A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential customers. Most promotional models are conventionally attractive in physical appearance, they serve to make a product or service more appealing and can provide information to journalists and consumers at trade show and convention events. Promotional models are used in motorsports, other sports or at trade shows, or they can act as "spokesmodels" to promote a specific brand or product in advertisements. During the 2010s, controversies over the used of scantily-clad promotional models in sports events and trade shows, involving claims that the practice is sexist, led to a decrease in the hiring of these models. While each model may not be directly employed by the company they represent, they can be trained to answer questions and provide customer feedback regarding products and brand appeal; the responsibilities of the promotional model depend on the particular marketing campaign being carried out, may include: increasing product awareness.
Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in retail stores or shopping malls, at trade shows, special promotional events, clubs, or at outdoor public spaces. Promotional models may be used as TV host/anchor for interviewing celebrities such as at film awards, sports events, etc, they are planned at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present. The motorsports scene uses promo models as part of a pit crew in certain kinds of motor racing; the first usage of promotional models in motor races was during the late 1960s. It was that the term race queen was coined. Prior to that, women in motor races were wives and girlfriends of drivers and staff, with the exception of some who were drivers. In 1983, the sun tan; the company brought its models over from the United States wearing bikinis bearing the company's name to appear on the racetrack before the race began. A year that practice was imported over to Japan for the Suzuka 8 Hours motorcycle race.
The models, referred as grid girls or pit/paddock girls in Europe, are common in many series worldwide. In the United States, they are referred to as umbrella girls; because of the manner of dress of these models, insurance companies regard the models as a safety hazard because of stringent dress codes imposed in the garage and pit areas by many sanctioning bodies. In DTM and some other events, organizers have started to recruit male models as in startlines on female drivers' cars; the Korean term for a race queen is a racing model. Racing models appear in racing events. In Japan, there is a phenomenon of race queens being regarded as "idols"; the average age for these girls is late teens to early twenties and demand. It is not unusual for some of them to have a sideline career as a gravure idol. Race queens who operate in prestigious events and with a large fanbase can be found at auto shows purely to draw crowds where they are nearly as important an attraction as the cars or electronics products that they are promoting.
There is a magazine dedicated to them called Gals Paradise. "Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model, employed to be associated with a specific brand or product in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements, but the term refers to a model, not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of such spokesmodels are the models engaged to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999, the Clarion Girl since 1975. Contrary to what the term suggests, a spokesmodel is not expected to verbally promote the brand. In Japan, they are hired by government agencies. A trade show model is an assistant that works with a company's sales representatives at a trade show exhibit, working on the floor space or a booth, representing a company to attendees; such models are used to draw in attendees and can provide them with basic information about product or services, may be used to distribute marketing materials or gather customer information for future promotions. Attire and expected interactions vary depend on the nature of the show and on the image the company would like to portray, they sometimes wear wardrobe, particular to the company, product, or service represented.
Trade show models are not regular employees of the company, but are hired as they make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. If needed, they can explain or disseminate information on the company and its product and service, can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, therefore increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show; the models can be skilled at drawing atte
St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall dominates the skyline of Kirkwall, the main town of Orkney, a group of islands off the north coast of mainland Scotland. It is the most northerly cathedral in the United Kingdom, a fine example of Romanesque architecture built for the bishops of Orkney when the islands were ruled by the Norse Earls of Orkney, it is owned not by the church, but by the burgh of Kirkwall as a result of an act of King James III of Scotland following Orkney's annexation by the Scottish Crown in 1468. It has its own dungeon. Construction began in 1137, it was added to over the next 300 years; the first bishop was William the Old, the diocese was under the authority of the Archbishop of Nidaros in Norway. It was for Bishop William. Before the Reformation, the cathedral was presided over by the Bishop of Orkney, whose seat was in Kirkwall; the Orkneyinga Saga tells how bloodthirsty intrigue and saintly piety led to the cathedral's foundation. Other accounts tell a similar, though less saintly, tale.
St Magnus had a reputation for gentleness. On a raid led by the King of Norway on Anglesey, Magnus refused to fight and stayed on board singing psalms. King Eystein II of Norway granted him a share of the earldom of Orkney held by his cousin Håkon, they ruled amicably as joint Earls of Orkney from 1105 to 1114, their followers fell out, the two sides met at a thing on Orkney Mainland, ready to do battle. Peace was negotiated and the Earls arranged to meet each other on the small island of Egilsay, each bringing only two ships. Magnus arrived on 16 April 1116 with his two ships, but Håkon treacherously turned up with eight ships. Magnus was captured and offered to go into exile or prison, but an assembly of chieftains insisted that one earl must die. Håkon's standard bearer refused to execute Magnus, an angry Håkon made his cook Lifolf kill Magnus by striking him on the head with an axe. Magnus was buried in the Christchurch at Birsay; the rocky area around his grave miraculously became a green field, there were numerous reports of miraculous happenings and healings.
William the Old, Bishop of Orkney, warned that it was "heresy to go about with such tales" was struck blind in his Birsay cathedral and subsequently had his sight restored after praying at the grave of Magnus, not long after visiting Norway. Gunhild, sister of Magnus, had married Kol, the king of Norway granted their son Rögnvald Kolsson the right to his uncle's earldom in 1129. Earl Rögnvald took a fleet to Orkney, but the islanders resisted and Earl Paul who had succeeded Håkon would not give up control without a fight. Earl Rögnvald Kolsson was advised by his father Kol to promise the islanders to "build a stone minster at Kirkwall more magnificent than any in Orkney, that you'll have dedicated to your uncle the holy Earl Magnus and provide it with all the funds it will need to flourish. In addition, his holy relics and the episcopal seat must be moved there ". Meanwhile, Rögnvald secretly had Paul kidnapped and shipped away to be murdered in Caithness. Rögnvald duly became Earl of Orkney.
In 1135, Magnus was canonised, with 16 April becoming St Magnus' day. His remains were moved east to St Olaf's Kirk in the small settlement known as Kirkjuvágr, meaning "church bay", now Kirkwall. Work on the cathedral began under the direction of Kol; when funds ran short, Kol advised Rögnvald to restore odal rights for cash payment. In 1158, while work was still under way, Rögnvald was killed by a Scottish chieftain, his bones were brought to the Cathedral and he was canonised in 1192, though the records of his sainthood are missing. Rögnvald's bones were re-interred during work on the building in the 19th century; the Romanesque cathedral begun in 1137 has fine examples of Norman architecture, attributed to English masons who may have worked on Durham Cathedral. The masonry uses red sandstone quarried near Kirkwall and yellow sandstone from the island of Eday in alternating courses or in a chequerboard pattern to give a polychrome effect; as completed during the 12th century, the original cathedral had three aisled bays to the chancel with the bay at the east end shorter, apsed in a similar way to the original apse at Durham, a transept with single east chapel, eight bays to the nave as at Durham and Dunfermline Abbey.
When the cathedral was ready for consecration the relics of St Magnus were enshrined in it. In 1917, a hidden cavity in a column was found, containing a box with bones including a skull showing a wound consistent with a blow from an axe; the original cathedral comprises the choir of today's church. In the late 12th and early 13th century, the building was extended to the east with vaulting throughout, and, in the late 14th century, the present lower front was joined to the rest of the building; these elements introduced the Gothic style with pointed arches. In 1468, when Orkney was annexed for Scotland by King James III, St Magnus Cathedral came under the control of the Archbishop of St Andrews. Most notable amongst them was Bishop Robert Reid, who presided at St Magnus from 1541 to 1558; the Protestant Reformation in 1560 had a less dramatic effect on St Magnus Cathedral than in some other parts of Scotland, but the church had a narrow escape in 1614. Government forces suppressing the rebellion of Robert, the son of Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney, had besieged and destroyed Kirkwall Castle and intended to destroy St. Magnus Cathedral after rebels had hidden inside.
The bishop James Law intervened to prevent them from carrying out this plan. Major work was undertaken o
Ipswich Girls' Grammar School Buildings is a heritage-listed group of private school buildings at Ipswich Girls' Grammar School, 82 Chermside Road, City of Ipswich, Australia. They were built from 1891 to 1968, they were added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Ipswich Girls' Grammar School was opened in 1892 and was the last of the ten non-denominational grammar schools to be established in Queensland under the Grammar Schools Act 1860. In 1863 the Ipswich Grammar School was established being the first Grammar School to be established in Queensland following the Grammar Schools Act, 1860; the advent of the 1860 Act and the ensuing establishment of grammar schools throughout Queensland was seen as a major advancement for education in the new colony. It brought about the first attempts by government and local communities combined to establish institutionalised, secondary education in Queensland, paving the way towards the establishment of tertiary education in the state.
The Grammar Schools Act of 1860 stipulated that where £1000 could be raised by donation or subscription in any district for the establishment of a grammar school the Government would contribute £2000 towards the school. The race to establish the first grammar school in Queensland was racked by sectarian rivalry with the Roman Catholic Church being the first contender. However, the controversy concerning church versus state education led to the Queensland Government's refusal of Roman Catholic Bishop James Quinn's proposal to establish grammar schools at Brisbane and Ipswich on the principle that a grammar school education should be secular and free from denominational control; this was the basis on which all of the grammar schools were established. The Grammar Schools followed the traditional British format for providing an education based on languages the Classics and Greek, English and other academic subjects; the concept of a formal academic education for women was just emerging in Australia in the latter nineteenth century.
The first grammar schools in Queensland and Brisbane, were established for boys but by 1874 the Brisbane Grammar School had admitted girls into the school and appointed M. O'Connor as Headmistress. In 1883 Brisbane Girls' Grammar School was established for girls. In 1881 Rockhampton Grammar School was established as a co-educational school and in 1892 a separate Rockhampton Girls' Grammar School had been established. Again in 1883 the Ladies' Committee in Maryborough had established the Maryborough Girls' Grammar School and in 1893 the Townsville Grammar School became co-educational and has remained co-educational until the present. By the late 1870s there was mounting pressure in Ipswich to establish a girls grammar as expressed in an editorial to The Queensland Times, 21 December, 1876:We would urge upon our townspeople and upon the trustees of our Grammar School the importance of at once taking steps for the establishment of a Girls Grammar School in Ipswich. Our boys have had the opportunity - of which many have availed themselves - of receiving a thorough English and Classical education.
But what has been done in the way of providing higher education for our girls? Nothing! In 1887 a committee was formed to raise funds for the establishment of a Girls Grammar School and in 1890 the land for the current site of the school was granted by the Trustees of Queen's Park in Ipswich. In the same year, George Brockwell Gill had been appointed architect and was contracted to design a school building for a cost of £3500. Tenders for construction were called in The Queensland Times on 21 Jan 1891 and contractors Worley and Whitehead were accepted with a tender of £3893; the foundation stone of the school was laid on 10 March 1891 by Acting Governor, Sir Arthur Hunter Palmer, K. C. M. G; the architect of the original building, George Brockwell Gill, designed many of the grand residences and public buildings in Ipswich from the 1880s to the 1930s. Some of his works include "Brynhyfryd" for Lewis Thomas, St Paul's Rectory, the Ipswich Club House, Ipswich Technical College, supervision of the construction of the Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator in 1936.
Gill emigrated from London and settled in Ipswich in 1886 where he commenced work as an architect for the firm of Samuel Shenton. Gill took over Shenton's practice in 1889. Gill had been elected Associate of the Queensland Institute of Architects in 1904 and Fellow by 1913, he was its Vice-President in 1914-16 and President in 1918-19. Gill was a member of the Board of Trustees for the school and on his retirement in 1948 he was the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. IGGS opened to students on 1 February 1892 with an enrolment of 31 girls under the charge of the first Headmistress, Fanny E. Hunt, B. Sc. University of Sydney, appointed by the Board of Trustees in October 1891; the school employed two assistant teachers and one junior teacher. The subjects offered included English, German, Political Science, Chemistry, Geology, Domestic Economy and Gymnastics, Geography and Modern History, Writing and Book-keeping; the school had an immediate impact on the education young women. Both the second and third women to be called to the Queensland Bar were educated at IGGS.
In 1892, a gymnasium, play shed, fences and trees