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Protein targeting

This article deals with protein targeting in eukaryotes except where noted. Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to their appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it. Proteins can be targeted to the inner space of an organelle, different intracellular membranes, plasma membrane, or to exterior of the cell via secretion; this delivery process is carried out based on information contained in the protein itself. Correct sorting is crucial for the cell. Targeting signals are the pieces of information that enable the cellular transport machinery to position a protein inside or outside the cell; this information is contained in the folded protein. The continuous stretch of amino acid residues in the chain that enables targeting are called signal peptides or targeting peptides. There are two types of the presequences and the internal targeting peptides; the presequences of the targeting peptide are found at the N-terminal extension and is composed of between 6-136 basic and hydrophobic amino acids.

In case of peroxisomes the targeting sequence is on the C-terminal extension mostly. Other signals, known as signal patches, are composed of parts which are separate in the primary sequence, they become functional. In addition, protein modifications like glycosylations can induce targeting. In 1970, Günter Blobel conducted experiments on the translocation of proteins across membranes, he was awarded the 1999 Nobel prize for his findings. He discovered that many proteins have a signal sequence, that is, a short amino acid sequence at one end that functions like a postal code for the target organelle; the translation of mRNA into protein by a ribosome takes place within the cytosol. If the synthesized proteins "belong" in a different organelle, they can be transported there in either of two ways depending on the protein: Co-translational translocation, post-translational translocation. Most proteins that are secretory, membrane-bound, or reside in the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi or endosomes use the co-translational translocation pathway.

This process begins with the N-terminal signal peptide of the protein being recognized by a signal recognition particle while the protein is still being synthesized on the ribosome. The synthesis pauses while the ribosome-protein complex is transferred to an SRP receptor on the ER in eukaryotes, the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. There, the nascent protein is inserted into the translocon, a membrane-bound protein conducting channel composed of the Sec61 translocation complex in eukaryotes, the homologous SecYEG complex in prokaryotes. In secretory proteins and type I transmembrane proteins, the signal sequence is cleaved from the nascent polypeptide once it has been translocated into the membrane of the ER or plasma membrane by signal peptidase; the signal sequence of type II membrane proteins and some polytopic membrane proteins are not cleaved off and therefore are referred to as signal anchor sequences. Within the ER, the protein is first covered by a chaperone protein to protect it from the high concentration of other proteins in the ER, giving it time to fold correctly.

Once folded, the protein is modified as needed transported to the Golgi for further processing and goes to its target organelles or is retained in the ER by various ER retention mechanisms. The amino acid chain of transmembrane proteins, which are transmembrane receptors, passes through a membrane one or several times, they are inserted into the membrane by translocation, until the process is interrupted by a stop-transfer sequence called a membrane anchor or signal-anchor sequence. These complex membrane proteins are at the moment understood using the same model of targeting, developed for secretory proteins. However, many complex multi-transmembrane proteins contain structural aspects that do not fit the model. Seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors do not have an amino-terminal signal sequence. In contrast to secretory proteins, the first transmembrane domain acts as the first signal sequence, which targets them to the ER membrane; this results in the translocation of the amino terminus of the protein into the ER membrane lumen.

This would seem to break the rule of "co-translational" translocation which has always held for mammalian proteins targeted to the ER. This has been demonstrated with opsin with in vitro experiments. A great deal of the mechanics of transmembrane topology and folding remains to be elucidated. Though most secretory proteins are co-translationally translocated, some are translated in the cytosol and transported to the ER/plasma membrane by a post-translational system. In prokaryotes this requires certain cofactors such as SecA and SecB; this pathway is poorly understood in eukaryotes, but is facilitated by Sec62 and Sec63, two membrane-bound proteins. In addition, proteins targeted to other destinations, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, or peroxisomes, use specialized post-translational pathways. Proteins targeted for the nucleus are translocated post-translation, they pass through the nuclear envelope via nuclear pores. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as cytosolic precursors containing uptake peptide signals.

Cytosolic chaperones deliver preproteins to channel linked receptors in the mitochondrial membrane. The preprotein with presequence targeted for the mitochondria is bound by receptors and the General Import Por

Ken Maynard (cartoonist)

Ken Maynard was an Australian cartoonist. Maynard had an older sister, a younger brother, Thomas. A police officer, Maynard got his break as a cartoonist in 1958 contributing his Ettamogah Pub cartoons to the Australasian Post, they became a main feature of his cartoons were run until its last edition. These cartoons were the inspiration for a chain of Ettamogah Pubs throughout Australia. There are Ettamogah Pubs in Sydney, Albury-Wodonga, Cunderdin. Maynard died on 29 September 1998 due to liver cancer. Around the Ettamogah pub. Book no. 1 / by Ken Maynard Ettamogah pub mob / Ken Maynard The great Australian sandwich / Tony Johnston, cartoons by Ken Maynard & WEG Ken Maynard cartoons: a nostalgic look back on Ken's cartoons as appearing in'Australasian post' Ken Maynard cartoons 101 to 164: a collection of "Ned & his Neddy" as appearing in "Australasian Post" / Ken Maynard The mob from Ettamogah Pub, or, Ned and his Neddy / Ken Maynard The pub & the scrub / Neil Hulm with illustrations by Ken Maynard Australasian Post Info

Eastern Agricultural Complex

The Eastern Agricultural Complex was one of about 10 independent centers of plant domestication in the pre-historic world. By about 1800 BCE the Native Americans of North America were cultivating several species of plants, thus transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to agriculture. After 200 BCE when maize from Mexico was introduced to the Eastern Woodlands, the Native Americans of the present-day United States and Canada changed from growing local indigenous plants to a maize-based agricultural economy; the cultivation of local indigenous plants other than squash declined and was abandoned. The domesticated plants, except for squash, returned to their wild forms; the initial four plants known to have been domesticated were goosefoot, marsh elder, squash. Several other species of plants were domesticated; the term Eastern Agricultural Complex was popularized by anthropologist Ralph Linton in the 1940s. Linton suggested that the Eastern Woodland tribes integrated maize cultivation from Mayans and Aztecs in what is today called Mexico and Nicaragua into their own pre-existing agricultural practices.

Ethnobotanists Volney H. Jones and Melvin R. Gilmore built upon Ralph Linton's understanding of Eastern Woodland agriculture with their work in cave and bluff dwellings in Kentucky and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. George Quimby popularized the term "Eastern complex" in the 1940s. Authors Guy Gibbons and Kenneth Ames suggest that "indigenous seed crops" is a more appropriate term than "complex". Squash is considered to be one of the first domesticated plants in the Eastern Woodlands, having been found in the region about 7,000 years ago, though not domesticated in the region until about 3,000 years ago; the squash, part of the complex was raised for edible seeds and to produce small containers, not for the thick flesh, associated with modern varieties of squash. Cucurbita argyrosperma has been found in the region dated to circa 1300-1500 BCE. C. pepo cultivars crookneck and scallop squash appeared later. Other plants of the EAC include little barley, goosefoot or lambsquarters, erect knotweed, sumpweed or marsh elder, sunflower.

The plants are divided into "oily" or "starchy" categories. Sunflower and sumpweed have edible seeds rich in oil. Erect knotweed and goosefoot, a leafy vegetable, are starches, as are maygrass and little barley, both of which are grasses that yield grains that may be ground to make flour; the archaeological record suggests that humans were collecting these plants from the wild by 6000 BCE. In the 1970s, archaeologists noticed differences between seeds found in the remains of pre-Columbus era Native American hearths and houses and those growing in the wild. In a domestic setting, the seeds of some plants were much larger than in the wild, the seeds were easier to extract from the shells or husks; this was evidence that Indigenous gardeners were selectively breeding the plants to make them more productive and accessible. Most experts had believed that agriculture Eastern Woodlands Cultures was imported from the Mayans and Aztecs in what is now called Mexico, along with the trinity of subtropical crops: maize and squash.

What is now accepted is that the Eastern Woodlands Cultures were cultures which were part of one of about ten cultural regions in the world to become an "independent center of agricultural origin."The region of this early agriculture is in the middle Mississippi valley, from Memphis north to St. Louis and extending about 300 miles east and west of the river in Missouri, Illinois and Tennessee; the oldest archaeological site known in the United States in which Native Americans were growing, rather than gathering, food is Phillips Spring in Missouri. At Phillips Spring, dating from 3000 BCE, archaeologists found abundant walnuts, hickory nuts, grapes, ragweed, bottle gourd, the seeds of Cucurbita pepo, a gourd with edible seeds, the ancestor of pumpkins and most squashes; the seeds found at Phillips Spring were larger than those of wild C. pepo. The agency for this change was human manipulation. Humans were selecting and tending seeds from plants that produced larger and tastier seeds, they would manipulate C. pepo to produce edible flesh.

By 1800 BCE, Native Americans were cultivating several different plants. The Riverton Site in the Wabash River valley of Illinois, near the present day village of Palestine, is one of the best known early sites of cultivation. Ten house sites have been discovered at Riverton, indicating a population of 50 to 100 people in the community. Among the hearths and storage pits associated with the houses, archaeologists found a large number of plant remains, including a large number of seeds of chenopods which are cultivated plants; some of the chenopod seeds had husks only a third as thick as those of wild seeds. Riverton farmers had bred them selectively to produce a seed easier to access than wild varieties of the same plant; the wild food guru of the 1960s, Euell Gibbons and ate chenopods. "In rich soil," he said, "lamb's quarters will grow four or five feet high if not disturbed, becoming much branched. It bears a heavy crop of tiny seeds in panicles at the end of every bran

2007 UK & Ireland Greyhound Racing Year

The 2007 UK & Ireland Greyhound Racing Year was the 82nd year of greyhound racing in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Two time English Greyhound Derby champion Westmead Hawk was aimed towards a third Derby attempt after recovering from injury over the winter, his trainer Nick Savva and owner Bob Morton sent him to Monmore for two races on 3 and 10 May and Wimbledon on 19 and 26 May. After finishing second in the Derby Trial Stake on 26 May his connections decided not to go for a third Derby and retired him to stud; the 2007 English Greyhound Derby progressed without Westmead Hawk and was won by his kennelmate Westmead Lord. The Irish equivalent went to Tyrur Rhino for trainer Paul Hennessy who recorded a 1-2 when Tyrur Laurel finished runner-up. Charlie Lister won his fourth trainers title. Brough Park underwent a re-branding by their owners William Hill Bookmakers and would now be known as Newcastle; this was possible due to the fact. Sister track Sunderland was the recipient of a significant prize money increase as plans were announced that a new festival would be held.

It included the William Hill Classic offering a £40,000 winner's prize and the William Hill Grand Prix for £25,000. Dundalk unveiled the all-weather horse track to go alongside the new greyhound track costing a further €24 million; the total improvements had cost €35million. Three independent tracks closed, Wisbech and Hinckley, the latter was sold to developers. Charlie Lister won the Trainers championship at Hall Green and trained Fear Haribo to the Scottish Greyhound Derby title at Shawfield, in a track record time. Mahers Boy trained by Elaine Parker claimed the first William Hill Classic and Go Edie Honda picked up the Grand Prix title. Spiridon Louis took the St Leger crown and would go on to be voted Greyhound of the Year after winning the Regency, the TV Trophy and setting track records at Yarmouth and Walthamstow. Top Honcho won the Irish Greyhound Review Stud Dog of the Year Award for a record sixth time. At an NGRC enquiry, Belle Vue veterinary surgeon Paul Evans was found guilty of supplying incorrect season suppressants which led to a feud between the Royal Veterinary College and the NGRC.

Wimbledon trainer Ray Peacock died after a car accident, the Keston based Peacock aged 52 had been taken to East Surrey Hospital in Redhill but had been pronounced dead on arrival. Walthamstow trainer Gary Baggs relinquished his licence to concentrate on his battle against cancer and switched his licence to daughter Stacey. Top open race trainer Terry Dartnall handed his licence to his son Matt and Wimbledon Racing Manager Derek Hope left to join William Hill and was replaced by Gary Matthews

Thomas Fearnley

Thomas Fearnley was a Norwegian romantic painter, a pupil of Johan Christian Dahl and a leading representative of Norwegian romantic nationalism in painting. His son Thomas Fearnley founded the Fearnley dynasty of shipping magnates. Thomas Fearnley was born in Frederikshald in Norway, he was the son of Maren Sophie Paus. He was the brother of professor Carl Frederik Fearnley. Fearnley's grandfather, merchant Thomas Fearnley, immigrated from Yorkshire, England to Frederikshald, Norway in 1753, his mother was the daughter of a wealthy merchant who belonged to the Paus family, a prominent family from Telemark. In 1840, he married Cecilia Catharine Andresen, she was the daughter of his benefactor, banker Nicolai Andresen, who founded what became the Andresen Bank, one of Norway's largest commercial banks of its time. In the autumn of 1841, the couple went to Amsterdam for the birth of their only child, Thomas Nicolay Fearnley, who became a Norwegian shipping magnate, his grandsons were shipping land owner N. O. Young Fearnley.

His descendants founded the Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art in 1993. Thomas Fearnley attended National Cadet Corps 1814-1819, he was a student of the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry, Art Academy in Copenhagen and the Art Academy in Stockholm under Carl Johan Fahlcrantz. Fearnley left Copenhagen bound for Stockholm in the autumn of 1823 to complete a painting commissioned by Crown Prince Oscar of Norway and Sweden, he received several orders from the Swedish royal family and from other members of the royal court including Swedish Count Gustaf Trolle-Bonde. He conducted study tours in Norway. After another stay in Copenhagen from and a new Norwegian-trip in the autumn of 1828 he went to Germany and was a student of Dahl in Dresden as well as befriending the German painter Joseph Petzl and the German-Danish painter Friedrich Bernhard Westphal, he lived in Munich. Fearnley traveled extensively in the 1830s visiting Munich, London and the English Lake district. During September 1832, he visited Sicily the following summer.

He painted in small towns south of Naples: Castellammare, Sorrento, Capri and in Switzerland: Meiringen, Grindelwald. He visited London the next year. During the summer of 1839 he was on a study tour to the Sognefjord and Hardangerfjord, together with the German painter Andreas Achenbach. Fearnley's paintings alternate between oil sketches and larger, composed landscapes meant for exhibition, his large studio compositions have a cool monumental attitude with a taste for the powerful and wildly romantic in the favorite motifs and waterfalls, with a strong emphasis on the image's architectural structure. The National Gallery in Oslo owns a total of 54 of his smaller pictures and sketches and a series of drawings. Notable works in this collection include Grindelwaldgletsjeren and Slinde Birken. Other notable collections are located in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Fearnley contracted typhoid and died in January 1842 when he was only 39 years old, he was buried on Südlicher Friedhof in Munich. In 1922, his son arranged to have his father's mortal remains moved to Vår Frelsers gravlund in Oslo.

List of Norwegian artists

Uganda Scheme

The Uganda Scheme was a plan in the early 1900s to give a portion of British East Africa to the Jewish people as a homeland. It drew support from Theodor Herzl, a prominent Zionist, as a temporary refuge for European Jews facing antisemitism. British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain was aware of the ambitions of the Zionist Organization, on his mind during a trip to East Africa earlier in the year. Chamberlain noted during his trip that, "If Dr Herzl were at all inclined to transfer his efforts to East Africa there would be no difficulty in finding land suitable for Jewish settlers."Herzl was introduced to Chamberlain by Israel Zangwill in the spring of 1903, a few weeks after the outbreak of the Kishinev pogroms. Chamberlain offered 13,000 square kilometres at Uasin Gishu, an isolated area atop the Mau Escarpment in modern Kenya; the land was thought suitable because of its temperate hill station-like climate and its relative isolation, being surrounded by the Mau Forest. The offer was a response to pogroms against the Jews in Russia, it was hoped the area could be a refuge from persecution for the Jewish people.

Chamberlain saw the land as he was passing by on the Uganda Railway, although the land was not in fact in Uganda but in the East Africa Protectorate. This territory had only been transferred from the Uganda Protectorate to the East Africa Protectorate in 1902, as part of the Uganda Railway development plan; the story of the 1904 expedition, as well as an imagined vision of a Jewish state in Uasin Gishu, is told in Lavie Tidhar's novelette "Uganda", in his 2007 collection HebrewPunk. Adam Rovner's "What If the Jewish State Had Been Established in East Africa", a travel guide for the fictional Jewish homeland of New Judea, located in present day Uganda, won the 2016 Sidewise Award for Alternate History award for short form alternate history. According to Adam Rovner the plan was attractive to early Zionists as it "twinned the adventures of Stanley with the adventurism of the Age of Empire, stagecraft with statecraft." Abayudaya Madagascar Plan Jewish Autonomous Oblast Slattery Report Fugu Plan Beta Israel Lemba people Proposals for a Jewish state Jewish Territorialist Organization Rovner, Adam.

In the Shadow of Zion: Promised Lands Before Israel. NYU Press. ISBN 978-1-4798-1748-1. Jewish Virtual Library on Uganda Proposal