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Province of Saxony

The Province of Saxony known as Prussian Saxony was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945. Its capital was Magdeburg, it was formed by the merger of various territories ceded or returned to Prussia in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna: most of the former northern territories of the Kingdom of Saxony, the former French Principality of Erfurt, the Duchy of Magdeburg, the Altmark, the Principality of Halberstadt, some other districts. The province was bounded by the Electorate of Hesse, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick to the west, Hanover to the north, Brandenburg to the north and east, Silesia to the south-east, the rump kingdom of Saxony and the small Ernestine duchies to the south, its shape was irregular and it surrounded enclaves of Brunswick and some of the Ernestine duchies. It possessed several exclaves, was entirely bisected by the Duchy of Anhalt save for a small corridor of land around Aschersleben; the river Havel ran along the north-eastern border with Brandenburg north of Plaue but did not follow the border exactly.

The majority of the population was Protestant, with a Catholic minority considered part of the diocese of Paderborn. The province sent 20 members to the Reichstag and 38 delegates to the Prussian House of Representatives; the province was created in 1816 out of the following territories: the Prussian lands which lay to the west of the Havel river. Several small territories which were former Hannovarian enclaves within the Altmark, centred around Klötze, and, part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807–1813 a small amount of territory on the left bank of the Havel that had belonged to Anhalt-Dessau The Province of Saxony was one of the richest regions of Prussia, with developed agriculture and industry. In 1932, the province was enlarged with the addition of the regions around Ilfeld and Elbingerode, part of the Province of Hanover. On 1 July 1944, the Province of Saxony was divided along the lines of its three administrative regions; the Erfurt Regierungsbezirk was merged with the Herrschaft Schmalkalden district of the Province of Hesse-Nassau and given to the state of Thuringia.

The Magdeburg Regierungsbezirk became the Province of Magdeburg, the Merseburg Regierungsbezirk became the Province of Halle-Merseburg. In 1945, the Soviet military administration combined Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg with the State of Anhalt into the Province of Saxony-Anhalt, with Halle as its capital; the eastern part of the Blankenburg exclave of Brunswick and the Thuringian exclave of Allstedt were added to Saxony-Anhalt. In 1947, Saxony-Anhalt became a state; the East German states, including Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt, were abolished in 1952, but they were recreated as part of the reunification of Germany in 1990 as modern states of Germany. Prior to 1944, the province of Saxony was divided into three Regierungsbezirke. In 1945, only the provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg were re-merged. Urban districts Aschersleben Burg bei Magdeburg Halberstadt Magdeburg Quedlinburg Stendal Rural districts Calbe a./S. Gardelegen Haldensleben Jerichow I Jerichow II Oschersleben Osterburg Quedlinburg Salzwedel Stendal Wanzleben Wernigerode Wolmirstedt Urban districts Eisleben Halle a. d.

Saale Merseburg Naumburg a. d. Saale Weißenfels Wittenberg Zeitz Rural districts Bitterfeld Delitzsch Eckartsberga Liebenwerda Mansfelder Gebirgskreis Mansfelder Seekreis Merseburg Querfurt Saalkreis Sangerhausen Schweinitz Torgau Weißenfels Wittenberg Zeitz Urban districts Erfurt Mühlhausen Nordhausen Rural districts Hohenstein county Heiligenstadt Langensalza Mühlhausen Schle

Michael James (cricketer, born 1934)

Robert Michael James is a former English cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1956 to 1965. Michael James was educated at St John's School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was a regular member of the Cambridge University team from 1956 to 1958, scoring 1969 runs in 45 first-class matches at an average of 27.34. His highest score was 168 against Gloucestershire in 1957, when he "dominated the cricket, on-driving and pulling powerfully during a fine display lasting four hours and including six 6's and seventeen 4's". Cambridge won the match by an innings in two days, he played for Berkshire in the Minor Counties Championship from 1954 to 1962, a few matches from 1969 to 1971. He played three matches for Wellington in the Plunket Shield in 1964–65, his son Tim played for Berkshire in the 1980s. Michael James at CricketArchive Michael James at ESPNcricinfo

Sutton Hoo Helmet (sculpture)

Sutton Hoo Helmet is a 2002 sculpture by the English artist Rick Kirby. A representation of the Anglo-Saxon helmet by the same name found in the Sutton Hoo ship-burial, it was commissioned by the National Trust to suspend outside an exhibition hall at the Sutton Hoo visitor centre. At the opening of the centre, the sculpture was unveiled by the Literature Nobel laureate Seamus Heaney on 13 March 2002, it remained in place, dominating the entrance of the exhibition hall, until 2019, when it was moved to the entrance to the Sutton Hoo site. The sculpture is 1.8 m high, 1.2 m wide, 1.6 m deep, weighs 900 kg. It is made of mild steel plates. Designed to have a "fierce presence", it is inspired by the fragmentary appearance of the reconstructed helmet rather than the glistening replica made by the Royal Armouries. Steel is Kirby's favoured medium, allowing the sense of scale and dramatic impact found in Sutton Hoo Helmet; the sculpture is illustrative of Kirby's figural body of work, its mask-like quality has been repeated in subsequent pieces.

In 1939, archaeologists excavating barrows overlooking the River Deben near Woodbridge, discovered an Anglo-Saxon grave of unparalleled wealth. The Sutton Hoo ship-burial was labelled "Britain's Tutankhamun"; the most iconic artefact, the Sutton Hoo helmet, was pieced together from more than 500 fragments. In the decades since, the Sutton Hoo helmet has come to symbolise the Middle Ages and England; the Sutton Hoo finds were donated to the British Museum within weeks. The estate was owned until 1998, when its 245 acres were bequeathed to the National Trust. In 2000 the Trust commissioned van Haward Architects to design a visitor centre, their work included the overall planning of the estate, the design of an exhibition hall and visitor facilities, car park, the restoration of the Edwardian house. The £5 million visitor centre was opened on 13 March 2002 by Nobel laureate Seamus Heaney, whose translation of Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon epic poem that describes extravagant burial customs similar to those observed at Sutton Hoo, had been published in 1999.

The National Trust commissioned the English sculptor Rick Kirby to create a work for the visitor centre. He was tasked with making something with a "fierce presence". Kirby's works included several public commissions, among them a sculpture outside St Thomas' Hospital, unveiled by Princess Margaret in 2000, another in the Calne town centre, announced by Queen Elizabeth in 2001; the National Trust Sutton Hoo Helmet was winched into place above the entrance of the exhibition hall on 26 February 2002, ahead of its official unveiling in March. The sculpture remained above the doors, dominating the entrance, until 2019. In the course of making the sculpture, Kirby completed maquette; the maquette, 1.97 m high with pedestal, was offered for sale by a private art gallery in 2005, with an asking price of £9,600. Kirby's sculpture is based on the famous helmet found in the Sutton Hoo ship-burial, but is rendered on a much larger scale, it is made from 900 kg of mild steel plates that have been coloured red, is 1.8 m high, 1.2 m wide, 1.6 m deep.

The external structure rests on an internal steel frame. By contrast, the actual helmet is 31.8 cm high, 21.5 cm wide, 25.5 cm deep, weighed an estimated 2.5 kg. Like the fragmented Anglo-Saxon helmet, Kirby's work is made of many pieces of metal, evoking an object reconstructed by an archaeologist; the sculpture intentionally emulates the fragmentary appearance of the helmet's second reconstruction, reassembled from 1970 to 1971 by Nigel Williams, rather than the glistening replica made by the Royal Armouries. Sutton Hoo Helmet was described by the National Trust as "fantastic—such a striking image and it has a real wow factor", by the East Anglian Daily Times as an "iconic" sculpture greeting visitors to the site. Both the material and the subject are typical of Kirby's work. Steel is Kirby's material of choice, for what he describes as "the ability to go huge" and its "whoom-factor!" Much of Kirby's other work focuses on the human face and form, his pieces Masks and Vertical Face repeat the same staring, unemotive quality.

Axle Arts. "Rick Kirby: 29 May – 20 June 2015". Retrieved 6 December 2017. Axle Arts. "@NT_SuttonHoo thought you may be interested we have the original maquette of your Sutton Hoo helmet by #RickKirby". Retrieved 6 December 2017 – via Twitter. Axle Arts. "Rick Kirby". Retrieved 23 September 2019. Bruce-Mitford, Rupert. "The Sutton Hoo Helmet: A New Reconstruction". The British Museum Quarterly. British Museum. XXXVI: 120–130. JSTOR 4423116. Cocke, Richard. "Sutton Hoo Helmet". Recording Archive for Public Sculpture in Norfolk & Suffolk. Retrieved 6 December 2017. Cocke, Richard. Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk. Public Sculpture of Britain. 16. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-84631-712-5. Dawson, Susan. "Modest building fit for a king". Architects' Journal. Emap Construct: 4–7. Evans, Angela Care. "The Sutton Hoo Visitor Centre". Minerva. Jerome M. Eisenberg. 13: 40–42. ISSN 0957-7718. Kennedy, Maev. "Sutton Hoo Lays Out its Treasures". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2018. Kirby, Rick. "Rick Kirby – Curriculum Vitae".

Rick Kirby. Re

Rajendran

A. Rajendran, credited as Motta Rajendran or Naan Kadavul Rajendran, is a stunt double, film actor and comedian working in Tamil cinema, he began acting in Pithamagan in 2003 and has worked as a stunt double for over 500 South Indian films since then. He played the role of a villain in Naan Kadavul and has continued to play villainous and humorous supporting characters in a number of Tamil films, he is noted for his rough voice and alopecia universalis, which he claims was the result of coming into contact with industrial waste during a stunt sequence. Rajendran began his film career working as a stunt double. According to Rajendar, his apparent alopecia universalis, an autoimmune disorder of complete loss of hair from all parts of the body, occurred after a stunt sequence in a film required him to jump into a pond, which he found out was polluted with chemical waste from a nearby factory. However, there is no scientific evidence of the disorder being caused by contact with any chemicals, he made his full-fledged acting debut in Naan Kadavul.

His performance as a cruel leader who tortures beggars earned critical acclaim with a critic noting that he is "menacing and loathsome". Following his villainous comedy role in Boss Engira Bhaskaran, he says he was typecast in similar roles, his appearance as a killer who dons the garb of women in Thirudan Police was appreciated by critics as "the ultimate showstealer and his popular lady makeover clinches it big time". His first release in 2015 was Darling; the Times of India wrote, "His bald head, thin figure and sandpapery voice make him effective for both villainous and comical roles but from the screams and whistles that his character gets, it is clear that he has made much more impact as a comedian". His second release of the year was Ivanuku Thannila Gandam. Before its release, Rajendran's presence in the film's promotional videos received a positive response; the film was released to negative reviews, though Rajendran's performance was appreciated by critics, one of whom noted that "the film belongs to Rajendran as he comes out with his trademark dialogue delivery and carries the entire film".

Rajendran on IMDb

Against Sadomasochism

Against Sadomasochism: A Radical Feminist Analysis is a 1982 radical feminist anthology edited by Robin Ruth Linden, Darlene R. Pagano, Diana E. H. Russell, Susan Leigh Star; the authors critique sadomasochism and BDSM from a feminist perspective, with most identifying sadomasochism as rooted in "patriarchal sexual ideology". The compilation includes essays by a variety of radical feminists such as Alice Walker, Robin Morgan, Kathleen Barry, Diana E. H. Russell, Susan Leigh Star, Ti-Grace Atkinson, John Stoltenberg, Sarah Lucia Hoagland, Darlene Pagano, Susan Griffin, Cheri Lesh, Judith Butler. Butler, credited as "Judy Butler," criticized sadomasochism and the Samois collective in her essay "Lesbian S&M: The Politics of Dis-Illusion." The anthology includes an interview between Audre Lorde and Susan Leigh Star. The essays express opposition to sadomasochism from a number of different viewpoints. Three pieces, a letter by Alice Walker, the interview with Audre Lorde, a conversation between Karen Sims, Darlene Pagano, Rose Mason, criticize the movement as insensitive to the experiences of Black women criticizing "master/slave" relationships.

Susan Leigh Star criticizes the use of swastikas and other Nazi imagery by some BDSM practitioners as anti-Semitic and racist. Marissa Jonel and Elizabeth Harris's articles are accounts of personal experiences with sadomasochism, Paula Tiklicorect and Melissa Bay Mathis use satire in their pieces. Several essays criticize Samois, a BDSM organization founded for lesbians. Susan Griffin's article, reprinted from her book Pornography and Silence with an introduction, criticizes Story of O, the book from which Samois took their name. Griffin argues that Story of O shows "how a pornographic society turns a woman's heart against herself." In a review for lesbian feminist magazine off our backs, Carol Anne Douglas recommended the book, praising its arguments as convincing and calling parts of the book "moving." Charles Moser wrote a negative review for The Journal of Sex Research, admitting that the essays are "well-written" but nonetheless calling the book "infuriating." Moser compares the feminist arguments against sadomasochism in the book to religious arguments against homosexuality, saying both of these cause unnecessary guilt.

Feminist views on BDSM

Jenny McCarthy

Jennifer Ann McCarthy is an American actress, television host, satellite radio broadcaster and anti-vaccine activist. She began her career in 1993 as a nude model for Playboy magazine and was named their Playmate of the Year. McCarthy had a television and film acting career, starting as a co-host on the MTV game show Singled Out some eponymous sitcoms, as well as films such as BASEketball, Scream 3, Santa Baby, she is a former co-host of the ABC talk show The View. She is a judge on the FOX musical competition show The Masked Singer. McCarthy has written books about parenting and has promoted research into environmental causes and alternative medical treatments for autism, she has promoted the disproven idea that vaccines cause autism, she believes that chelation therapy, a dangerous quack cure helped cure her son of autism. McCarthy's views have been considered dangerous and uninformed. McCarthy has been described as "the nation's most prominent purveyor of anti-vaxxer ideology" and "the face of the anti-vaxx movement".

Although she disputes the anti-vaccine label and has said she prefers the term "pro-safe-vaccine-schedule", this self-description has been met with strong criticism. McCarthy was born on November 1, 1972 at Little Company of Mary Hospital located in the southwest Chicago suburb of Evergreen Park, Illinois, she was born to a working-class Catholic family, has German and Polish ancestry. She lived in the West Elsdon neighborhood of Chicago, she is the second of four daughters – her sisters are named Lynette and Amy. McCarthy's mother, was a housewife and courtroom custodian, her father, Dan McCarthy, was a steel mill foreman; as a teenager McCarthy attended Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, whose school sweater she donned in the pages of Playboy, was a cheerleader at both Brother Rice High School and St. Laurence High School, although she has referred to herself as an "outcast" at her school and has stated she was bullied by classmates, she spent two years at Southern Illinois University.

In 1993 Playboy magazine offered McCarthy $20,000 to pose for its October issue. McCarthy became the Playmate of the Month for October 1993. Playboy publisher Hugh Hefner cites McCarthy's "wholesome Catholic girl" persona as the unique quality for which she was selected out of 10,000 applicants, her layout emphasized her Catholic upbringing with a schoolgirl theme. According to McCarthy, the pictorial caused an uproar in her Catholic neighborhood, resulted in her house being pelted with eggs, her sisters being taunted at school, McCarthy, who counted Catholic nuns among her aunts, being lectured about her future damnation by those close to her. McCarthy was made the Playmate of the Year, was paid a $100,000 salary. In 1994, because of her newfound public attention, McCarthy moved to Los Angeles and, for a time, hosted Hot Rocks, a Playboy TV show featuring uncensored music videos. In 1995, when MTV chose McCarthy to co-host a new dating show called Singled Out, she left Hot Rocks, her job as a co-host was a success, Playboy wanted her to do more modeling.

That same year she appeared at World Wrestling Federation pay-per-view event WrestleMania XI as a guest valet for villain Shawn Michaels, who faced heroic WWF Champion, Diesel. She left after the match with Diesel. McCarthy returned to World Wrestling Entertainment on the August 2, 2008 Saturday Night's Main Event XXXVI to thank the fans for supporting Generation Rescue, an autism advocacy organization. In 1996 she landed a small part in the comedy The Stupids. In 1997 McCarthy launched two shows; the first one was an MTV sketch comedy show The Jenny McCarthy Show, sufficiently popular for NBC to sign her for an eponymous sitcom that year, Jenny. In 1997 she appeared on one of two covers for the September issue of Playboy. McCarthy released an autobiography: Jen-X: Jenny McCarthy's Open Book. In 1998 McCarthy's first major movie role was alongside Trey Parker and Matt Stone in the comedy BASEketball; the following year, she starred in Diamonds. In 2000 she had a role in the horror movie Scream 3, three years she parodied that role in horror film spoof Scary Movie 3 along with fellow Playmate and actress Anderson.

In 2005, McCarthy produced and starred in the movie Dirty Love, directed by her husband at the time, John Asher. In March 2006 she was given Razzie Awards for "Worst Actress", "Worst Screenplay", "Worst Picture" for her work on Dirty Love, which earned Asher a Razzie for "Worst Director."In addition to her early TV fame on MTV and her short-lived, self-titled NBC sitcom, McCarthy has guest-starred in a variety of other television shows, including Stacked, The Drew Carey Show, Fastlane, Two and a Half Men and Just Shoot Me!. She was the voice of Six in the third season of Canadian computer-animated science fiction cartoon Tripping the Rift. In 2005 McCarthy hosted; the reality show, filmed at The Palms Hotel in Las Vegas, featured hotel guests, party goers, celebrities. McCarthy has continued her work with Playboy over the years, both as a model and in other capacities, she appeared on the cover of the magazine's January 2005 issue wearing a leopard skin version of the company's iconic "bunny suit" and was featured in a pictorial shot at Elvis Presley's Graceland mansion in that same issue.

She was the second woman and first former Playmate to become a celebrity photographer for the Playboy Cyber Club, where she photographed model Jennifer Madden. Her younger sister, Amy McCarthy, a