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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that leads to initiation of transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, upstream on the DNA. Promoters can be about 100–1000 base pairs long. For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. Promoters contain specific DNA sequences such as response elements that provide a secure initial binding site for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase; these transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. In bacteria The promoter is recognized by RNA polymerase and an associated sigma factor, which in turn are brought to the promoter DNA by an activator protein's binding to its own DNA binding site nearby. In eukaryotes The process is more complicated, at least seven different factors are necessary for the binding of an RNA polymerase II to the promoter.

Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase; as promoters are immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene. In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. Furthermore, in humans, promoters show certain structural features characteristic for each chromosome. Core promoter – the minimal portion of the promoter required to properly initiate transcriptionIncludes the transcription start site and elements directly upstream A binding site for RNA polymerase RNA polymerase I: transcribes genes encoding 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase II: transcribes genes encoding messenger RNA and certain small nuclear RNAs and microRNA RNA polymerase III: transcribes genes encoding transfer RNA, 5s ribosomal RNAs and other small RNAs General transcription factor binding sites, e.g. TATA box, B recognition element.

Many other elements/motifs may be present. There is no such thing as a set of "universal elements" found in every core promoter. Proximal promoter – the proximal sequence upstream of the gene that tends to contain primary regulatory elements Approximately 250 base pairs upstream of the start site Specific transcription factor binding sites Distal promoter – the distal sequence upstream of the gene that may contain additional regulatory elements with a weaker influence than the proximal promoter Anything further upstream Specific transcription factor binding sites In bacteria, the promoter contains two short sequence elements 10 and 35 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site; the sequence at -10 has the consensus sequence TATAAT. The sequence at -35 has the consensus sequence TTGACA; the above consensus sequences, while conserved on average, are not found intact in most promoters. On average, only 3 to 4 of the 6 base pairs in each consensus sequence are found in any given promoter.

Few natural promoters have been identified to date that possess intact consensus sequences at both the -10 and -35. The optimal spacing between the -35 and -10 sequences is 17 bp; some promoters contain one or more upstream promoter element subsites. The above promoter sequences are recognized only by RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing sigma-70. RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing other sigma factors recognize different core promoter sequences. <-- upstream downstream --> 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. Gene promoters are located upstream of the gene and can have regulatory elements several kilobases away from the transcriptional start site. In eukaryotes, the transcriptional complex can cause the DNA to bend back on itself, which allows for placement of regulatory sequences far from the actual site of transcription.

Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element, recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein. The TATA element and BRE are located close to the transcriptional start site (typically withi

Ismail Haqqi Bursevi

İsmail Hakkı Bursevî, Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī al-Brūsawī, was a 17th-century Ottoman Turkish Muslim scholar, a Jelveti Sufi author on mystical experience and the esoteric interpretation of the Quran. İsmail Hakkı Bursevî influenced many parts the Ottoman Empire but Turkey. To this day he is revered as one of the great saints of Anatolia, he is regarded as an eminent literary figure in the Turkish language, having authored more than a hundred works. Translations of some of his works are now available for the English-speaking world. İsmail Hakkı was the son of Muṣṭafā, in turn son of Bayram Čawush, in turn son of Shah Ḵhudā-bende. İsmail Hakkı was born in 1652 or 1653 in Aytos, Thrace although his parents came from Aksaray, Istanbul. His mother died when he was aged seven and on the suggestion of Shaykh Osman Fazli he was sent to c.1663 Edirne, to receive traditional education under the scholar ʿAbd-al-Baki, a relative of the ShaykhIn 1673, age 21, he went to Istanbul to the public classes of Osman Fazli, the head Sheykh, of the Jelveti order, who initiated him into that discipline.

İsmail Hakkı attended the lectures of other scholars, learnt Persian to study Attar, Rumi, Ḥāfiẓ and Jami. He studied Islamic calligraphy and music and set to music many hymns of the 17th century mystic Hudāyī, founder of the Jelveti order. In 1675, age 23, Osman Fazli sent him, with three assistant dervishes, to Skopje, Macedonia, to establish a ṭarīqah for teaching Jelveti philosophy); some welcomed them and İsmail Hakkı married the daughter of Sheikh Muṣṭafā ʿUshshāḳī. Encouraged by his master’s letters he wrote his most brilliant sermons; however he offended the townsfolk by overly-berating them for. Despite Osman Fazli explaining to him that censure was not the Jelveti way he did not rein in his zeal and his antagonists forced them to leave, which displeased his wife, it being her home town. In 1682 he was invited to Macedonia to teach public classes. There he began to write books, but so as to not be confused with the author Ismail Hakki Ankaravi, a famous commentator on the Mathnavi, he came to be always given a suffix, such as Hâlvetî, Bursevi, or ÜsküdariAmongst Sufis, Bursa in Anatolia was first made famous by the 14th century Shāikhs Somuncu Baba and Haji Bayram, but in 1685 the Sheykh of Bursa died and Fasli appointed Ismail Hakki as the new Sheykh.

His first years in Bursa coincided with the difficult period after the Ottoman Empire's disastrous loss at the Battle of Vienna and the Holy League's invasion of the Ottoman Balkans, so the economy was in abject misery and Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī had to sell his books to survive. In 1690 he journeyed to Cyprus to visit his master, Osman Farsli, in exile for his insistent criticism of Ottoman foreign policy. In 1695–1697 Sultan Mustafa II requested Ismail Hakki accompany his military campaigns against the Habsburg Empire and he was in several battles until wounded. Osman Farsli had foreseen the end of the Ottoman line and Bursevi defined the reason for its decline as the estrangement of spiritual and political powers, represented in his discourses by a Sheikh and a Sultan, thus formulating a Sufi interpretation of the Ottoman decline paradigm. In 1700 Ismail Hakki performed the Hajj, the pilgrimage, but on returning from Mecca the caravan was slaughtered by Bedouin brigands. Ismail was managed to reach Damascus.

In 1700 he returned to Bursa In 1717 he returned to Damascus and wrote twelve more books In 1720 he returned to Üsküdar, the Anatolian part of Istanbul, where he began teaching again. However he was twice decided to return to Bursa. In 1722, at Bursa he bequeathed his books to public libraries, left all his money for the construction of a small mosque, entered into retreat; that mosque is now within the Ismail Hakki Kur’an Kursu. In July 1724 or 1725 he died in serenity, his tomb is at the rear of the same mosque. İsmail Hakkı was one of the most prolific Ottoman scholars, with 106 books and pamphlets: 46 in Arabic. and 60 in Turkish To this day he is revered as an eminent literary figure in the Turkish language. He wrote on Islamic sciences, Tasawuf, Islamic philosophy and tefsir in a style avoiding the flowery style of many contemporaries, resembling the style of Yunus Emre; the most famous of his published works are: Rūḥ al-bayān, a voluminous esoteric interpretation of the Quran, combining the ideas of the author, Ibn Arabi and Al-Ghazali, written in a Persian poetic form.

Rūḥ al-Maṯnawī, a commentary on verses of the Maṯnawī A commentary on the Fusus al-Hikam by Ibn'Arabi, translated into English Lübb’ül-Lüb, translated into English Šarḥ-e pand-nāma-ye ʿAṭṭār, a translation of ʿAṭṭār’s Pand-nāma Šarḥ-e Būstān. The plaque on his tomb says: "If you want to be a pure servant in everlasting salvation, hold onto the hem of Ahmad’s Sharia with love. If you want to drink from the cup of the effusion of essential Unity become the unique human in the most beautiful realm. Don’t let the Lote-tree or Ṭūbā captivate your soul and occupy the moment, reach up to the world of spirits, with all of yourself. Never look at a lover with the eye of an a

Edmonton Pedway

The Edmonton Pedway system is a network connecting office buildings, shopping centres, parkades in downtown Edmonton, Canada. It consists of 13 kilometres of year-round climate-controlled tunnels, walkways between the second floors of buildings 15 feet above ground; the main network connects more than 40 buildings and parkades, three of the five Edmonton Light Rail Transit stations in the downtown area. The Pedway system is integrated with public transit via climate controlled access to LRT stations. Linked to Churchill station: Canada Place Shaw Conference Centre Citadel Theatre Stanley A. Milner Library Westin Hotel Royal Alberta Museum Art Gallery of Alberta Chancery Hall Edmonton City Hall Provincial Court of Alberta John E Brownlee Building Sutton Place Hotel Edmonton City Centre mall Sutton Place Hotel MNP Tower Bell Tower Stantec Offices/Bell Tower Parkade Edmonton TowerLinked to Central station: ATB Place Scotia Place Commerce Place Manulife Place Edmonton Journal building Edmonton City Centre mall Royal Bank buildingLinked to Bay/Enterprise Square station: Canadian Western Bank Place Enterprise Square Throughout the city, there are some independent connections between buildings that are not linked to the wider system, as well as shorter tunnels leading from the surface directly to transit.

Notable examples include connections to the Alberta Legislature Buildings that leads to Grandin station, networks connecting buildings at the University of Alberta, MacEwan University, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. MacEwan University and Northern Alberta Institute of Technology are traversable indoors through extensive pedways and building interconnectivity. JW Marriott Edmonton Ice District & Residences Rogers Place Stantec Tower Map of Downtown Edmonton Pedways

Milan Ristić (composer)

Milan Ristić was a Serbian composer, a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Along with Mihovil Logar, Dragutin Čolić, Ljubica Marić, Vojislav Vučković, Stanojlo Rajičić, Ristić belonged to the so-called "Prague group" of composers that entered musical life of the Serbian capital at the onset of the 1930s. Following World War II the members of this circle played leading roles in Serbian and Yugoslav music. Given his affiliation with the pursuits of European contemporary music he acquired during his education in Paris and prior to relocating to Prague, Milan Ristić occupies a special place among the Prague group, he received his first piano instruction in Belgrade from Ivan Brezovšek. In 1927 he moved to Paris with his school friend, the author Oskar Davičo, where he began study of composition with G. Pierson. Upon his return to Belgrade, Ristić continued his education with Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski at the Music School in Belgrade. Following his father's death, he supported his family by playing in the Belgrade jazz band The Jolly Boys.

In 1929, Ristić destroyed the score of his first composition, Four impressionistic pieces, but the second piano miniature of this work, "Invocation", survived. During his studies with Alois Hába at the Prague Conservatory, Ristić became familiar and began to adopt ideas about'athematicism', the continuous development of the thematic material, accepted linear thinking that would become a significant characteristic of his future works, his early works display the spirit of the Interwar modernism, leaning in certain cases on Hába's quarter-tone music teachings. Ristić returned to Belgrade from Prague in 1939 due to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Back home, he began working at Radio Belgrade, where he remained professionally connected going forward, but withdrew his public radio performances during the war period of the German invasion and occupation of Yugoslavia, he returned to Radio Belgrade after WWII, in the position of assistant editor-in-chief for music programs until 1963, when he became a consultant for music programs at the Radio-Television Belgrade.

He was inducted into the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts as a corresponding member in 1961, served as President of the Composers' Association of Serbia from 1960 to 1962. Milan Ristić received a Yugoslav Order of Labour with the Red Flag. Ristić wrote his most boldest compositions, including those in quarter- and sixth-tone systems, during his studies, he is though, best known for his nine symphonies and other orchestral works, such as Sinfonietta and war, Symphonic movement, Suita giocosa, Symphonic variations, Seven bagatelles, The Suite, Three little pieces, Three polyphonic studies, The Gallop. Along with his symphonic compositions, he wrote a number of concertante works, including Concerto for violin, two concertos for piano, Concerto for clarinet, Concerto for trumpet, Concerto for orchestra, Concerto for chamber orchestra, his chamber oeuvre in the semitone system consists of notable works such as the five-string quartets, Wind quintet, Sonata for two violins and piano, two sonatas for violin and piano, Sonata for viola and piano, Duet for violin and piano, Duet for violin and viola, twenty-four fugues for various instrumental ensembles.

Among Ristić's quarter-tone works are: Suite for four trombones, the Septet, Suite for ten string instruments, Sonata for solo violin, his Duet for violin and cello, based upon the sixth-tone microtonal system. Ristić composed stage music for the ballets Cinderella and The Tyrant, his works Through the blizzard, The Poplar, The Death of Smail-aga Čengić, A Song about the hawk, for narrator and chamber or large orchestra, aligned him with a few Serbian composers who fostered the melodrama genre. Ristić left behind a certain number of folk-song and dance arrangements and orchestrations of compositions by Josif Marinković and Isidor Bajić; the Second symphony from 1951 represents a paradigmatic example of Ristić's compositional and technical skillfulness. Realized with limited means of expression, the symphony is oriented toward a balanced and perspicuous form achieved through transparent melodic content and functional harmonic relationships; the first, upbeat movement embraces a lyrical theme, defining in its further unfolding the contours of a sonata form.

The second movement represents simulation of a serenade with a grotesque gesture embodied in the theme's orchestration, delivered by clarinet accompanied by tuba and bassoon. Featuring odd meters, the Scherzo and Trio imply folk origins, though lacking any unambiguous melodic relationships with a certain folk tune; the symphony's finale develops as a modernist fugue, in which Ristić showcased his conduct of contrapuntal skills. Ethereal but effective orchestration and receptiveness of performers and audience, led to international performances of this work. In 1951, when the symphony was premiered, a transition from the dominant socialist realism toward modernist—socialist aestheticism took place and "the Second symphony marked the beginning of the'new epoch' in Serbian music and culture at large". In its structural aspects, Ristić's Second symphony corresponded with the unfolding cultural changes; the symphony's neoclassic expression represents a fostering of tradition of'healthy' classicism, contr

Karol Niemira

Karol Niemira was a Polish Roman Catholic priest in the Second Polish Republic, a Doctor of Canon law, Auxiliary Bishop of Pińsk appointed in 1933, six years before the Nazi German and Soviet invasion of Poland. He was expelled from Pińsk by the NKVD authorities, relocated to German occupied Warsaw, he served at a parish next to the Warsaw Ghetto, participated in the rescue of Jews during the Holocaust in Poland. After World War II Niemira resided in Czubin where he died. Karol Niemira was born on 28 October 1881 in Warsaw to a family of former landowners from the Kresy borderlands. Orphaned at the age of two, he was put in an orphanage with a boarding school run by the nuns in the Russian Partition. In 1904 he entered the seminary in Warsaw, his further studies took him to the Gregorian University in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law. He was ordained to the priesthood on 13 November 1911. Since 1913 he served as vicar of the Parish Archdiocese of Warsaw. In 1919, during the rebirth of sovereign Poland he served as a military chaplain.

He participated in the political and social life of the capital, in 1926 sat on the Warsaw City Council. Niemira was an active member of the Warsaw Charity Society. In 1926 he was appointed pastor of the St. Augustine Parish in Warsaw. On 26 May 1933 Niemira was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of the Diocese of Pińsk, he was ordained Bishop on 15 August 1933 in Pińsk. In September 1939, after the Soviet invasion of Poland his diocese was shut down and all Servants of God expelled from the Kresy, he settled in Warsaw at the St. Augustine Parish rectory, adjacent to the Warsaw Ghetto, he participated in the smuggling of Jews including Rabbis from the ghetto to the Aryan side of the city. After the war he resided in Czubin. Karol Niemira was buried at Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw

K factor (traffic engineering)

In transportation engineering, the K factor is defined as the proportion of annual average daily traffic occurring in an hour. This factor is used for analyzing the flow of traffic on highways. K factors must be calculated at a continuous count station an "automatic traffic recorder", for a year before being determined; this number is the proportion of "annual average daily traffic" occurring at the 30th-highest hour of traffic density from the year's-worth of data. This 30th-highest hour of traffic is known as "K30" or the "Design Hour Factor"; this factor improves traffic forecasting, which in turn improves the ability of designers and engineers to plan for efficiency and serve the needs of this particular set of traffic. Such forecasting includes the selection of pavement and inclusion of different geometric aspects of highway design, as well as the effects of lane closures and necessity of traffic lights. Engineers have reached consensus on identify K30 as reaching a reasonable peak of activity before high outliers of traffic volume are used as determinative of overall patterns.

The K factor has three general characteristics: K decreases as AADT increases. K decreases as development density increases. K is highest near recreational facilities, next highest in rural and suburban areas, lowest in urban areas. Another notable proportions of K is the measure of K100; this proportion is known as the Planning Analysis Hour Factor. The calculation for the K factor is given by the formula DHV= K*AADT in which DHV is the "Design Hourly Volume," the 30th highest hourly traffic volume in the year in which data was collected, by vehicles per hour; the use of the K30 standard is mandated for the Highway Performance Monitoring System's comparisons of congestion. The K Factor helps calculate the peak-to-daily ratio of traffic. K30 helps maintain a healthy volume to capacity ratio