Ogden is a city and the county seat of Weber County, United States 10 miles east of the Great Salt Lake and 40 miles north of Salt Lake City. The population was 84,316 in 2014, according to the US Census Bureau, making it Utah's 7th largest city; the city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a convenient location for manufacturing and commerce. Ogden is known for its many historic buildings, proximity to the Wasatch Mountains, as the location of Weber State University. Ogden is a principal city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Weber, Morgan and Box Elder counties; the 2010 Census placed the Metro population at 597,159. In 2010, Forbes rated the Ogden-Clearfield MSA as the 6th best place to raise a family. Ogden has had a sister city relationship to Hof since 1954. Named Fort Buenaventura, Ogden was the first permanent settlement by people of European descent in what is now Utah.
It was established by the trapper Miles Goodyear in 1846 about a mile west of where downtown Ogden sits today. In November 1847, Captain James Brown purchased all the land now comprising Weber County together with some livestock and Fort Buenaventura for $3,000; the land was conveyed to Captain Brown in a Mexican Land Grant, this area being at that time a part of Mexico. The settlement was called Brownsville, after Captain James Brown, but was named Ogden for a brigade leader of the Hudson's Bay Company, Peter Skene Ogden, who had trapped in the Weber Valley a generation earlier. There is some confusion. A Samuel Ogden traveled though the western United States on an exploration trip in 1818; the site of the original Fort Buenaventura is now a Weber County park. Ogden is the closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869, it was known as a major passenger railroad junction owing to its location along major east–west and north–south routes, prompting the local chamber of commerce to adopt the motto, "You can't get anywhere without coming to Ogden."
Railroad passengers traveling west to San Francisco from the eastern United States passed through Ogden. However, the national passenger rail system, no longer serves Ogden. Passengers who want to travel to and from Ogden by rail must travel via FrontRunner commuter rail to Salt Lake City and Provo. In 1972, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completed construction of and dedicated the Ogden Utah Temple in Ogden; the temple was built to serve the area's large LDS population. In 2010, the LDS Church announced they would renovate the adjacent Tabernacle; the work which began in 2011 includes an update to the exterior, the removal of the Tabernacle's steeple to make the Temple's steeple a main focus and a new underground parking garage and gardens. The Temple was rededicated in 2014; because Ogden has been Utah's second largest city, it is home to a large number of historic buildings. However, by the 1980s, several Salt Lake City suburbs and Provo had surpassed Ogden in population; the Defense Depot Ogden Utah operated in Ogden from 1941 to 1997.
Some of its 1,128 acres have been converted into a commercial and industrial park called the Business Depot Ogden. Ogden is located at 41°13′11″N 111°58′16″W, at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of all land. Elevations in the city range from about 4,300 to 5,200 feet above sea level; the Ogden and Weber Rivers, which originate in the mountains to the east, flow through the city and meet at a confluence just west of the city limits. Pineview Dam is in the Ogden River Canyon 7 miles east of Ogden; the reservoir behind the dam provides over 110,000 acre feet of water storage and water recreation for the area. Prominent mountain peaks near Ogden include Mount Ogden to the east and Ben Lomond to the north. Ogden experiences a dry summer continental climate. Summers are hot and dry, with highs reaching 95 °F, with a few days per year reaching 100 °F. Rain is provided in the form of infrequent thunderstorms during summer between mid-July and mid-September during the height of monsoon season.
The Pacific storm season lasts from about October through May, with precipitation reaching its peak in spring. Snow first occurs in late October or early November, with the last occurring sometime in April. Winters are snowy, with highs averaging 37 °F in January. Snowfall averages about 40 inches, with 21.98 inches of precipitation annually. Extremes range from −16 °F, set on January 26, 1949, to 106 °F, set on July 14, 2002; as of the census of 2000, there were 77,226 people, 27,384 households, 18,402 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,899.2 people per square mile. There were 29,763 housing units at an average density of 1,117.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 79.01% White, 2.31% African American, 1.20% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.95% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.64% of the population. There were 27,384 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present
Great Salt Lake
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U. S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world. In an average year the lake covers an area of around 1,700 square miles, but the lake's size fluctuates due to its shallowness. For instance, in 1963 it reached its lowest recorded size at 950 square miles, but in 1988 the surface area was at the historic high of 3,300 square miles. In terms of surface area, it is the largest lake in the United States, not part of the Great Lakes region; the lake is the largest remnant of Lake Bonneville, a prehistoric pluvial lake that once covered much of western Utah. The three major tributaries to the lake, the Jordan and Bear rivers together deposit around 1.1 million tons of minerals in the lake each year. As it is endorheic, it has high salinity and its mineral content is increasing. Due to the high density resulting from its mineral content, swimming in the Great Salt Lake is similar to floating.
Its shallow, warm waters cause frequent, sometimes heavy lake-effect snows from late fall through spring. Although it has been called "America's Dead Sea", the lake provides habitat for millions of native birds, brine shrimp and waterfowl, including the largest staging population of Wilson's phalarope in the world; the Great Salt Lake is a remnant of a much larger prehistoric lake called Lake Bonneville. At its greatest extent, Lake Bonneville spanned 22,400 square miles, nearly as large as present-day Lake Michigan, ten times the area of the Great Salt Lake today. Bonneville reached 923 ft at its deepest point, covered much of present-day Utah and small portions of Idaho and Nevada during the ice ages of the Pleistocene Epoch. Lake Bonneville existed until about 16,800 years ago, when a large portion of the lake was released through the Red Rock Pass in Idaho. With the warming climate, the remaining lake began to dry, leaving the Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake behind; the Shoshone and Paiute have lived near the Great Salt Lake for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One of the local Shoshone tribes, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the Great Salt Lake entered written European history through the records of Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, who learned of its existence from the Timpanogos Utes in 1776. No European name was given to it at the time, it was not shown on the map by Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, the cartographer for the expedition. In 1824, it was observed independently, by Jim Bridger and Etienne Provost. Shortly thereafter other trappers walked around it. Most of the trappers, were illiterate and did not record their discoveries; as oral reports of their findings made their way to those who did make records, some errors were made. Escalante had been on the shores of Utah Lake, it was the larger of the two lakes. Other cartographers charted Lake Timpanogos as the largest lake in the region.
As people came to know of the Great Salt Lake, they interpreted the maps to think that "Timpanogos" referred to the Great Salt Lake. On some maps the two names were used synonymously. In time "Timpanogos" was dropped from the maps and its original association with Utah Lake was forgotten. In 1843, John C. Fremont led the first scientific expedition to the lake, but with winter coming on, he did not take the time to survey the entire lake; that happened in 1850 under the leadership of Howard Stansbury. John Fremont's overly glowing reports of the area were published shortly after his expedition. Stansbury published a formal report of his survey work which became popular, his report of the area included a discussion of Mormon religious practices based on Stansbury's interaction with the Mormon community in Great Salt Lake City, established three years earlier in 1847. Beginning in November 1895, artist and author Alfred Lambourne spent a year living on the remote Gunnison Island, where he wrote a book of musing and poetry, Our Inland Sea.
From November 1895 to March 1896, he was alone. In March, a few guano sifters arrived to harvest and sell the guano of the nesting birds as fertilizer. Lambourne included musings about these guano sifters in his work. Lambourne left the island early in the winter of 1896 along with the first group of guano sifters; the Great Salt Lake lends its name to Salt Lake City named "Great Salt Lake City" by the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Brigham Young, who led a group of Mormon pioneers to the Salt Lake Valley southeast of the lake on July 24, 1847. The lake lies in parts of five counties: Box Elder, Tooele and Salt Lake. Salt Lake City and its suburbs are located to the south-east and east of the lake, between the lake and the Wasatch Mountains, but land around the north and west shores are uninhabited; the Bonneville Salt Flats are to the west, the Oquirrh and Stansbury Mountains rise to the south. The Great Salt Lake is fed by several minor streams; the three major rivers are each fed directly or indirectly from the Uinta Mountain range in northeastern Utah.
The Bear River starts on the north slope of the Uintas and flows nort
A railway roundhouse is a building with a circular or semicircular shape used by railways for servicing and storing locomotives, traditionally surrounds, or is adjacent to, a turntable. Early steam locomotives travelled forwards only. Although reverse operations capabilities were soon built into locomotive mechanisms, the controls were optimized for forward travel, the locomotives could not operate as well in reverse; some passenger cars, such as observation cars, were designed as late as the 1960s for operations in a particular direction. Turntables allowed locomotives or other rolling stock to be turned around for the return journey, roundhouses, designed to radiate around the turntables, were built to service and store these locomotives. Most modern diesel and electric locomotives can run well in either direction, many are push-pull trains with control cabs at each end. In addition, railroads use multiple locomotives to pull trains, with locomotives that have distinct front and rear ends, the engines at opposing ends of a locomotive "consist" can be aligned so they face opposite directions.
With such a setup, trains needing to reverse direction can use a technique known as a "run around," in which the engines are uncoupled from the train, pull around it on an adjacent track or siding, reattach at the other end. The engineer changes operating ends from the original locomotive to the one on the opposite end of the locomotive consist. Railroad terminals use features such as balloon loops and wyes to reverse the orientation of railroad equipment; because of the advent of these practices, modern roundhouses are not round and are large buildings used for servicing locomotives. Like much other railroad terminology, the structure has retained its traditional name; the alternative term engine-house encompasses both semi-circular and rectangular structures and broadly describes all buildings intended for storage and servicing of locomotives. Shops or workshops are buildings containing hoists and heavy machinery capable of major repairs beyond routine servicing; some roundhouses include shop facilities internally or in adjoining buildings.
Since the great dieselisation era of the 1940s and 1950s, many roundhouses have been demolished or put to other uses, but a few still stand and remain in use on the railroads. Early roundhouses were too small for locomotives; the unusual shape of the buildings can make them difficult to adapt to new uses, but can be aesthetically appealing. Valley Heights roundhouse, 75 kilometres west of Sydney, New South Wales, is the oldest surviving roundhouse in Australia, has been preserved as a railway museum; the London Roundhouse Project London, Canada, is an extensive renovation of the Michigan Central Railroad steam locomotive repair shop, built in 1887. It is to become the new home of Ellipsis Digital and Engine SevenFour, a pair of emerging technology companies; the Canadian National Railways roundhouse at the Turcot Yard in Montreal, built in 1906, was the largest built in Canada. Its demolition in 1962 to make way for the Turcot Interchange illustrated a profound change in transportation habits across North America.
The Steam Whistle Brewing brewery in Toronto, Ontario is located in the building known as the John Street Roundhouse, a former Canadian Pacific Railway steam locomotive repair facility. The museum roundhouse in Wolsztyn, in western Poland, continues to supply steam locomotives for regular national rail services; the first railway roundhouse was built in 1839 at Derby, England by the North Midland Railway. The Derby roundhouse was restored in 2010, being converted into a brand new site for Derby College, with a new addition called the'Stephenson Building' including the other survival of demolition - the original Midland Counties Railway workshop; the new site was opened in September 2009. Tours can be arranged through Derby Tourist Information Centre; the Fenton and Jackson building in Leeds, a private workshop, may have been laid out in a radial pattern like a roundhouse. In a guidebook of the time we are told "The engine-house is a polygon of sixteen sides, 190 feet in diameter, lighted from a dome-shaped roof, of the height of 50 feet.
It contains 16 lines of rails, radiating from a single turn-table in the centre: the engines, on their arrival, are taken in there, placed upon the turn-table, wheeled into any stall that may be vacant. Each of the 16 stalls will hold two, or more, engines." This roundhouse narrowly escaped demolition when the works closed down, was classified as a listed building. The Roundhouse, Chalk Farm, London was built in 1847, but was too small for its function within 20 years. Barrow Hill Engine Shed, home to a number of preserved locomotives is still in use; the B&O Railroad Museum complex in Baltimore, Maryland contains the restored railcar maintenance roundhouse of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is said to be the world's largest 22-sided building; the roundhouse located on the BNSF line, with the last stop in Aurora, was purchased and restored by NFL football player Walter Payton. After Payton's death the roundhouse was renamed Two Brothers Roundhouse, with a plaque mounted in Payton's honor; the vast majority of roundhouses built in the US and Canada no longer exist, lie in ruins, or have been repurposed.
Below is a list of locations with operational roundhouses that are open t
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U. S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds; the Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory; the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road's eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit.
The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West. It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their harbor facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869, when the CPRR completed and opened the Western Pacific grade to Alameda and Oakland; the first transcontinental rail passengers arrived at the Pacific Railroad's original western terminus at the Alameda Mole on September 6, 1869 where they transferred to the steamer Alameda for transport across the Bay to San Francisco. The road's rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north. Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry; the CPRR purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, Utah Territory, which became the interchange point between trains of the two roads.
The transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. Building a railroad line that connected the United States coast-to-coast was advocated in 1832 when Dr. Hartwell Carver published an article in the New York Courier & Enquirer advocating building a transcontinental railroad from Lake Michigan to Oregon. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855; these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an immense amount of information about the American West, covering at least 400,000 sq mi.
It included the region's natural history and illustrations of reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The report failed however to include detailed topographic maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility and select the best route; the survey was detailed enough to determine that the best southern route lay south of the Gila River boundary with Mexico in vacant desert, through the future territories of Arizona and New Mexico. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase. In 1856 the Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph of the US House of Representatives published a report recommending support for a proposed Pacific railroad bill: The necessity that now exists for constructing lines of railroad and telegraphic communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this continent is no longer a question for argument. In order to maintain our present position on the Pacific, we must have some more speedy and direct means of intercourse than is at present afforded by the route through the possessions of a foreign power.
The U. S. Congress was divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered: A northern route along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory; this was considered impractical due to extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail. Snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, California. Surveyors found during an 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico; this was resolved by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Once the central route was chosen, it was obvious that the western terminus should be Sacramento, but there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. Three locations along 250 miles of Missouri River were considered: St. Joseph, accessed via the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.
Kansas City, Kansas / Leavenworth, Kansas accessed via the Leavenworth and Western Railroad, controlled by Thomas Ewing Jr. and by John C. Fremont. Council Bluffs, Iowa / Omaha, accessed via an extension of Union Pacific financier Thomas C. Durant's proposed Mississippi and
Central Pacific Railroad
The Central Pacific Railroad was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. With the secession of the South, the modernizers in the Republican Party controlled the US Congress, they passed legislation authorizing the railroad, with financing in the form of government railroad bonds. These were all repaid with interest; the government and the railroads both shared in the increased value of the land grants, which the railroads developed. The construction of the railroad secured for the government the economical "safe and speedy transportation of the mails, munitions of war, public stores." Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862.
It was financed and built through "The Big Four": Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins. Crocker was in charge of construction. Construction crews comprised 12,000 Chinese emigrant workers by 1868, when they constituted eighty percent of the entire work force, they laid the first rails in 1863. The "Golden spike", connecting the western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast train travel in eight days became possible, replacing months-long sea voyages and lengthy, hazardous travel by wagon trains. In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific Company. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific; the original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific, which bought Southern Pacific in 1996. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific mainline followed the historic Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay.
Chinese labor was the most vital source for constructing the railroad. Fifty Chinese laborers were hired by the Central Pacific Railroad in February 1865, soon more and more Chinese men were hired. Working conditions were harsh, Chinese men were compensated less than their white counterparts. Chinese men were paid thirty-one dollars each month, while white workers were paid the same, they were given room and board. Construction of the road was financed by 30-year, 6% U. S. government bonds authorized by Sec. 5 of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. They were issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed west of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada range near Roseville, CA where California state geologist Josiah Whitney had determined were the geologic start of the Sierras' foothills. Sec. 11 of the Act provided that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges, "doubled" per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges.
The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full by the company as and when they became due. Sec. 10 of the 1864 amending Pacific Railroad Act additionally authorized the company to issue its own "First Mortgage Bonds" in total amounts up to that of the bonds issued by the United States. Such company-issued securities had priority over the original Government Bonds. Sec. 3 of the 1862 Act granted the railroads 10 square miles of public land for every mile laid, except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers. This grant was apportioned in 5 sections on alternating sides of the railroad, with each section measuring 0.2 miles by 10 miles. These grants were doubled to 20 square miles per mile of grade by the 1864 Act. Although the Pacific Railroad benefited the Bay Area, the City and County of San Francisco obstructed financing it during the early years of 1863-1865; when Stanford was Governor of California, the Legislature passed on April 22, 1863, "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto".
On May 19, 1863, the electors of the City and County of San Francisco passed this bond by a vote of 6,329 to 3,116, in a controversial Special Election. The City and County's financing of the investment through the issuance and delivery of Bonds was delayed for two years, when Mayor Henry P. Coon, the County Clerk, Wilhelm Loewy, each refused to countersign the Bonds, it took legal actions to force them to do so: in 1864 the Supreme Court of the State of California ordered them under Writs of Mandamus and in 1865, a legal judgment against Loewy (The People ex rel The Centr
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil Blount DeMille was an American filmmaker. Between 1914 and 1958, he made a total of both silent and sound films, he is acknowledged as a founding father of the cinema of the United States and the most commercially successful producer-director in film history. His films were distinguished by his cinematic showmanship, he made silent films of every genre: social dramas, Westerns, morality plays, historical pageants. DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900, he moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, a vaudeville producer. DeMille's first film, The Squaw Man, was the first feature film shot in Hollywood, its interracial love story made it a phenomenal hit and it "put Hollywood on the map". The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and Adolph Zukor, his first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments, was both a financial success. In 1927, he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth, acclaimed for its sensitivity and reached more than 800 million viewers.
The Sign of the Cross was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. After more than thirty years in film production, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah, a biblical epic which did "an all-time record business". Along with biblical and historical narratives, he directed films oriented toward "neo-naturalism", which tried to portray the laws of man fighting the forces of nature, he went on to receive his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director for his circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth, which won both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. His last and most famous film, The Ten Commandments a Best Picture Academy Award nominee, is the seventh-highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. In addition to his Best Picture Award, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his film contributions, the Palme d'Or for Union Pacific, a DGA Award for Lifetime Achievement, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.
He was the first recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, named in his honor. There are several variants of his surname, his family's Dutch surname was spelled de Mil and became de Mille. As an adult, he adopted the spelling DeMille for professional purposes but continued to use de Mille in private life; the family name de Mille was used by his children Cecilia, John and Katherine. DeMille's brother and his daughters and Agnes, as well as DeMille's granddaughter, Cecilia de Mille Presley used the de Mille spelling. Cecil Blount DeMille was born in Ashfield, while his parents were vacationing there, grew up in Washington, North Carolina, his father, Henry Churchill de Mille, was a North Carolina-born dramatist and lay reader in the Episcopal Church, who had earlier begun a career as a playwright, writing his first play at age 15. His mother was the playwright and script writer Matilda Beatrice DeMille, whose parents were both of German Jewish heritage, she emigrated from England with her parents in 1871 when she was 18, they settled in Brooklyn.
Beatrice grew up in a middle-class English household. DeMille's mother was related to British politician Herbert Louis Samuel. DeMille's parents met as members of literary society in New York. Henry was a red-headed student. Beatrice was intelligent, educated and strong-willed, they were both born in 1853 and both loved the theater. When they married, Beatrice converted to Henry's faith. Henry worked as a playwright and faculty member during the early years of The American Academy of Dramatic Arts, established in New York City in 1884, he built a house for his family in New Jersey. The family spent time in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, operating a private school in that town and attending Christ Episcopal Church. DeMille recalled that this church was the place where he visualized the story of his 1923 version of The Ten Commandments. Henry read to his children nightly, both from the Bible. DeMille studied read the Bible during lunch in the studio commissary, he was the first to admit that he did not attend church services but he did profess an unshakable belief in prayer.
He stated. "My ministry," said DeMille, "has been to make religious movies and to get more people to read the Bible than anyone else has."In 1893, at the age of forty, Henry de Mille contracted typhoid fever and died leaving Beatrice with three children, a house, no savings. Beatrice had "enthusiastically supported" her husband's theatrical aspirations. In his eulogy, she wrote: May your sons be as noble and good and honest as you were. May they follow in your steps. Within eight weeks of Henry's death, Beatrice opened an acting workshop in her home, the Henry C. De Mille School for Girls, she became the second female play broker on Broadway. DeMille attended Pennsylvania Military College in Pennsylvania from the age of fifteen. Both DeMille and his brother William attended and graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, which they attended on scholarship; the Academy honored DeMille with an Alumni Achievement Award. DeMille be
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of