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Protesilaus

In Greek mythology, Protesilaus was a hero in the Iliad, venerated at cult sites in Thessaly and Thrace. Protesilaus was the son of Iphiclus, a "lord of many sheep". Hyginus surmised that he was known as Iolaus—not to be confused with Iolaus, the nephew of Heracles—but was referred to as "Protesilaus" after being the first to leap ashore at Troy, thus the first to die in the war. Protesilaus was one of the suitors of Helen, he brought forty black ships with him to Troy, drawing his men from "flowering" Pyrasus, coastal Antron and Pteleus, "deep in grass", in addition to his native Phylace. Protesilaus was the first to land: "the first man who dared to leap ashore when the Greek fleet touched the Troad", Pausanias recalled, quoting the author of the epic called The Cypria. An oracle had prophesied that the first Greek to walk on the land after stepping off a ship in the Trojan War would be the first to die, so, after killing four men, he was himself slain by Hector. Alternate sources have him slain by either Aeneas, Achates, or Cycnus.

After Protesilaus' death, his brother, joined the war in his place. The gods had pity on his widow, daughter of Acastus, brought him up from Hades to see her, she was at first overjoyed, thinking he had returned from Troy, but after the gods returned him to the underworld, she found the loss unbearable. She had a bronze statue of her late husband constructed, devoted herself to it. After her worried father had witnessed her behavior, he had it destroyed. Another source claims his wife was Polydora, daughter of Meleager. According to legend, the Nymphs planted elms on the tomb, in the Thracian Chersonese, of "great-hearted Protesilaus", elms that grew to be the tallest in the known world; the story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium in the Palatine Anthology: Only two sanctuaries to Protesilaus are attested. There was a shrine of Protesilaus at Phylace, his home in Thessaly, where his widow was left lacerating her cheeks in mourning him, games were organised there in his honour, Pindar noted.

The tomb of Protesilaus at Elaeus in the Thracian Chersonese is documented in the 5th century BCE, during the Persian War, votive treasure deposited at his tomb was plundered by the satrap Artayctes, under permission from Xerxes. The Greeks captured and executed Artayctes, returning the treasure; the tomb was mentioned again when Alexander the Great arrived at Elaeus on his campaign against the Persian Empire. He offered a sacrifice on the tomb. Like Protesilaus before him, Alexander was the first to set foot on Asian soil during his campaign. Philostratus writing of this temple in the early 3rd century CE, speaks of a cult statue of Protesilaus at this temple "standing on a base, shaped like the prow of a boat. A founder-cult of Protesilaus at Scione, in Pallene, was given an etiology by the Greek grammarian and mythographer of the Augustan era Conon, at variance with the epic tradition. In this, Conon asserts that Protesilaus survived the Trojan War and was returning with Priam's sister Aethilla as his captive.

When the ships put ashore for water on the coast of Pallene, between Scione and Mende, Aethilla persuaded the other Trojan women to burn the ships, forcing Protesilaus to remain and found the city of Scione. A rare tetradrachm of Scione ca. 480 BCE acquired by the British Museum depicts Protesilaus, identified by the retrograde legend PROTESLAS. Protesilaus, speaking from beyond the grave, is the oracular source of the corrected eye-witness version of the actions of heroes at Troy, related by a "vine-dresser" to a Phoenician merchant in the framing device that gives an air of authenticity to the narratives of Philostratus' Heroicus, a late literary representation of Greek hero-cult traditions that developed independently of the epic tradition. Among few representations of Protesilaus, a sculpture by Deinomenes is just a passing mention in Pliny's Natural History; the Metropolitan's sculpture of a heroically nude helmeted warrior stands on a forward-slanting base, looking down and to his left, with his right arm raised, prepared to strike, would not be identifiable, save by comparison made by Gisela Richter with a torso of the same model and its associated slanting base, schematically carved as the prow of a ship encircled by waves: Protesilaus about to jump ashore.

If Euripides' tragedy, had survived, his name would be more familiar today. The poem in the Palatine Anthology on Protesilaus by Antiphilus of Byzantium in turn inspired F. L. Lucas's poem'The Elms of Protesilaus'. "Dialogues of the Dead", by Lucian, "Protesilaos", a lost tragedy of Euripides of which only fragments survive "Protesilaodamia", a lost work of Laevius "carmen 61", "carmen 68", by Catullus "Elegies, to Cynthia", by Propertius "Heroicus", by Philostratus "The Epistles", 13, by Ovid "Laodamia", by William Wordsworth " Veeraanganaa", by Michael Madhusudan Dutt "Protesilas i Laodamia", b

Johann Konrad Ammann

Johann Konrad Amman was a Swiss physician and instructor of non-verbal deaf persons. Johann Konrad Amman was born at Switzerland. After graduating at Basel in 1687 he began to practise at Amsterdam, where he gained a great reputation, he was one of the earliest writers on the instruction of the non-verbal deaf, first called attention to his method in his Surdus loquens, reprinted, was reproduced by John Wallis in the Philosophical Transactions. His process consisted principally in exciting the attention of his pupils to the motions of his lips and larynx while he spoke, inducing them to imitate these movements, until he brought them to repeat distinctly letters and words, he died near Leiden. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Amman, Johann Conrad". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Johann Konrad Amman in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Works by Johann Conrad Amman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Johann Konrad Ammann at Internet Archive The Talking Deaf Man, at Project Gutenberg

1990–91 Northern Premier League

The 1990–91 Northern Premier League season was the 23rd in the history of the Northern Premier League, a football competition in England. Teams were divided into two divisions, it was known as the HFS Loans League for sponsorship reasons. The Premier Division featured two new teams: Droylsden promoted as runners-up from Division One Leek Town promoted as champions from Division One Division One featured four new teams: Bridlington Town, promoted as champions of the NCEFL Premier Division Caernarfon Town and Rhyl, relegated from the NPL Premier Division Warrington Town, promoted as champions of the NWCFL Division One In the twenty-third season of the Northern Premier League Witton Albion were automatically promoted to the Football Conference. None of the Premier Division sides were relegated, but South Liverpool folded at the end of the season, so three sides were promoted to the Premier Division. Colwyn Bay and Knowsley United were admitted to take these teams' places. Challenge Cup: Southport bt.

BuxtonPresident's Cup: Witton Albion bt. Fleetwood TownNorthern Premier League Shield: Between Champions of NPL Premier Division and Winners of the Presidents Cup. Witton Albion bt. Stalybridge Celtic 11 As Witton Albion won both the Northern Premier League and the Presidents cup, Stalybridge Celtic qualified as 2nd placed team of the NPL. Northern Premier League Tables at RSSSF