite deity Baal. Minos appears in Greek literature as the king of Knossos as early as Homer's Odyssey. Thucydides tells, he reigned over the islands of the Aegean Sea three generations before the Trojan War. He lived at Knossos for periods of nine years, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island, he was the founder of its naval supremacy. On the Athenian stage Minos is a cruel tyrant, the heartless exactor of the tribute of Athenian youths to feed to the Minotaur. To reconcile the contradictory aspects of his character, as well as to explain how Minos governed Crete over a period spanning so many generations, two kings of the name of Minos were assumed by poets and rationalizing mythologists, such as Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch— "putting aside the mythological element", as he claims— in his life of Theseus.
According to this view, the first King Minos was the son of Zeus and Europa and brother of Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon. This was the'good' king Minos, he was held in such esteem by the Olympian gods that, after he died, he was made one of the three'Judges of the Dead', alongside his brother Rhadamanthys and half-brother Aeacus; the wife of this'Minos I' was said to be Itone or Crete, he had a single son named Lycastus, his successor as King of Crete. Lycastus had a son named Minos, after his grandfather, born by Lycastus' wife, daughter of Corybas. This'Minos II'— the'bad' king Minos— is the son of this Lycastus, was a far more colorful character than his father and grandfather, it would be to this Minos that we owe the myths of Theseus, Pasiphaë, the Minotaur, Daedalus and Nisus. Unlike Minos I, Minos II fathered numerous children, including Androgeus, Deucalion, Ariadne and Glaucus — all born to him by his wife Pasiphaë. Through Deucalion, he was the grandfather of King Idomeneus. Doubtless there is a considerable historical element in the legend in the Phoenician origin of Europa.
Minos himself is said to have died at Camicus in Sicily, whither he had gone in pursuit of Daedalus, who had given Ariadne the clue by which she guided Theseus through the labyrinth. He was killed by the daughter of Cocalus, king of Agrigentum, who poured boiling water over him while he was taking a bath. Subsequently his remains were sent back to the Cretans, who placed them in a sarcophagus, on, inscribed: "The tomb of Minos, the son of Zeus." The earlier legend knows Minos as a beneficent ruler and suppressor of piracy. His constitution was said to have formed the basis of that of Lycurgus for Sparta. In accordance with this, after his death he became judge of the shades in the underworld. In versions and Rhadamanthus were made judges as well, with Minos leading as the "appeals court" judge. By his wife, Pasiphaë, he fathered Ariadne, Deucalion, Glaucus, Catreus and Xenodice. By a nymph, Pareia, he had four sons, Nephalion and Philolaus, who were killed by Heracles in revenge for the murder of the latter's two companions.
By Dexithea, one of the Telchines, he had a son called Euxanthius. By Androgeneia of Phaestus he had Asterion, who commanded the Cretan contingent in the war between Dionysus and the Indians. Given as his children are Euryale the mother of Orion with Poseidon, Pholegander, eponym of the island Pholegandros. Minos, along with his brothers and Sarpedon, were raised by King Asterion of Crete; when Asterion died, his throne was claimed by Minos who banished Sarpedon and, according to some sources, Rhadamanthys too. Asterion, king of Crete, adopted the three sons of Zeus and Europa, Minos and Rhadamanthus. According to the Odyssey
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p