In medicine, a prosthesis or prosthetic implant is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is coordinated by a physiatrist as part of an inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with Computer-Aided Design, a software interface that helps creators design and analyze the creation with computer-generated 2-D and 3-D graphics as well as analysis and optimization tools. A person's prosthesis should be designed and assembled according to the person's appearance and functional needs. For instance, a person may need a transradial prosthesis, but need to choose between an aesthetic functional device, a myoelectric device, a body-powered device, or an activity specific device; the person's future goals and economical capabilities may help him or her choose between one or more devices.
Craniofacial prostheses include extra-oral prostheses. Extra-oral prostheses are further divided into hemifacial, nasal and ocular. Intra-oral prostheses include dental prostheses such as dentures and dental implants. Prostheses of the neck include larynx substitutes and upper esophageal replacements, Somato prostheses of the torso include breast prostheses which may be either single or bilateral, full breast devices or nipple prostheses. Penile prostheses are used to treat erectile dysfunction. Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses. Upper-extremity prostheses are used at varying levels of amputation: forequarter, shoulder disarticulation, transhumeral prosthesis, elbow disarticulation, transradial prosthesis, wrist disarticulation, full hand, partial hand, partial finger. A transradial prosthesis is an artificial limb. Upper limb prostheses can be categorized in three main categories: Passive devices, Body Powered devices, Externally Powered devices. Passive devices can either be passive hands used for cosmetic purpose, or passive tools used for specific activities.
An extensive overview and classification of passive devices can be found in a literature review by Maat et.al. A passive device can be static, meaning the device has no movable parts, or it can be adjustable, meaning its configuration can be adjusted. Despite the absence of active grasping, passive devices are useful in bimanual tasks that require fixation or support of an object, or for gesticulation in social interaction. According to scientific data a third of the upper limb amputees worldwide use a passive prosthetic hand. Body Powered or cable operated limbs work by attaching a harness and cable around the opposite shoulder of the damaged arm; the third category of prosthetic devices available are myoelectric arms. These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm move, causing an artificial hand to open or close. In the prosthetics industry, a trans-radial prosthetic arm is referred to as a "BE" or below elbow prosthesis. Lower-extremity prostheses provide replacements at varying levels of amputation.
These include hip disarticulation, transfemoral prosthesis, knee disarticulation, transtibial prosthesis, Syme's amputation, partial foot, toe. The two main subcategories of lower extremity prosthetic devices are trans-femoral. A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb. Transfemoral amputees can have a difficult time regaining normal movement. In general, a transfemoral amputee must use 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs; this is due to the complexities in movement associated with the knee. In newer and more improved designs, carbon fiber, mechanical linkages, computer microprocessors, innovative combinations of these technologies are employed to give more control to the user. In the prosthetics industry a trans-femoral prosthetic leg is referred to as an "AK" or above the knee prosthesis. A transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb. A transtibial amputee is able to regain normal movement more than someone with a transfemoral amputation, due in large part to retaining the knee, which allows for easier movement.
Lower extremity prosthetics describes artificially replaced limbs located at the hip level or lower. In the prosthetics industry a trans-tibial prosthetic leg is referred to as a "BK" or below the knee prosthesis. Physical therapists are trained to teach a person to walk with a leg prosthesis. To do so, the physical therapist may provide verbal instructions and may help guide the person using touch or tactile cues; this may be done in a home. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate circulation; this condition is associated with many other medical conditions
British hip hop known as UK rap, is a genre of music, a culture that covers a variety of styles of hip hop music made in the United Kingdom. It is classified as one of a number of styles of urban music. British hip hop can be referred to referred to as Brit-hop, a term coined and popularised by British Vogue magazine and the BBC. British hip hop was influenced by the dub/toasting introduced to the United Kingdom by Jamaican migrants in the 1950s–70s, who developed uniquely influenced rapping in order to match the rhythm of the ever-increasing pace and aggression of Jamaican-influenced dub in the UK. Toasting and soundystem culture was influential in genres outside of hip hop that still included rapping - such as grime, UK garage. In 2003, The Times described British hip hop's broad-ranging approach:..."UK rap" is a broad sonic church, encompassing anything made in Britain by musicians informed or inspired by hip-hop's possibilities, whose music is a response to the same stimuli that gave birth to rap in New York in the mid-Seventies.
As in the US, British hip hop emerged as a scene from graffiti and breakdancing, through to DJing and rapping live at parties and club nights, with its supporters predominantly listening to and influenced by American hip hop. Unlike in the US, the British hip hop scene was cross-racial from the beginning, as various ethnic groups in Britain tend not to live in segregated areas in areas with a high percentage of non-white individuals; such places allow youth including musical genres such as hip hop. Cross pollination through migrating West Indians helped develop a community interested in the music; the integration of sound systems represent a distinct British Caribbean influence. Sound systems allowed for powerful syncopated bass runs and the ability to bring this sound to different venues creating a club culture. There were, British tunes starting to appear; the first British hip hop tune released on record was "Christmas Rapping" by Dizzy Heights and not "London Bridge" by Newtrament. There were earlier pop records which dabbled with rap — such as Adam and the Ants' "Ant Rap" and Wham!'s "Wham Rap" — but these are considered pop appropriations of US rap.
Punk band The Clash had earlier dabbled with rap on the single The Magnificent Seven from their album Sandinista!, a single "This is Radio Clash". Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren's "Buffalo Gals", featuring the New York hip hop group World's Famous Supreme Team, was the breakthrough hit that introduced the genre to the United Kingdom — McLaren's Duck Rock album as a whole experimented with many musical styles from around the world. "Buffalo Gals" and another track from the album, "World's Famous" which featured the group, used techniques which have been established in hip hop in the United States, such as sampling and scratching. McLaren included a song referencing the'Double Dutch' dance, popular among breakdancing crews in New York at the time. Over the next few years, more UK hip hop and electro music was released: Street Sounds Electro UK, produced by Greg Wilson and featured an early appearance from MC Kermit, who went on to form the Wilson produced Ruthless Rap Assassins. Releases were still few and far between, the scene remained predominantly underground.
Although record labels began to take note of the underground scene throughout the 1980s and 1990s, radio play and publicity were still a difficulty in helping the fledgling scene to grow, the scene only managed to survive through word of mouth and the patronage of pirate radio stations around the country. Mainstream radio did play British hip hop on occasion, supported by such well-known DJs as Dave Pearce, Tim Westwood, John Peel. British hip hop in the 1980s was not just confined to music and break-dancing, but involved the spread of New York City-style graffiti — another integral element of American Hip Hop culture — to London and other UK inner-city areas, both on walls and trains; the most direct influence was, however, on graffiti painted in London Underground trains. Teenagers from inner London and other European cities who were into Electro-Hip Hop and had family and other links to New York City had by the mid-1980s taken up some of the traditions of subway Graffiti and exported them home, although legendary New York writers like Brim and Futura had themselves played a significant role in establishing such links when they visited London in the early-to-mid-80s and'put up pieces' on or near the west London end of the Metropolitan Line.
As just when Subway Graffiti was on the decline in New York City, some British teenagers who had spent time with family in Queens and the Bronx returned to London with a "mission" to Americanize the London Underground through painting New York City-style Graffiti on trains. These small groups of London'train writers' adopted many of the styles and lifestyles of their New York City forebears, painting Graffiti train pieces and in general'bombing' the system, but favoring only a few selected underground lines seen as most suitable for train Graffiti. Although on a smaller scale than what had existed in New York City, Graffiti on London Underground trains became seen as enough of a problem by the mid-1980s to provoke the British Transport Police to establish its own Graffiti Squad modeled directly on and in consultation with that of the New York City MT
A Christmas Memory is a musical based on the short story of the same name by Truman Capote, with a book by Duane Poole, lyrics by Carol Hall, music by Larry Grossman. The show premiered in 2010 at the TheatreWorks Silicon Valley in Palo Alto, it premiered Off-Broadway in 2014 at the Irish Repertory Theatre. The show opened in 2010 at the TheatreWorks Silicon Valley in Palo Alto; the show was directed by Robert Kelley, sound design Cliff Caruthers, dialect coach Kimily Conkle, lighting design Steven B. Mannschardt, set design Joe Ragey, costume design Allison Connors, musical director William Liberatore, orchestrator Steve Orich; the cast included Eileen Barnett, Maggie Brown, Jennifer Chapman, Richard Farrell, Penny Fuller, Peter Heintz, Gabriel Hoffman, Joshua Park, Cathleen Riddley. The show opened in 2014 at the Theatre at the Center in Munster, Indiana; the show was directed by William Pullinsi, musical director William Underwood, set design Angela Weber Miller, choreographer Allyson Graves, projection design Guy Rhodes, lighting design Shelley Strasser-Holland, costume design Brenda Winstead, sound design Barry G. Funderburg, hair & wig design Kevin Barthel, properties Cassie Schillo.
The cast starred Paula Scrofano, Luke Michael Klein, Geoff Rice, John Reeger, Iris Lieberman, Robin K. Dasilva, Madison Hertel, it premiered Off-Broadway in 2014 at the Irish Repertory Theatre. The show was directed by Charlotte Moore, music director Micah Young, associate music director John DiPinto, choreography Barry McNabb, orchestrator Steve Orich, Set design James Noone, costume design David Toser, lighting design Brian Nason, properties Deirdre Brennan, wigs Robert Charles Vallance; the cast included Virginia A. Woodruff, Ashley Robinson, Nancy Hess, Alice Ripley, Samuel Cohen, Silvano Spagnuolo, Taylor Richardson
Tropical Cyclone Tam was the first named storm of the 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season. Forming out of a tropical depression on January 6, the storm intensified, becoming a tropical cyclone on January 12 and receiving the name Tam. Although it was traveling at a quick pace, the storm gained organization and reached its peak intensity with winds of 85 km/h the following day. However, the increasing forward motion of the storm, combined with strengthening wind shear, caused Tam to weaken on January 14. Around that time, it entered the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Wellington, New Zealand's area of responsibility. Shortly thereafter, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone and dissipated early the next day. Cyclone Tam produced strong winds over American Samoa upon being named; the precipitation caused several mudslides and flooding. The storm had minor effects on Niue and Futuna. Tropical Cyclone Tam originated out of tropical depression while located about 370 km to the north-northeast of Fiji on January 6.
The system, designated 04F by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Nadi, Fiji tracked towards the west. Although the depression was located within an area of low wind shear, little intensification occurred, as a lack of low-level moisture hindered the development of deep convection. By January 9, shower and thunderstorm activity associated with the disturbance increased as it began to interact with the South Pacific Convergence Zone. Another tropical depression, 05F became organized and at one point was forecast to absorb 04F. Following the weakening of Tropical Depression 05F, 04F intensified. Around 2000 UTC on January 11, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert as deep convection persisted around the center of circulation for several hours; the following day, the RSMC Nadi upgraded Tropical Depression 04F to a tropical cyclone and gave it the name Tam, making it the first named storm of the 2005–06 season. Several hours the storm passed close to Niuafo'ou with winds of 65 km/h.
By 0000 UTC on January 13, the JTWC classified Tam as Tropical Cyclone 06P. Although the storm was tracking towards an area with stronger winds aloft, it was forecast to intensify. Due to the fast movement of the storm, the increasing winds aloft had little effect on the storm, allowing it to intensify and attain winds of 85 km/h around 0600 UTC. However, with both wind shear and the forward motion of the storm continuing to increase, convection became dislocated from the center. Around 0000 UTC on January 14, Tam entered the area of responsibility of the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Wellington, New Zealand. With forward movement estimated at 75 km/h due south, the cyclone reached an unusually high latitude as a tropical cyclone. Coinciding with the time when Tam reached 33°S, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone; the remnants of the storm persisted for several hours before dissipating early on January 15. As Tam was developing, residents attempted to evacuate the island by plane, with the primary target of Fiji.
Only a few flights took off. Late on January 11, RSMC Nadi placed Tonga and Futuna under a tropical cyclone alert and placed Tonga and Wallis under a strong wind warning. Early the next day RSMC Nadi placed northern Tonga under a tropical cyclone gale warning; that morning they canceled the tropical cyclone alert for Wallis and Futuna as Tam was not expected to directly affect Futuna anymore. During that afternoon RSMC Nadi placed Niue under a Tropical cyclone alert, as they predicted that Niue would be affected by Tam within 24 hours. Early on January 13 RSMC Nadi cancelled the tropical cyclone warnings and alerts for Tonga, whilst at the same time placing Niue under a tropical cyclone gale warning, however this gale warning was canceled that day as Tam moved into the southern ocean. On January 11, Tropical Depression 04F produced a record 293.2 mm of rain in a 24‑hour span on Rotuma. However, little damage resulted from the heavy precipitation. Cyclone Tam produced heavy rainfall in American Samoa.
Several buildings were flooded, an estimated 70% of the island's crops were destroyed. Sustained winds of up to 55 km/h, with gusts reaching 95 km/h, tore a few roofs off unsecured homes. Scattered power outages were reported throughout the island. A few landslides were reported as a result of the storm. Damage from the storm totaled $26,000 on the island. Little damage was recorded in Futuna. On Niuafo'ou, a weather station recorded sustained winds of 55 km/h with gusts of up to 75 km/h, along with a minimum pressure of 991 hPa. Minor damage, consisting of fallen branches and isolated power outages occurred on Niue. 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season Cyclone Urmil Cyclone Cilla World Meteorological Organization Fiji Meteorological Service Meteorological Service of New Zealand Joint Typhoon Warning Center
Balmorhea State Park is a 46-acre state park located on the San Solomon Springs in Reeves County, opened in 1968. The closest city is Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department manages the park; the park is open year-round, visitation is capped at 900 people per day. The main feature of the park is the 1.3-acre, 3.5-million-US-gallon freshwater pool built around the springs. It is the world’s largest spring-fed swimming pool; the spring has a constant flow of 22 to 28 million US gallons a day. The water temperature ranges from up to 30 feet deep; the pool bottom is flat in the more shallow areas and has a more natural rock bottom in the deeper areas. The pool is used for both swimming and scuba diving; the Texas State Parks Board bought San Solomon Springs and the surrounding land in 1934. Company 1856 of the Civilian Conservation Corps built the pool between 1936 and 1941 as part of the New Deal during the Great Depression as a way to open up jobs for people needing work; the CCC built San Solomon Springs Courts, which rents rooms available for overnight stays.
Camping and recreational vehicle sites are available. A private concessionaire operated the facility until 1968, when the Parks and Wildlife Department took over management, it became part of the state parks system; the Balmorhea State Park Cienega Project, started in 1995, recreated a desert wetland in the park. The original cienega was lost; the cienega now serves as a habitat for endangered fish such as the Comanche Springs pupfish and Pecos gambusia as well as other aquatic life and other animals. In early 2018, a wall in the pool around the diving board collapsed, the pool was shut down. Houston-based Apache Corporation pledged to match all donations made to repair the pool up to one million dollars; the goal was reached in about four months. Sixty percent of the donations were under $100, other Texas companies made significant contributions, including Saulsbury Industries, Texas Pacific Land Trust, McCoy Remme Ranches, Legend Energy Services, Pioneer Energy Services and Garrison Brothers Distillery.
Apache Corporation established a one million dollar endowment fund for the park. The pool reopened March 2019 after repairs to the pool were completed. Only day-use facilities are available as the renovation of San Solomon Courts and campgrounds are still under way with no predicted reopening date. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department shut the park again on September 3, 2019 to repair the park's failing septic system; the park is expected to reopen in the spring of 2020. List of Texas state parks
Street Tough was Ben E. King's 14th album and 13th studio album, his final record released directly with Atlantic Records; the album was released in 1981. Two singles sprouted from this album. Street Tough / Why Is The Question came out first You Made The Difference In My Life / Souvenirs Of Love second, both in 1981; these are the last known singles released before the movie Stand By Me returned the song of the same name to popularity. "Street Tough" "Made for Each Other" "Staying Power" "Stay Awhile With Me" "Why Is The Question" "You Made The Difference To My Life" "Souvenir of Love" "Something To Be Loved"