Many types of wrestling matches, sometimes called "concept" or "gimmick matches" in the jargon of the business, are performed in professional wrestling. Some of them occur frequently while others are developed so as to advance an angle and such match types are used rarely; because of professional wrestling's long history over decades, many things have been recycled. These match types can be organized into several loose groups; the singles match is the most basic of all professional wrestling matches, which involves only two competitors competing for one fall. Victory is obtained by pinfall, knockout, countout or disqualification. Matches are contested between two teams, most consisting of two members each. On most occasions, one member of the team competes in the ring with one or more of his or her teammates standing behind the ropes. Wrestlers switch positions by "tagging" one another similar to a high five and, as a result, these teams are referred to as tag teams; this can create tension during the match as an injured wrestler in the middle of the ring attempts to reach his or her teammates with the heel team preventing them from doing so.
In typical tag team matches, standard wrestling rules apply with a match ending by pinfall, countout, or disqualification. Promotions have established tag teams that most compete in team matches rather than singles matches, though teams will break up to pursue a singles career via a turn. Teams consist of real-life friends or relatives. On other occasions, teams are booked together by promoters based on their face or heel alignment in order to increase the amount of wrestlers on the card or to advance multiple storylines at once. Promotions have a tag team championship for a team of two wrestlers, on rare occasion allies of the reigning tag team will be allowed to defend the title in the place of one of the reigning wrestlers under the Freebird rule. Though common in Mexican lucha libre, at one point, World Championship Wrestling had a championship for teams of three. WWE can have three or four tag teams going against each other. Matches in which the entire team competes at once is referred to as a tornado tag match in WWE.
Matches can be held under standard rules or as a specialty match, such as a steel cage match or a ladder match. Tag team matches are held under elimination rules. One famous example of this match is the Survivor Series match held in WWE at their annual Survivor Series pay-per-view. Teams of four or five, though on some occasions as many as seven, compete under elimination rules. All other standard rules apply, team members may tag in and out in any order. While some teams are established stables, others may need to recruit members for their team. In lucha libre promotions, a torneo cibernetico is a similar type of match between teams of up to eight wrestlers who enter in a predetermined order. A winner takes all match is a match in which both wrestlers are champions going into the match, the winner receives the championship of the loser, thus "taking all". In New Japan Pro-Wrestling, this type of match is called a "Double Gold Dash" This is different than a championship unification match, where one championship is absorbed into the other and retired/deactivated.
In a Winner Take All scenario, both titles defended as separate entities. An empty arena match is a hardcore match between two or more wrestlers that takes place in an arena devoid of fans; the only people present are the competitors, referee and cameramen. The match is videotaped and played later. An example of this is the WWF championship match between The Rock and Mankind that took place in Tucson, Arizona, at the Tucson Convention Center, which aired as part of a special Halftime Heat edition of Sunday Night Heat aired counterprogramming the Super Bowl halftime show of Super Bowl XXXIII in 1999. One of the earliest and best known empty arena matches occurred in 1981 in Memphis, Tennessee, at the Mid-South Coliseum between Jerry Lawler and Terry Funk. A falls count anywhere match is a match in which only pinfalls can take place in any location, negating the standard rule that they must take place inside the ring and between the ropes; as such, this eliminates the usual "countout" rule. As the match may take place in various parts of the arena, the "falls count anywhere" provision is always accompanied with a "no-disqualification" stipulation to make the match a hardcore match, so as to allow wrestlers the convenience to use any objects they may find wherever they wrestle.
A variation of the rules states that once a pinfall takes place, the pinned wrestler would lose the match if they are unable to return to the ring within a specific amount of time — a referee's count of 10 or 30. If the pinned wrestler makes it to the ring in this time, the match continues. Under these rules, all pinfalls must take place outside of the ring, technically making the match no longer falls count anywhere; this stipulation is listed as having a specific territory in which falls count. A new variation of the stipulation, submissions count anywhere, debuted at Breaking Point in a match between D-Generation X an
There is a long history of alcoholic drinks in China. They include rice and grape wine and various liquors including baijiu, the most-consumed distilled spirit in the world. 酒 is the Chinese character referring to any drink containing appreciable quantities of ethanol. Its Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as *tsuʔ, at which point it was applied to drinks made from fermented millet. By the time of the first certain use of distillation during the Jin and Southern Song dynasties, the Middle Chinese pronunciation was tsjuw, it is translated into English as "wine", which misrepresents its current usage. In present-day Mandarin, jiǔ most refers to pure alcohol, hard liquors, strong rice wine, while wine and beer are distinguished as pútáojiǔ and píjiǔ, respectively. Nonetheless, there are many cultural parallels with the use of wine in European culture. Chinese food employs formal dining in an analogous manner, it appears prominently in all of the Chinese classics, including the Rites of Zhou and the Record of Rites, has been a constant theme of Chinese poetry since its origins, all similar to the treatment of wine in Europe.
Chinese alcohol predates recorded history. Dried residue extracted from 9,000-year-old pottery implies that early beers were being consumed by the neolithic peoples in the area of modern China. Made from rice, honey and hawthorn, it seems to have been produced to that of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Within the Yellow River area which gave rise to the Chinese culture, numerous bronze vessels preserved from the Shang dynasty include many which were used to warm alcohol. At the time, millet was the area's staple grain and these drinks may have been similar to modern huangjiu. Traditional Chinese historical accounts such as Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian relate various legends and myths concerning the origin of alcohol in China. One account says that the brewer Yidi presented the first alcoholic beverage as a gift to the emperor Yu the Great c. 2100 BC. Another credits its invention to Du Kang. Chinese alcohol figured prominently in Zhou-era accounts of the removal of the Mandate of Heaven.
The final ruler of the Xia dynasty, the emperor Jie, was said to have shown his decadence by constructing an entire lake of jiu to please one of his concubines. The pool was said to have been large enough to navigate with a boat; the story was repeated in accounts of the last emperor of the Shang. Alcoholism was said to have been so rampant among Shang culture that reducing it presented one of the principal difficulties for the new Zhou dynasty. In the far northwest of modern China, the introduction of the irrigation and grape vines responsible for Xinjiang's raisin and wine production are credited to Greek settlers from 4th-century BC Bactria, one of the successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great. However, new research has refuted the notions of a foreign origin for Chinese grape wine and grape vines, because the history of Chinese grape wine has been confirmed and proven to date back 9000 years, including the "" of wild grapes in wine as well as "earliest chemically confirmed alcoholic beverage in the world", according to Adjunct Professor of Anthropology Patrick McGovern, the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia.
Professor McGovern explains: “The earliest chemically confirmed alcoholic beverage in the world was discovered at Jiahu in the Yellow River Valley of China, ca. 7000-6600 B. C.. It was an extreme fermented beverage made of wild grapes, hawthorn and honey.”And, Professor McGovern continues: “The Jiahu discovery illustrates how you should never give up hope in finding chemical evidence for a fermented beverage from the Palaeolithic period. Research often has big surprises in store. You might think, as I did too, that the grape wines of Hajji Firuz, the Caucasus, eastern Anatolia would prove to be the earliest alcoholic beverages in the world, coming from the so-called “Cradle of Civilization” in the Near East as they do, but I was invited to go to China on the other side of Asia, came back with samples that proved to be earlier–from around 7000 BC.” Following the Yangtze's incorporation into the Chinese state during the Qin dynasty, beer disappeared from use over the course of the Han dynasty in favor of the stronger huangjiu and the rice wines of the southern Chinese.
By the Tang dynasty, home brewing seems to have been a familiar domestic chore, albeit the poor had to make do with poorly filtered mash. The sticky rice-based choujiu dates to at least the Tang and was specially praised by the Chinese poet Li Bai; the Dutch historian Frank Dikötter describes the period between the Han and Tang dynasties as a "golden age" for alcohol, when it was consumed in conjunction with mineral drugs, notably Cold-Food Powder, until the "rise of a tea culture during the Tang was a significant shift away from heavier patterns of intoxication". As noted in Shen Kuo's 11th-century Dream Pool Essays, much of the socializing among the gentry concerned "drinking guests". A symposium beginning with drinking huangjiu might involve playing the zither and chess, Zen meditation and painting, drinking tea and reciting poetry, as well as general conversation. Distillation may have been practiced in China as early as the Han but the
Michael John Charles Balson was an English retired professional association football defender who played professionally in England, South Africa and the United States. His career brought him to the United States where he served several decades as a referee as well as a team and league executive, he was a member of both the National Intercollegiate Soccer Officials Association Hall of Fame and the United Soccer Leagues Hall of Fame. A member of England's oldest family of commercial butchers, As a youth he served as the captain of Colfox School squad, he had a stint at Bridport FC Balson grew up in England where he began playing for Exeter City in 1966. In 1974, he transferred to Highlands Park. In 1979, he moved to the United States where he signed with the Atlanta Chiefs of the North American Soccer League. In 1982, he played for the Georgia Generals of the American Soccer League, he played for the Tampa Bay Rowdies during the 1986–87 American Indoor Soccer Association season. In 1981, Balson became a member of the National Intercollegiate Soccer Officials Association.
Over the years, he worked his way into the highest levels of intercollegiate refereeing. In 1984, he became a national referee, working NAIA women's finals. In 1985, he officiated during the NCAA Division I women's tournament. In 1996, he officiated the women's quarterfinals and in 1999, he officiated the NCAA Women's Soccer Championship Final. On the men's side, he oversaw the NCAA quarterfinals from 2000 to 2003 while officiating the ACC men's finals. In 2002, 2004 and 2005, he officiated the NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship, he was inducted into the NISOA Hall of Fame in 2006. In 1990, he was part of the establishment of the Atlanta Express of the Sunbelt Independent Soccer League which became the USISL and the USL, he became a USISL administrator in 1991, the same year he joined the management of the Atlanta Magic. In 1998, he became the general manager of the Atlanta Silverbacks. In 2002, Balson was inducted into the USL Hall of Fame as a Builder. Mike was the oldest child of Joan Balson.
He and his wife, had two children and Oliver, five grandchildren. He and his wife spent over 30 years ministering to prisoners in Atlanta, spent 20 years ministering to youth at Georgia Regional Hospital. After a 10-year battle, Mike passed away on May 30, 2019, from complications associated with Lewy Body Dementia. NASL/ASL stats 1970-1971 Exeter City team photo Links to the Old Country: A Flowery Branch man has introduced his family's traditional British sausage to the US