A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or a body of water. Most promontories either are formed from a hard ridge of rock that has resisted the erosive forces that have removed the softer rock to the sides of it, or are the high ground that remains between two river valleys where they form a confluence. Throughout history many forts and castles have been built on promontories because of their inherent defensibility; the promontory forts in Ireland are examples of this. The ancient town of Ras Bar Balla in southern Somalia, which in the Middle Ages was part of the Ajuran Sultanate's domain, was built on a small promontory. River confluences provide an added defensive advantage to promontories, acting as a reliable natural moat for the enemy to overcome; the Citadel of Namur, a prime fortified location from the 10th century to this day, lies on the promontory at the confluence of the Meuse and Sambre rivers in the Walloon capital city of Namur, Belgium. Another good example of a confluence promontory fort is Fort Pitt, an English fort during the American Revolution that had belonged to the French as Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War.

The surrounding location is known as the city of Pennsylvania. Headlands and bays The dictionary definition of promontory at Wiktionary

Pippa Malmgren

Philippa "Pippa" Malmgren is an American policy analyst. She served as Special Assistant to the President of the United States, George W Bush, for Economic Policy on the National Economic Council and is a former member of the U. S. President's Working Group on Financial Markets, she is co-founder of H Robotics. She obtained her PhD from the London School of Economics in 1991 where she was invited to speak at the Summer Commencement in 2013. According to Erik Townsend's website Ms. Malmgren is, "... a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Chatham House, The Institute for International Strategic Security and the Royal Geographical Society."Her father is Harald Malmgren. Signals: How Everyday Signs Can Help Us Navigate the World's Turbulent Economy (2016 Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 978-1474603508 Geopolitics for Investors CFA Institute Research Foundation ISBN 978-1934667835 Signals: The Breakdown of the Social Contract and the Rise of Geopolitics Grosvenor House Publishing Limited ISBN 978 1781487402 DRPM Group Foreign Policy Association interview with Dr. Malmgren

Raphael Chukwu

Raphael Ndukwe Chukwu is a Nigerian international footballer who played as a striker. Chukwu has played professionally in Nigeria, South-Africa and Turkey for Enyimba International, Udoji United, Shooting Stars, Mamelodi Sundowns, Bari and Çaykur Rizespor, he participated at the 2000 Africa Cup of Nations, scoring in the Final against Cameroon, earned ten senior caps for Nigeria. In September 2004 he was banned by FIFA for failing his contractual obligations towards Çaykur Rizespor