click links in text for more info


A projectionist is a person who operates a movie projector. In the strict sense of the term this means any film projector and therefore could include someone who operates the projector in a show. In common usage the term is understood to describe a paid employee of a movie theater, they are known as "operators". N. B; the dates given in the subject headings are approximate. The need for professional projectionists arose from the commercial showing of movie films to the general public in buildings designed for the purpose or using variety theatres as part of the "bill", which began towards the end of the first decade of the twentieth century. Before the emergence of purpose-built movie theaters, film projectors in venues such as fairgrounds, music halls and Nickelodeons were operated by a showman or presenter, in the same way as a lanternist; the light source for most projectors in the early period was limelight, which did not require an electricity supply. Between 1905 and 1915, two factors combined to transform the role of the projectionist into a separate job with a specific profile of skills and training.

Concerns over the flammability of nitrate film, following several major fires during the cinema's first decade resulted in the increasing regulation of the film exhibition industry, including the requirement that projectors be housed in fireproof booths, segregated from the auditorium. In the United Kingdom, for example, this requirement was introduced in the Cinematograph Act 1909, prevented the projectionist from carrying out a public-facing role; the legal right to act as a projectionist in a public movie theater was, to some extent still is, regulated, to varying degrees in different jurisdictions. Some required projectionists to be licensed by local or central government, this process sometimes required projectionists to undergo assessments or sit exams. Trade union-based regulation of the profession was widespread in some jurisdictions, in which the licensing of projectionists was incorporated into collective bargaining agreements between employers and unions. In the United States, projectionists were sometimes'pooled out' to theatre companies via their union.

Closed shop working by projectionists was common in British cinema chains until the early 1980s. The original reason for this regulation was the necessity for safety precautions for the use of nitrate prints, hence the requirement that projectionists should be formally trained to handle them in order to ensure public safety, but the formal training and licensing of projectionists continued in most of the US and Europe well after nitrate had been superseded in the 1950s, in a minority of jurisdictions it continues to this day. With the advent of feature-length films during the early to mid-teens and the increasing tendency for film screenings to be the main or only event that took place in a purpose-built theater, rather than incorporated into other forms of live entertainment, the role of the projectionist became more specialised and began to incorporate elements of showmanship once again; the safety precautions associated with nitrate required 35mm film prints to be shipped in reels no longer than 1,000 feet.

In order show a feature-length film without interruption while the following reel is laced up, two projectors focused on the same screen were used, with the projectionist'changing over' from one to the other at the end of each reel. 2,000 foot'double' reels were introduced from the early 1930s onwards. Until the conversion to sound, electric motors were uncommon on 35mm theater projectors: most were hand-cranked by the projectionist. Contemporary accounts suggest that hand cranking at a consistent speed took a considerable amount of skill. Presentation technique began to include tasks such as operating auditorium lighting systems and masking systems and lantern slide projectors. During the 1920s, movie theaters became projection equipment had to adapt to this. Limelight illumination was replaced by the electrically powered carbon arc lamp, with the arrival of sound electric motors were installed to drive projectors; the operation and basic maintenance of audio equipment became part of the projectionist's job following the introduction of sound.

The technology of cinema projection, with it the role of the projectionist, changed fundamentally over an extended period between the early 1950s and late 1960s. Nitrate film was superseded by cellulose triacetate for release printing in the US and Europe over about a five-year period following the stock's commercial launch in October 1948. With nitrate went the restrictions on reel lengths necessitated by the fire risk, with the result that systems were developed to enable the projection of a complete feature film using a single projector and unattended. Two essential technologies were needed to enable this: the long-play device, a.k.a. platter, i.e. a turntable 4–6 feet in diameter or an large film reel 3–5 feet in diameter either of which enabled the reels of a feature presentation to be joined together into a single roll, in some cases up to 30,000 feet in length.

Cees Links

Cees Links is a Dutch entrepreneur and the founder and CEO of GreenPeak Technologies, a fabless semiconductor company for smart home and Internet of things applications. Upon graduation from the University of Twente in 1982, Links started his career at NCR Corporation; as product manager, he was responsible for the first concept development and launch of the world's first wireless LAN product in 1990, WaveLAN, a major innovation at that time. Throughout several acquisitions and divestitures, Links continued his work in the wireless LAN area, which he turned into a multi-hundred million dollar business for Agere Systems. Links started as product manager, responsible for the initial WiFi marketing and concept creation and in 1996 became general manager of the WiFi business unit, he directly closed the deal with Steve Jobs at Apple Computer in 1999 that ignited the growth of the wireless LAN industry. Through this deal, wireless LANs went on to become the standard communication feature as is known today.

Links has been involved with wireless next generation technology breakthroughs in the ZigBee Alliance and the IoT. From 1991 until 2002, Links was involved in the establishment of the IEEE 802.11 standardization committee and the Wi-Fi Alliance. He was instrumental in helping to establish the IEEE 802.15 standardization committee to become the basis for the ZigBee/Thread sense and control networking technology and standardization. He is an active member in the ZigBee Alliance. In 2004 Links founded GreenPeak Technologies, where he was CEO. GreenPeak is a fabless semiconductor company with a strong focus on wireless for sense and control networks in Smart Home and Internet of Things applications. Links got the company launched and uniquely positioned in the market, he has grown the team to accelerated growth. In May 2016, GreenPeak Technologies was acquired by Qorvo, where Links became General Manager of the Wireless Connectivity business unit. Links was recognized in January 2017 as Wi-Fi pioneer with the Golden Mousetrap Lifetime Achievement award.

In May 2019, Wireless technology innovator Cees Links inducted into Wi-Fi NOW Hall of Fame Links was born in 1957 and raised in Amsterdam, the son of Piet Links, a mathematics teacher. He has 6 siblings and grew up with an innate interest for technology, which developed into his passion for engineering during his teens. Links holds a master's degree in Applied Mathematics and a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering from the Twente University of Technology in Enschede, the Netherlands, he graduated from an Advanced Business Management Course from the Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham NC, USA. Links lives in the Netherlands, he is father of five and grandfather of three. Author of the book: “The Spirit of WiFi”, about the WiFi history. Subtitle: “WiFi: where it so came from, where it is today and where it is going in the future.” The Spirit of WiFi Professor Wolter Lemstra for TU Delft wrote an in-depth study on “The Innovation Journey of WiFi”, issued by Cambridge Press and explaining Cees' role in the development of Wi-Fi.

University of Twente - Alumni Wall of Fame - Cees Links - Inventor of WiFi TwitTV interview with Cees Links on Smart Homes EE Times Cees Links on the secret success of Steve Jobs: wireless internet Bloomberg Television Interview with Cees Links on the invention of WiFi Tweakers Polder Pioneers Cees Links & Vic Hayes - Founders of Wifi 10 important Dutch inventions - The beginning of WiFi

FV Time Bandit

The FV Time Bandit is a commercial crab fishing vessel co-captained by brothers Johnathan and Andy Hillstrand. It is featured on the Discovery Channel series Deadliest Catch; the Time Bandit is a 113-foot house aft boat owned by the Hillstrand brothers, designed by the Hillstrands' father. The five men helped custom-build the boat's interior, including some comforts unheard of in a crab boat: a four-man sauna, state rooms with queen-size beds and a dishwasher; the vessel carries 137 crab pots. In October 2018 the vessel suffered a major engine failure forcing the crew to skip the season. In April 2019 the ship was for sale at $2.8 million dollars by Dock Street Brokers. Three of the five Hillstrand brothers make up the six-man crew. Manning the helm are either Johnathan Hillstrand during the King crab season, or Andy Hillstrand during the Opilio crab season, with their youngest brother Neal Hillstrand serving as engineer and Neal's sons and Phillip Hillstrand, working as deckhands. All three elder Hillstrands act as mechanics for the boat as well.

Justin Tennison, an engineer on the Time Bandit for two seasons, was found dead in a Homer, hotel room on 22 February 2011. An autopsy revealed. Engines: two 600 horsepower Cummins QSK19 diesels Props: two 58 × 55 propellers Hydraulics: two 125 kW auxiliaries Crane: 10 ton 40’ knuckle boom Built in 1991 at the Giddings Boat Works in Coos BayThe engine and prop upgrades were detailed in a special episode of Deadliest Catch about the history of the Time Bandit on 16 April 2013. Alaskan king crab fishing Time Bandit website Deadliest Catch website Giddings Boat Works website

Li Congke

Li Congke known posthumously as Emperor Mo of Later Tang, Emperor Fei of Later Tang, Wang Congke, or Prince of Lu, nickname Ershisan or, in short, was the last emperor of the Later Tang - the second of the Five Dynasties following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. He was an adoptive son of Li Siyuan and took the throne after overthrowing Emperor Mingzong's biological son Emperor Min of Later Tang, he was himself overthrown by his brother-in-law Shi Jingtang, supported by Khitan troops. When the combined Later Jin and Khitan forces defeated Later Tang forces, Li Congke and his family members, as well as the guards most loyal to him, ascended a tower and set it on fire, dying in the fire. Li Congke was born during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang, in Pingshan, his biological father was a man with the surname of Wang. His mother was a Lady Wei. During the subsequent Jingfu era of Emperor Xizong's brother and successor Emperor Zhaozong, there was a time when Li Siyuan an officer under his adoptive father, the major warlord Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit, was pillaging the Pingshan region under Li Keyong's command.

He happened to encounter Lady Wei and Li Congke, he captured them. He made Lady Wei either a concubine subordinated to Lady Cao, he named him Congke. As he was born on the 23rd day of the first lunar month of 885, he received the nickname of "Ershisan", or "Asan" in short. In his childhood, Li Congke was said to be silent. According to an account that Li Siyuan gave Li Siyuan's household was not wealthy at that time, there was not enough money for household expenses. Li Congke took on part of the household financial burdens by collecting lime and horse manure, for family use and/or for sale. Lady Wei was buried at Hedong's capital Taiyuan. After Tang fell in 906, Li Keyong's domain became the state of Jin and was ruled by Li Keyong, after Li Keyong's death, by Li Keyong's biological son Li Cunxu, as its princes. Li Siyuan was one of Li Cunxu's major generals, Li Congke served under him, it was said that Li Congke was tall and strong, had an impressive appearance. He became well known for his battle prowess, leading Li Cunxu to state, "Not only is Asan the same as I am in age, but he is like I am in daring to battle."

Li Congke participated in a major Jin victory over the Khitan Empire in 917, serving under his father. In late 918, Li Cunxu wanted to carry out a major campaign to destroy Jin's southern archrival Later Liang, took an army south toward Later Liang's capital Daliang, he encountered the main Later Liang army, under the command of the general He Gui, at Huliu Slope, south of the Yellow River. The Jin army was victorious, but a subsequent confusion in communications led the Jin army to believe that it was being defeated, the army collapsed. In the confusion, the major general Zhou Dewei was killed, Li Siyuan lost communications with Li Cunxu, while Li Congke was in the small group of soldiers accompanying Li Cunxu himself. Li Siyuan, believing that Li Cunxu had crossed the Yellow River north back into Jin territory, headed north across the river, while Li Cunxu, in actuality, was still trying to battle out of the confused rout. Li Congke, serving under Li Cunxu, subsequently assisted Li Cunxu in capturing an earthen mound, allowing Li Cunxu to have superior positioning to launch a counterattack.

The Jin counterattack was successful, allowing the Jin army to kill a large number of Later Liang soldiers and leading to the overall battle being a draw, with both armies having lost two-thirds of their soldiers and unable to attack each other for some time. At the end of the battle, Li Cunxu was able to capture Puyang as a waypoint to his eventual withdrawal back to his own territory. Li Congke contributed to the successful counterattack; when Li Siyuan subsequently heard that Li Cunxu was at Puyang, he turned back south and rendezvoused with Li Cunxu there. Li Cunxu, stated, "Lord, you believed that I was dead? Why did you cross the river?" Li Siyuan had to apologize. It was said that Li Cunxu acted like he forgave Li Siyuan due to Li Congke's contributions, but did not do so in his heart, distancing himself from Li Siyuan for several years. In 922, Li Cunxu cl

Tajikistan at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Tajikistan competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004. One Tajik archer qualified for the women's individual archery. Tajik athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events. KeyNote – Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in roundMen Field eventsWomen Track & road events Tajikistan sent one boxer to Athens. Tajikistan has qualified a single shooter. Men KeyVT – Victory by Fall. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's freestyleWomen's freestyle Tajikistan at the 2002 Asian Games Tajikistan at the 2004 Summer Paralympics Official Report of the XXVIII Olympiad Tajikistan Olympic Committee

Pernod Fils

Pernod Fils was the most popular brand of absinthe throughout the 19th century until it was banned in 1915. During the Belle Époque, the Pernod Fils name became synonymous with absinthe, the brand represented the de facto standard of quality by which all others were judged; the brand's roots can be traced as far back as the 1790s. According to legend, it was during this time in Neuchâtel, that Dr. Pierre Ordinaire created a distilled patent medicine that would represent the earliest origins of the drink; the recipe came into the hands of Henri Louis Pernod through the means of a business deal, in 1797, he and Daniel-Henri Dubied opened the first absinthe distillery in Couvet, Switzerland. Pernod built a larger distillery in Pontarlier, France, in 1805; this set the stage that would cause the sleepy community of Pontarlier to emerge as the home of twenty-eight commercial absinthe distilleries, the world's center of absinthe production. The popularity of the Pernod Fils brand surged in the decades that followed, its impressive market share spawning a string of knock-offs and imitators with deceptive brand names such as "Pernot", "Parrot" and "Pierrot", among others.

In 1901, the original distillery was completely destroyed by fire. A new and more modern distillery was built in its place. In its heyday, the Pernod Fils distillery was producing as much as 30,000 liters of absinthe per day, was exporting its product around the world. By 1910, France's rate of absinthe consumption had topped some 36 million liters per year. With a temperance movement growing around the world, many prominent French politicians and scientists turned their interest to France's'national drink'. Like most quality absinthes, Pernod Fils was produced by macerating herbs, including wormwood, fennel and anise in a neutral spirit of agricultural origin in a copper alembic where the mixture was distilled, to produce a transparent liquor. Part of the distillate was steeped with additional herbs, such as hyssop and petite wormwood, to produce a green-colored fraction, filtered and reunited with the main part; the coloration process was done to impart additional flavor and aroma to the absinthe, but the ensuing light olive tint had the added benefit of enhancing its visual appeal.

The colored distillate was reduced in strength, with the 68% ABV product representing the most popular version of the brand. The predominant flavor in Pernod Fils, like all absinthes, was anise—a flavor misidentified by anglophones as "licorice"; the sheer popularity of absinthe indirectly contributed to its own demise. The absence of a proper appellation of control and regulated production standards invited cheap, industrial versions of the drink into urban markets; these poor quality absinthes appealed to alcoholics of low socioeconomic status, were adulterated with a variety of toxic substances to make certain attributes of these inferior brands more convincing. This opened the door for the detractors of absinthe to accuse the drink of being harmful and deleterious, making it a convenient scapegoat for societal ills. Scientists conducted studies involving the injection of pure wormwood essence into small animals, and while this practice resulted in convulsions followed by the death of the animal, these tests were flawed and unrepresentative of absinthe consumption.

Despite pleas by absinthe distillers for quality regulations for the category, the enemies of absinthe pushed to ban the popular drink. By 1915, absinthe was banned throughout much of the world. All French absinthe distilleries closed their doors, which caused the demise of Pernod Fils in France. Despite the crippling effects of the French ban and the subsequent First World War, Pernod Fils' absinthe did not disappear. Production was resumed on a smaller scale at the Banus distillery in Tarragona, where absinthe had never been formally banned. However, the drink never regained its former popularity, by the 1960s, production of Pernod's absinthe was ceased. Concurrently in France, the Pernod company began producing a liqueur d'anis in the years that followed the First World War, it is this product which has evolved over the decades into its familiar present-day incarnation. Modern-day Pernod liqueur d'anis is altogether different from its predecessor, being compounded from a modern, industrial process, being lower proof with a much different flavor profile, bottled with artificial dye and sugar.

In 2001, following the relegalisation of absinthe in various markets, Pernod-Ricard released an absinthe made from flavouring extracts and colourants claimed to be "inspired by the old formula". Independent reviews however revealed the product to be far more similar to its contemporary cousin, Pernod liqueur d'anise, than the historic pre-1915 drink. In more recent years, Pernod's absinthe was reformulated and relaunched in an effort to bring it closer to the original sold by its predecessor, Pernod Fils; the Virtual Absinthe Museum- A comprehensive online museum of absinthe history, lore and antiques