Profanity is offensive language, which may be called cursing, or swearing, cuss words, swear words, bad words, or expletives. Used in this sense, profanity is language, considered by certain parts of a culture to be impolite, rude, or offensive, it can show a debasement of someone or something, or be considered as an expression of strong feeling towards something. In its older, more literal sense, "profanity" refers to a lack of respect for things that are held to be sacred, which implies anything inspiring deserving of reverence, as well as behaviour showing similar disrespect or causing religious offense; the term profane originates from classical Latin profanus "before the temple". It carried the meaning of either "desecrating what is holy" or "with a secular purpose" as early as the 1450s. Profanity represented secular indifference to religion or religious figures, while blasphemy was a more offensive attack on religion and religious figures, considered sinful, a direct violation of The Ten Commandments.

Moreover, many Bible verses speak against swearing. Profanities, in the original meaning of blasphemous profanity, are part of the ancient tradition of the comic cults which laughed and scoffed at the deity or deities: an example of this would be Lucian's Dialogues of the Gods satire. In English, swear words and curse words tend to have Germanic rather than Latin etymology. Shit has a Germanic root, as does fuck; the more technical alternatives are Latin in origin, such as defecate or excrete and fornicate or copulate respectively. Because of this, profanity is sometimes referred to colloquially as "Anglo-Saxon"; this is not always the case. For example, the word "wanker" is considered profane in Britain, but it dates only to the mid-20th century; the history of curse words and profanity was part of spoken words in medieval era. The word fuck was used in English in the fifteenth century, though the usage in earlier times of 13th century was not with abusive intent; the word shit is the oldest of words in use with early references found in German and Scandinavian languages.

Analyses of recorded conversations reveal that an average of 80–90 words that a person speaks each day – 0.5% to 0.7% of all words – are swear words, with usage varying from 0% to 3.4%. In comparison, first-person plural pronouns make up 1% of spoken words. A three-country poll conducted by Angus Reid Public Opinion in July 2010 found that Canadians swear more than Americans and British when talking to friends, while Britons are more than Canadians and Americans to hear strangers swear during a conversation. Swearing performs certain psychological functions, uses particular linguistic and neurological mechanisms. Functionally similar behavior can be observed in chimpanzees, may contribute to our understanding, notes New York Times author Natalie Angier. Angier notes that swearing is a widespread but underappreciated anger management technique. Swearing over time may gain roots as a habit with involuntary utterance of obscene words or inappropriate and derogatory remarks; this has been referred to as coprolalia, an occasional characteristic of tic disorders.

Keele University researchers Stephens and Kingston found that swearing relieves the effects of physical pain. Stephens said "I would advise people, if they hurt themselves, to swear". However, the overuse of swear words tends to diminish this effect; the Keele team won the Ig Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 for their research. A team of neurologists and psychologists at the UCLA Easton Center for Alzheimer's Disease Research suggested that swearing may help differentiate Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal dementia. Neurologist Antonio Damasio noted that despite loss of language due to damage to the language areas of the brain, patients were still able to swear. A group of researchers from Wright State University studied why people swear in the online world by collecting tweets posted on Twitter, they found that cursing is associated with negative emotions such as sadness and anger thus showing people in the online world use curse words to express their sadness and anger towards others. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the University of Warsaw investigated bilingual swearing: why is it easier to swear in a foreign language?

Their finding that bilinguals strengthen the offensiveness of profanities when they switch into their second language, but soften it when they switch into their first tongue, but do both statistically only in the case of ethnophaulisms led the scientist to the conclusion that switching into the second language exempts bilinguals from the social norms and constraints such as political correctness, makes them more prone to swearing and offending others. According to Steven Pinker, there are five possible functions of swearing: Abusive swearing, intended to offend, intimidate or otherwise cause emotional or psychological harm Cathartic swearing, used in response to pain or misfortune Dysphemistic swearing, used to convey that the speaker thinks negatively of the subject matter, to make the listener do the same Emphatic swearing, intended to draw additional attention to what is considered to be worth paying attention to Idiomatic swearing, used for no other particular purpose, but as a sign that the conversation and relationship between speaker and listener is informal Three Australian states (New South


Vitaya is a Flemish television station. The station got its license for 9 years in 1999 and it started to broadcast on 25 August 2000. Vitaya can be seen on Flemish satellite services; the station is part of DPG Media Vitaya began as a niche station with seven blocks of programming: Eet-Wijzer Gemengde Gevoelens Spiegelbeeld Vrije Tijd Wonen Kinderen Vitali-Tijd. In 2003 the station expanded the broadcast time in favor of more local productions, daily newscasts, a cooking show and a fitness show. Vitaya profiles itself as a lifestyle station and is oriented at the following subjects: happiness, good food, the family and interior design, fashion and travel, lifestyle and human interest; because of the launch of the SBS station Vijf with a similar profile, Vitaya received some competition. Vitaya started to show more foreign productions and produced more own programs and thereby drastically expanded the broadcasting time. In that way the station was able to end 2005 in the green. De keuken van Sofie LouisLouise 999: What's Your Emergency?

Ambulance Choccywoccydoodah Dawson's Creek Dinner Date Don't Tell the Bride The Dr. Oz Show Embarrassing Bodies Gold Coast Medical Home and Away The Hotel Inspector House Rules Keeping Up with the Kardashians Kitchen Nightmares Love It or List It Love It or List It Australia Love Your Garden MasterChef Australia Million Dollar Matchmaker Offspring One Born Every Minute A Place in the Sun Project Runway The Real Housewives The Resident Sangre de mi tierra Sturm der Liebe WAGS All Saints Australian Princess Coronation Street From the Ground Up with Debbie Travis Harry's Practice How to Look Good Naked Rosemary & Thyme The Martha Stewart Show Trinny & Susannah Undress... William and Mary You Rang M'Lord? Dicte

Jonas Höglund

Jonas Kent Lennart Höglund is a Swedish former professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League with the Calgary Flames, Montreal Canadiens and the Toronto Maple Leafs. Höglund was drafted by the Calgary Flames in the 1992 NHL Entry Draft in the 10th round as the 222nd pick overall, he also played Färjestads BK and played with them until 1996 when he joined Calgary Flames. In February 1998 the Flames traded Höglund and Zarley Zalapski to the Montreal Canadiens for Valeri Bure and a draft pick. In July 1999, Höglund joined the Toronto Maple Leafs as a free agent, he played with the Leafs for four seasons. During his tenure with the Leafs, he played on a line with countryman Mats Sundin, along with Mikael Renberg, which were one of the lines in Tre Kronor. While Höglund's lack of scoring touch frustrated fans, his hard work was rewarded with first line ice time by head coach Pat Quinn. In September 2003, he signed a contract with the Florida Panthers in the National Hockey League.

After failing to make the Panthers' roster, he left and played the 2003–04 season with the Swiss club HC Davos. After one year with Davos, Höglund went back to Sweden and Färjestads BK. Höglund ended his 22-year professional career in the lower leagues in Sweden, playing his final season with Skåre BK of the Hockeyettan in 2009–10 season, he has played for the Swedish national team in the World Championship in 1997, 2003, 2004 and 2005. In 1997, 2003 and 2004 he and the Swedish national team finished in second place. All three times Canada won gold. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database