Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law. The word is used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced; some kind of limitation on the trade in alcohol can be seen in the Code of Hammurabi banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water."In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption; the first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands.
Rum-running or bootlegging became widespread, organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years. In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned. Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan. In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country; the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion.
In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption, non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in not more than two bottles of liquor and twelve cans of beer per person into the country. In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but most states do not have prohibition and sale/consumption is available in 25 out of 29 states. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the union territory of Lakshadweep. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol. Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but consumption is allowed; some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region.
Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. All people are banned from drinking alcohol but some people trade and sell it illegally. Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores; the consumption and brewing of, trafficking in liquor is against the law. Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic sharia law. Alcoholic products can be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, convenience stores all over the country. Non-halal restaurants typically sell alcohol; the Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. In the British colony of Nigeria, missionary forces demanded prohibition of liquor, which proved unpopular. Both Africans and Europeans found illegal supplies such as secret stills, obtaining colonial liquor permits, smuggling; the experiment began in 1890 and was repealed in 1939, Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits. The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but is about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol; the Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery. The ban is enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, but it is not policed. Members of religious minorities, however sell their li
Louise Cooper is a British Chartered Financial Analyst and Times columnist, known for her work on the BBC World Service between 2002 and 2011 as a presenter and senior economics journalist for shows including Newshour and Europe Today. She publishes the financial blog CooperCity, she came to the attention of the public in 2011 while working for BGC Partners as a Senior Financial Analyst, appearing from their offices to provide opinion and economic insight on TV for major broadcasters such as BBC News, ITV News, Al-Jazeera, Sky News and CNBC among others. She garnered praise for her no-nonsense style and the ability to break down complex business stories for a wider audience. Cooper is quoted in the media, commenting on complex financial issues such as Greek debt. Billion dollar corporate mergers, gender equality in pay and the impact of finance on footballShe has been, from time to time, a regular guest on BBC5 Live’s early morning financial programme Wake Up to Money. Cooper attended the Cass Business School graduating with first class honours in Business and Finance in 1992.
From there she moved to Goldman Sachs working in UK Equity Institutional Research Sales. In 1999 she moved to The Money Channel, working as a presenter until 2001. In June 2002 she joined the BBC World Service Radio station as a Senior Business Journalist, she remained there until 2011 when she joined Lansons Communication as the Head of Lansons Live. In June 2011 Cooper moved to BGC Partners as a Senior Financial Analyst, where she came to prominence on British Television, providing financial analysis from the BGC offices. Cooper featured on Sky News, ITV, CNBC and Al Jazeera, she has made appearances on The Daily Politics where she described UKIP leader Nigel Farage as'laughable' for his comments denying discrimination against women working in London's financial sector. She has appeared on ITV's Daybreak as well as Question Time and This Week. In August 2011 an article was published by the Mail on Sunday, calling Cooper the'Downturn Diva' and the'New face of the global economic downturn'. After leaving BGC Partners in November 2012, Cooper published her blog CooperCity and has written articles for a number of newspapers and websites, including The Guardian, The Daily Mail, CNN, The Spectator and City A.
M.. She writes a regular column for The Times and works as a keynote speaker and host. Wake Up to Money
The American Student Government Association was founded in 2001 as a professional association for collegiate Student Governments and Student Government Associations across the United States. ASGA was founded by Oxendine Publishing, Inc. which published Student Leader magazine and web sites on student leadership. ASGA's research and experts have been referenced in hundreds of newspapers nationwide. " ASGA's "SG Database" gathers information on trends in higher education, including the number of women and ethnic minorities, as well as trends in election turnout, compensation paid to elected student government officers and members ASGA has over 1,500 member student governments at the nearly 4,500 institutions across the United States. Since 2005, ASGA advisors. 3,000 students and administrators attend 11 ASGA conferences each year. 700 student leaders attend the National Student Government Summit annually. The American Student Government Association will provide all Student Government leaders and advisors nationwide with networking and information resources and will teach them how to become more effective and influential leaders on their campuses.
ASGA will promote the advancement of SGs, conduct research as the nation’s only “SG Think Tank,” and advocate the importance of having a vibrant, autonomous Student Government organization at every institution in America. American Student Government Association. ASGA is the professional association for collegiate Student Government across the United States. Student Leader magazine. Founded in 1992, Student Leader was ASGA's official member magazine, but had subscribers at more than 1,000 colleges and universities nationwide