Flag and coat of arms of Pennsylvania
The coat of arms of Pennsylvania is an official emblem of the state, alongside the seal and state flag, and was adopted in 1778. The flag of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania consists of a field on which the state coat of arms is embroidered. An olive branch and cornstalk cross limbs beneath—symbols of peace and prosperity, the state motto, Virtue and Independence, appears festooned below. Atop the coat of arms is an eagle, representing Pennsylvanias loyalty to the United States. Originally authorized by the state in 1799, the current design was enacted by law in 1907, in the summer of 2005, a bill was introduced to the state legislature to add Pennsylvania to the bottom of the flag in golden letters. The Pennsylvania House of Representatives voted in favor of the change, the legislation was proposed by State Representative Tim Solobay. The Senate has not yet taken action on the bill, the flag of the governor of Pennsylvania contains the state coat of arms on a field of white. Above the coat of arms, the flag displays a red ribbon with The Governor written in gold serif lettering.
Below the coat of arms, the flag displays another red ribbon with Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in gold lettering. In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U. S. state, U. S. territorial, the survey ranked Pennsylvanias flag 57th out of the 72. Besides being used by itself, the coat of arms is used on many governmental seals of the state, coats of arms of the U. S. states Display of the state flag
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire and the United States, on lines exceedingly generous to the latter. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war, only Article 1 of the treaty, which is the legal underpinning of United States existence as a sovereign country, remains in force. Peace negotiations began in April 1782, and continued through the summer, representing the United States were Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain, the treaty was signed at the Hotel dYork in Paris on September 3,1783, by Adams, Franklin and Hartley. Regarding the American Treaty, the key episodes came in September,1782, France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it could capture Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar, the United States would gain its independence but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains.
Britain would take the north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control and it would be an Indian barrier state. However, the Americans realized that they could get a deal directly from London. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France, the British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne agreed. He was in charge of the British negotiations and he now saw a chance to split the United States away from France. The western terms were that the United States would gain all of the area east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, the northern boundary would be almost the same as today. The United States would gain fishing rights off Canadian coasts, and it was a highly favorable treaty for the United States, and deliberately so from the British point of view. Prime Minister Shelburne foresaw highly profitable trade between Britain and the rapidly growing United States, as indeed came to pass.
Great Britain signed agreements with France and Spain. In the treaty with Spain, the territories of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain, Spain received the island of Minorca, the Bahama Islands and Montserrat, captured by the French and Spanish, were returned to Britain. The treaty with France was mostly about exchanges of captured territory, the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14,1784. Copies were sent back to Europe for ratification by the parties involved
Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania, known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4,1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as Penns Woods, was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, the Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The colonial government, established in 1683 by Penns Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor, a 72-member Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly. The General Assembly, known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, succeeding Frames of Government, known as the Charter of Privileges, were produced in 1683,1696 and 1701. The fourth Frame remained in effect until the American Revolution and he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians.
Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed, the province was divided first into 5 counties, plus the three lower counties on Delaware Bay. Philadelphia County is present-day Philadelphia City, montgomery County was west of Bucks and northwest of Philadelphia, and extended along the Schuylkill River to the area presently known as Minersville, in Schuylkill County. Chester County extended along the border of Pennsylvania from Marcus Hook to the western border of the province. The remainder of the province, which is now North Central and their borders remain unchanged to this day. William Penn and his fellow Quakers heavily imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government, the Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to everyone monotheists and government was initially open to all Christians. Until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no military, few taxes, among the first groups were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683, and the Amish, who established the Northkill Amish Settlement in 1740. 1751 was an year for the colony.
Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, and The Academy and College of Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin founded both of these institutions along with Philadelphias Union Fire Company fifteen years earlier in 1736. Likewise in 1751, the Pennsylvania State House ordered a new bell which would become known as the Liberty Bell for the new tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. William Penn had mandated fair dealings with Native Americans and this led to significantly better relations with the local Native tribes than most other colonies had. The Quakers had previously treated Indians with respect, bought land from them voluntarily, according to Voltaire, the Shackamaxon Treaty was the only treaty between Indians and Christians that was never sworn to and that was never broken. The Quakers refused to provide any assistance to New Englands Indian wars, in 1737, the Colony exchanged a great deal of its political goodwill with the native Lenape for more land.
This purchase has become known as the Walking Purchase, although the document was most likely a forgery, the Lenape did not realize that
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain, he was born, after the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his fathers reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had direct control over government policy. He had a relationship with his eldest son, Frederick. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, and so George II was ultimately succeeded by his grandson, George III.
For two centuries after George IIs death, history tended to him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper. Since then, most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, and was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, both of Georges parents committed adultery, and in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband. She was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children and his sister Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian. Georges second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, after his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, Georges father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, and wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else. A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July, on 22 August /2 September 1705O. S. /N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, in early 1707, Georges hopes were fulfilled when Caroline gave birth to a son, Frederick
Autonomous administrative division
An autonomous administrative division is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. Typically, it is geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations, Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies. Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the UK. A number of other British Overseas Territories have autonomy in internal affairs through local legislatures, New Zealand dependent territories New Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand, the Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago.
The territorys council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, danish constituent countries The Faroe Islands and Greenland are two autonomous countries within the Kingdom of Denmark. Dutch constituent countries Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies. French overseas collectivities, New Caledonia, and Corsica The French constitution recognises 3 autonomous jurisdictions, Corsica, a region of France, enjoys a greater degree of autonomy on matters such as tax and education compared to mainland regions. New Caledonia, a sui generis collectivity, and French Polynesia and they do not, have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, border control or university education. Other smaller overseas collectivities have a degree of autonomy through local legislatures. In Ethiopia, special woredas are a subgroup of woredas that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority and these woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries.
The five comarcas indígenas of Panama, Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus in Albania. Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa, subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia. Baltic Provinces of the Russian Empire, grand Duchy of Finland of the Russian Empire. Magyar Autonomous Region of Socialist Republic of Romania Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain, weller and S. Wolff, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution, Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge,2005 From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua, Lessons Learnt, olausson and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy
Chester County, Pennsylvania
Chester County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 498,886, the county seat is West Chester. Chester County was one of the three original Pennsylvania counties created by William Penn in 1682 and it was named for Chester, England. Chester County is part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, Chester County is the highest-income county in Pennsylvania and 24th highest in the nation as measured by median household income. Philadelphia and Chester were the three Pennsylvania counties initially created by William Penn on August 24,1682, much of the Welsh Tract was in eastern Chester County, and Welsh place names, given by early settlers, continue to predominate there. The fourth county in the state, Lancaster County, was formed from Chester County on May 10,1729, on March 11,1752, Berks County was formed from the northern section of Chester County, as well as parts of Lancaster and Philadelphia counties.
The original Chester County seat was the city of Chester, a center of naval shipbuilding, this did not work, the eastern portion of the county separated from Chester County on September 26,1789, becoming Delaware County. West Chester remained the seat of the reduced Chester County, much of the history of Chester County arises from its location between Philadelphia and the Susquehanna River. The first road to the West passed through the part of Chester County, following the Great Valley westward, with some re-alignments, it became the Lincoln Highway. This road is still named Lancaster Avenue in most of the Chester county towns it runs through, the first railroad followed much the same route, and the Reading Railroad progressed up the Schuylkill River to Reading. Industry tended to concentrate along the rail lines, easy transportation allowed workers to commute to urban jobs, and the rise of the suburbs followed. To this day, the areas form fingers extending along major lines of transportation.
During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Brandywine was fought at what is now the southeastern fringe of the county, the Valley Forge encampment was at the northeastern edge. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 759 square miles. The topography consists of rolling hills and valleys and it is part of the known as the Piedmont. Watersheds that serve Chester County include the Octoraro, the Brandywine, and Chester creeks, many of the soils are fertile, rich loam as much as twenty-four inches thick, together with the temperate climate, this was long a major agricultural area. Because of its proximity to Philadelphia, Chester County has seen waves of development over the past half-century due to suburbanization. Although development in Chester County has increased, agriculture is still a part of the countys economy
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina was an English and a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in what is modern day North Carolina, Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolina, in 1629. The charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, and a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida, led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs. In 1691, dissent over the governance of the led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of Carolina. The division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, but both remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors.
A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729. On October 30,1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, under the name, in honor of that king. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France where he died. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heaths heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, the eight were called Lords Proprietors or simply Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north.
The charter granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. The Lords Proprietors, operating under their charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself. Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had issued up the coast permeating North Carolina, a hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, the Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. The Albemarle Settlements, preceding the royal charter by ten years, by 1664, the region was organized as Albemarle County. In 1663, Captain William Hilton had noted the presence of a cross erected by the Spaniards that still stood before the town meeting house of the Indians living at what became Port Royal
Mary II of England
Mary II was joint monarch of England and Ireland with her husband and first cousin, William of Orange, from 1689 until her death. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694, popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary. Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him and she did, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful and effective ruler. Mary, born at St Jamess Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York, and his first wife, Anne Hyde. She was baptised into the Anglican faith in the Chapel Royal at St Jamess and her godparents included her fathers cousin, Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Although her mother bore eight children, all except Mary and her younger sister Anne died very young, for most of her childhood, Mary was second in line to the throne after her father. The Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669, Marys education, from private tutors, was largely restricted to music, drawing and religious instruction.
Her mother died in 1671, and her father remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife Mary of Modena, from about the age of nine until her marriage, Mary wrote passionate letters to an older girl, Frances Apsley, the daughter of courtier Sir Allen Apsley. In time, Frances became uncomfortable with the correspondence, and replied more formally, at the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder of Holland, William of Orange. William was the son of the Kings late sister, Princess Royal, and thus fourth in the line of succession after James and Anne. The Duke of York agreed to the marriage, after pressure from chief minister Lord Danby and the King, when James told Mary that she was to marry her cousin, she wept all that afternoon and all the following day. William and a tearful Mary were married in St Jamess Palace by Bishop Henry Compton on 4 November 1677, Mary accompanied her husband on a rough sea crossing back to the Netherlands that month, after a delay of two weeks caused by bad weather.
On 14 December, they made an entry to The Hague in a grand procession. Marys animated and personable nature made her popular with the Dutch people and she was devoted to her husband, but he was often away on campaigns, which led to Marys family supposing him to be cold and neglectful. She suffered further bouts of illness that may have been miscarriages in mid-1678, early 1679 and her childlessness would be the greatest source of unhappiness in her life. From May 1684, the Kings illegitimate son, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, lived in the Netherlands, Monmouth was viewed as a rival to the Duke of York, and as a potential Protestant heir who could supplant James in the line of succession. William, did not consider him a viable alternative, upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in February 1685, the Duke of York became king as James II in England and Ireland and James VII in Scotland. Mary was playing cards when her husband informed her of her fathers accession, to Williams relief, Monmouth was defeated and executed, but both he and Mary were dismayed by Jamess subsequent actions
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776
Constitution and 1791 U. S. Bill of Rights did. It was drafted by Robert Whitehill, Timothy Matlack, Dr. Thomas Young, George Bryan, James Cannon and it contained several innovations that were quite radical for that era, including these, Voting franchise for all men who had paid taxes, without property qualifications. A unicameral legislature, with members elected for one term, a twelve-member Supreme Executive Council to administer the government. A judiciary appointed by the legislature for seven-year terms, removable at any time, the provision that all approved legislation could to be enacted only at the next session of the Assembly so the people of the state could assess the utility of the proposed law. A President elected by the Assembly and Council together, Thomas Wharton Jr. was chosen in 1777 to be the first President of the Supreme Executive Council. A Council of Censors to conduct an evaluation of the activities and it could censure actions by the government deemed to have violated the constitution.
The Council of Censors was the body with the authority to call a convention to amend the constitution. The constitution established Pennsylvanias official title, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, three other states are presently self-designated as commonwealths. Additionally, the Constitution was the template from which Vermonts 1777 constitution, the Pennsylvania constitution includes a declaration of rights that coincides with the Virginia Declaration of Rights in 1776. Text A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE COMMONWEALTH and that THE PEOPLE of this State have the sole and inherent right of governing, and regulating, the internal police of the same. That in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be held sacred. That the people have a right to freedom of speech, and of writing, a Peoples History of the United States
George III of the United Kingdom
He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.
Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What.
It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral values
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein