Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
Magnetic stripe card
A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. Magnetic stripe cards are used in credit cards, identity cards, transportation tickets, they may contain an RFID tag, a transponder device and/or a microchip used for business premises access control or electronic payment. Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented in Denmark around 1900 for recording audio. In the 1950s, magnetic recording of digital computer data on plastic tape coated with iron oxide was invented. In 1960, IBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards, under a contract with the US government for a security system. A number of International Organization for Standardization standards, ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7811, ISO/IEC 7812, ISO/IEC 7813, ISO 8583, ISO/IEC 4909, now define the physical properties of the card, including size, location of the magstripe, magnetic characteristics, data formats.
They provide the standards for financial cards, including the allocation of card number ranges to different card issuing institutions. Magnetic storage was known from computer data storage in the 1950s. In 1969 Forrest Parry, an IBM engineer, had the idea of securing a piece of magnetic tape, the predominant storage medium at the time, to a plastic card base, he became frustrated. The tape strip either warped or its characteristics were affected by the adhesive, rendering the tape strip unusable. After a frustrating day in the laboratory, trying to get the right adhesive, he came home with several pieces of magnetic tape and several plastic cards; as he walked in the door at home, his wife Dorothea was ironing clothing. When he explained the source of his frustration: inability to get the tape to "stick" to the plastic in a way that would work, she suggested that he use the iron to melt the stripe on, he tried it worked. The heat of the iron was just high enough to bond the tape to the card; the major development of the magnetic striped plastic card began in 1969 at the IBM Information Records Division headquartered in Dayton N.
J. In 1970, the marketing organization was transferred by IBM DPD back to the Information Records Division in order to begin sales and marketing strategies for the magnetically striped and encoded cards being developed, it took two years for IBM IRD engineers to not only develop the process for reliably applying the magnetic stripe to plastic cards via a hot stamping method, but develop the process for encoding the magnetic stripe utilizing the IBM Delta Distance C Optical Bar Code format. This engineering effort resulted in IBM IRD producing the first magnetic striped plastic credit and ID cards used by banks, insurance companies and many others. Another result of this project was that IBM IRD and IBM Data Processing Division announced on February 24, 1971 the first Magnetic Credit Card Service Center and the IBM 2730-1 Transaction Validation Terminal. Arthur E. Hahn Jr. was hired by IBM IRD in Dayton, N. J. on Aug 12, 1969 to head up this engineering effort. Other members of the group were David Morgan, Billy House, William Creeden, E. J. Gillen.
They were given a announced IBM 360 Model 30 computer with 50k of RAM for control of the encoding/embossing of the Magnetic Stripe Cards. The IBM 360 computer was for scientific/business applications so the IRD engineers first had to convert the 360 into a "process control computer" and develop software and hardware around it. Due to the limited RAM, the software was developed in 360 Assembler Language; this conversion enabled the 360 computer to monitor and control the entire production process the IRD engineers designed and built. The engineering design/build effort was carried out in a raised floor secured area of IBM IRD in Dayton, N. J., built for the project. This secured area with limited access was required because of the sensitivity of the data that would be used to encode and emboss the credit and ID cards; the IRD engineers first had to develop a reliable process of hot stamping the magnetic stripe to the plastic cards. This was necessary in order to meet the close tolerances required to reliably encode and read the data on the Magnetic Stripe Cards by magnetic write/read heads.
The magnetic stripe was encoded with a single track of data utilizing the IBM Delta Distance C Optical Bar Code format. The Delta Distance C Optical Bar Code was developed by the IBM Systems Development Division working at Research Triangle Park in Raleigh North Carolina headed up by George J. Laurer. Other members of the group were N. Joseph Woodland, Paul McEnroe, Dr. Robert Evans, Bernard Silver, Art Hamburgen, Heard Baumeister and Bill Crouse; the IBM group in Raleigh was competing with RCA, Litton-Zellweger and other companies who were working with the National Retail Merchants Association NRMA to develop a standard optical bar code to be used in the retail industry. NRMA wanted an optically readable code that could be printed on products allowing purchasers to "check out" at the new electronic cash register/checkout counters being developed; the code would be used for production and inventory control of products. Of the many optical bar codes submitted to NRMA by IBM and other companies, NRMA selected the version of the IBM bar code known as the Delta Distance D Optical Bar Code format.
The Delta Distance C Code was an earlier version of the Univers
Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, it was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. Bakelite was patented on December 7, 1909; the creation of a synthetic plastic was revolutionary for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators and telephone casings and such diverse products as kitchenware, pipe stems, children's toys, firearms. The "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. Bakelite was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark on November 9, 1993, by the American Chemical Society in recognition of its significance as the world's first synthetic plastic. Baekeland was wealthy due to his invention of Velox photographic paper when he began to investigate the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde in his home laboratory.
Chemists had begun to recognize that fibers were polymers. Baekeland's initial intent was to find a replacement for shellac, a material in limited supply because it was made from the excretion of lac insects. Baekeland produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak", but it was not a market success. Baekeland began experimenting on strengthening wood by impregnating it with a synthetic resin, rather than coating it. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, Baekeland produced a hard moldable material that he named "Bakelite", after himself, it was the first synthetic thermosetting plastic produced, Baekeland speculated on "the thousand and one... articles" it could be used to make. Baekeland considered the possibilities of using a wide variety of filling materials, including cotton, powdered bronze, slate dust, but was most successful with wood and asbestos fibers. Baekeland filed a substantial number of patents in the area. Bakelite, his "method of making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde," was filed on July 13, 1907, granted on December 7, 1909.
Baekeland filed for patent protection in other countries, including Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Mexico and Spain. He announced his invention at a meeting of the American Chemical Society on February 5, 1909. Baekeland started semi-commercial production of his new material in his home laboratory, marketing it as a material for electrical insulators. By 1910, he was producing enough material to justify expansion, he formed the General Bakelite Company as a U. S. company to market his new industrial material. He made overseas connections to produce materials in other countries. Bijker gives a detailed discussion of the development of Bakelite and the Bakelite company's production of various applications of materials; as of 1911, the company's main focus was laminating varnish, whose sales volume vastly outperformed both molding material and cast resin. By 1912, molding material was gaining ground, but its sales volume for the company did not exceed that of laminating varnish until the 1930s; as the sales figures show, the Bakelite Company produced "transparent" cast resin for a small ongoing market during the 1910s and 1920s.
Blocks or rods of cast resin known as "artificial amber", were machined and carved to create items such as pipe stems, cigarette holders and jewelry. However, the demand for molded plastics led the Bakelite company to concentrate on molding, rather than concentrating on cast solid resins; the Bakelite Corporation was formed in 1922 after patent litigation favorable to Baekeland, from a merger of three companies: Baekeland's General Bakelite Company. W. Aylesworth. Under director of advertising and public relations Allan Brown, who came to Bakelite from Condensite, Bakelite was aggressively marketed as "the material of a thousand uses". A filing for a trademark featuring the letter B above the mathematical symbol for infinity was made August 25, 1925, claimed the mark was in use as of December 1, 1924. A wide variety of uses were listed in their trademark applications; the first issue of Plastics magazine, October 1925, featured Bakelite on its cover, included the article "Bakelite – What It Is" by Allan Brown.
The range of colors available included "black, red, green, gray and blends of two or more of these". The article emphasized. "Bakelite is manufactured in several forms to suit varying requirements. In all these forms the fundamental basis is the initial Bakelite resin; this variety includes clear material, for jewelry, smokers' articles, etc.. The molding material is prepared ordinarily by the impregnation of cellulose substances with the initial'uncured' resin." In a 1925 report, the United States Tariff Commission hailed the commercial manufacture of synthetic phenolic resin as "distinctly an American achievement", noted that "the publication of figures, would be a virtual disclosure of the production of an individual company". In England, Bakelite Limited, a merger of three British phenol formaldehyde resin suppliers (Damard Lacquer Company Limited of Birmingh
Operation Menu was the codename of a covert United States Strategic Air Command bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970 as part of both the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War. The targets of these attacks were sanctuaries and Base Areas of the People's Army of Vietnam and forces of the Viet Cong, which utilized them for resupply and resting between campaigns across the border in the Republic of Vietnam; the impact of the bombing campaign on the Khmer Rouge guerrillas, the PAVN, Cambodian civilians in the bombed areas is disputed by historians. An official United States Air Force record of U. S. bombing activity over Indochina from 1964 to 1973 was declassified by U. S. President Bill Clinton in 2000; the report gives details of the extent of the bombing of Cambodia, as well as of Vietnam. According to the data, the Air Force began bombing the rural regions of Cambodia along its South Vietnam border in 1965 under the Johnson administration; the Menu bombings were an escalation of what had been tactical air attacks.
Newly inaugurated President Richard Nixon authorized for the first time use of long range B-52 heavy bombers to carpet bomb Cambodia. Operation Freedom Deal followed Operation Menu. Under Freedom Deal, B-52 bombing was expanded to a much larger area of Cambodia and continued until August 1973. From the onset of hostilities in South Vietnam and the Kingdom of Laos in the early 1960s, Cambodia's Prince Norodom Sihanouk had maintained a delicate domestic and foreign policy balancing act. Convinced of the inevitable victory of the communists in Southeast Asia and concerned for the future existence of his government, Sihanouk swung toward the left in the mid-1960s. In 1966, Sihanouk made an agreement with Zhou En-lai of the People's Republic of China that would allow PAVN and NLF forces to establish Base Areas in Cambodia and to use the port of Sihanoukville for the delivery of military material; the US involved in South Vietnam, was not eager to violate the asserted neutrality of Cambodia, guaranteed by the Geneva Accord of 1954.
Beginning in 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized covert reconnaissance operations by the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group; the mission of the classified unit was to obtain military intelligence on the Base Areas that would be presented to Sihanouk in hopes of changing his position. By late 1968, under pressure from the political right at home and from the US, agreed to more normalized relations with the Americans. In July 1968, he had agreed to reopen diplomatic relations and, in August, formed a Government of National Salvation under the pro-US General Lon Nol. Newly inaugurated President Richard M. Nixon, seeking any means by which to withdraw from Southeast Asia and obtain "peace with honor", saw an opening with which to give time for the US withdrawal, time to implement the new policy of Vietnamization. Before the diplomatic amenities with Sihanouk were concluded, Nixon had decided to deal with the situation of PAVN troops and supply bases in Cambodia.
He had considered a naval blockade of the Cambodian coast, but was talked out of it by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who believed that Sihanouk could still be convinced to agree to ground attacks against the Base Areas. On 30 January 1969, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Earle Wheeler had suggested to the president that he authorize the bombing of the Cambodian sanctuaries, he was seconded on 9 February by the U. S. commander in Vietnam, General Creighton W. Abrams, who submitted his proposal to bomb the Central Office of South Vietnam, the elusive headquarters of PAVN/NLF southern operations, located somewhere in the Fishhook region of eastern Cambodia. On 22 February, during the period just following the Tết holidays, PAVN/NLF forces launched an offensive. Nixon became more angered when the communists launched rocket and artillery attacks against Saigon, which he considered a violation of the "agreement" he believed had been made when the US halted the bombing of North Vietnam in November 1968.
Nixon, en route to Brussels for a meeting with North Atlantic Treaty Organization leaders, ordered his National Security Advisor, Dr. Henry Kissinger, to prepare for airstrikes against PAVN/NLF Base Areas in Cambodia as a reprisal; the bombings were to serve three purposes: it would show Nixon's tenacity. He cabled Colonel Alexander Haig, a National Security Council staff aide, to meet him in Brussels along with Colonel Raymond Sitton, a former Strategic Air Command officer on the JCS staff, to formulate a plan of action. By seeking advice from high administration officials, Nixon had delayed any quick response that could be explicitly linked to the provocation, he didn't have to wait long. On 14 March, communist forces once again attacked Nixon was ready. In his diary in March 1969, Nixon's chief of staff, H. R. Haldeman, noted that the final decision to carpet bomb Cambodia'was made at a meeting in the Oval Office Sunday afternoon, after the church service'. In his diary on 17 March 1969, Haldeman wrote: Historic day.
K's "Operation Breakfast" came off at 2:00 pm our time. K excited, as is P, and the next day: K's "Operation Breakfast" a great success. He came beaming in with
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the design of products and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest, it is not changes or amendments to the work enviornment but encompases theory, methods and principles all applied in the field of ergonomics. The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, engineering, industrial design, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities; the two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous. The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows: Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, the profession that applies theory, principles and methods to design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Human factors is employed to fulfill the goals of occupational safety and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Human factors and ergonomics is concerned with the "fit" between the user and environment or "fitting a person to a job", it accounts for the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, functions and the environment suit that user. To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, human factors specialists or ergonomists consider the job being done and the demands on the user. Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, information design, physiology, cognitive psychology and organizational psychology, space psychology.
The term ergonomics first entered the modern lexicon when Polish scientist Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody. The French scholar Jean-Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil without knowledge of Jastrzębowski's article, used the word with a different meaning in 1858; the introduction of the term to the English lexicon is attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell, at the 1949 meeting at the UK's Admiralty, which led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II; the expression human factors is a predominantly North American term, adopted to emphasize the application of the same methods to non-work-related situations. A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems; the terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous.
Ergonomics comprise three main fields of research: physical and organizational ergonomics. There are many specializations within these broad categories. Specializations in the field of physical ergonomics may include visual ergonomics. Specializations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human–computer interaction, user experience engineering; some specializations may cut across these domains: Environmental ergonomics is concerned with human interaction with the environment as characterized by climate, pressure, light. The emerging field of human factors in highway safety uses human factor principles to understand the actions and capabilities of road users – car and truck drivers, cyclists, etc. – and use this knowledge to design roads and streets to reduce traffic collisions. Driver error is listed as a contributing factor in 44% of fatal collisions in the United States, so a topic of particular interest is how road users gather and process information about the road and its environment, how to assist them to make the appropriate decision.
New terms are being generated all the time. For instance, "user trial engineer" may refer to a human factors professional who specializes in user trials. Although the names change, human factors professionals apply an understanding of human factors to the design of equipment and working methods to improve comfort, health and productivity. According to the International Ergonomics Association, within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization. Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomy, some of the anthropometric and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Physical ergonomic principles have been used in the design of both consumer and indu