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Pseudodoxia Epidemica

Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Enquiries into many received tenets and presumed truths known as Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Vulgar Errors, is a work by Thomas Browne challenging and refuting the "vulgar" or common errors and superstitions of his age. It first appeared in 1646 and went through five subsequent editions, the last revision occurring in 1672; the work includes evidence of Browne's adherence to the Baconian method of empirical observation of nature, was in the vanguard of work-in-progress scientific journalism during the 17th-century scientific revolution. Throughout its pages frequent examples of Browne's subtle humour can be found. Browne's three determinants for obtaining truth were firstly, the authority of past authors, the act of reason and lastly, empirical experience; each of these determinants is employed upon subjects ranging from common folklore to the cosmological. Subjects covered in Pseudodoxia Epidemica are arranged in accordance to the time-honoured Renaissance scale of creation.

Pseudodoxia Epidemica was a valuable source of information which found itself upon the shelves of many homes in seventeenth century England. Being in the vanguard of the scientific writing, it paved the way for much subsequent popular scientific journalism, its science includes many examples of Browne's'at-first-hand' empiricism as well as early examples of the formulation of scientific hypothesis. The second of Pseudodoxia Epidemica's seven books entitled Tenets concerning Mineral and Vegetable Bodies includes Browne's experiments with static electricity and magnetism — the word electricity being one of hundreds of neologisms including medical, hallucination and computer contributed by Browne into the vocabulary of the early scientific revolution; the popularity of Pseudodoxia in its day is confirmed by the fact that it went through no fewer than six editions. The first appeared in 1646, during the reign of Charles I in 1646 and on the eve of the English Civil War. Pseudodoxia was subsequently translated and published in French, Dutch and German throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

The German Christian Cabalist Christian Knorr von Rosenroth translated the book into German in 1680. Today there is considerable confusion how best to define Sir Thomas Browne's scientific methodology, described by E. S. Merton thus: The eclecticism so characteristic of Browne... Browne does not cry from the house tops, as did Francis Bacon, the liberating power of experience in opposition to the sterilising influence of reason. Nor does he guarantee as did Descartes, the intuitive truth of reason as opposed to the falsity of the senses. Unlike either, he follows a priori reason in his quest for truth, he uses what comes to him from tradition and from contemporary Science perhaps without too precise a formulation. E. S. Merton summarised the ambiguities of Browne's scientific view-point thus: Here is Browne's scientific point of view in a nutshell. One lobe of his brain wants to study facts and test hypotheses on the basis of them, the other is fascinated by mystic symbols and analogies; the author Robert Sencourt succinctly defined Browne's relationship to scientific enquiry as "an instance of a scientific reason, lit up by mysticism, in the Church of England".

The 1651 book Arcana Microcosmi, by Alexander Ross, attempted to rebut many of Browne's claims. A detailed edition of Pseudodoxia Epidemica in 2 volumes was published by Oxford University Press in 1986, edited and comprehensively annotated by Robin Robbins. Browne's Index to Pseudodoxia Epidemica: entitled An Alphabetical Table, records the wide spectrum of subjects covered Library of Sir Thomas Browne Francis Bacon Naturalis Historia Popular science Online edition Facsimile of 4th edition

Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

Allegorical interpretations of Genesis are readings of the biblical Book of Genesis that treat elements of the narrative as symbols or types, rather than viewing them as recording historical events. Either way and most sects of Christianity treat Genesis as canonical scripture, believers regard it as having spiritual significance; the opening chapter of Genesis tells a story of God's creation of the universe and of humankind as taking place over the course of six successive days. Some Christian and Jewish schools of thought read these biblical passages assuming each day of creation as 24 hours in duration. Others read the story allegorically, hold that the biblical account aims to describe humankind's relationship to creation and the creator, that Genesis 1 does not describe actual historical events, that the six days of creation can represent a long period of time. Genesis 2 records a second account of creation. Chapter 3 introduces a talking serpent, which many Christians understand to represent Satan in disguise.

Many Christians in ancient times regarded the early chapters of Genesis as true both as history and as allegory. Other Jews and Christians have long regarded the creation account of Genesis as an allegory - prior to the development of modern science and the scientific accounts of cosmological and human origins. Notable proponents of allegorical interpretation include the Christian theologian Augustine of Hippo, who in the 4th century, on theological grounds, argued that God created everything in the universe in the same instant, not in six days as a plain reading of Genesis would require. In the King James version of the Bible, Galatians 4:21-31, Paul describes the Genesis story of Abraham's sons as an allegory. Other translations convey a similar sentiment: Galatians 4:21-31; the literalist reading of some contemporary Christians maligns the allegorical or mythical interpretation of Genesis as a belated attempt to reconcile science with the biblical account. They maintain that the story of origins had always been interpreted until modern science arose and challenged it.

This view is not the consensus view, however, as demonstrated below: According to Rowan Williams: " most of the history of Christianity there's been an awareness that a belief that everything depends on the creative act of God, is quite compatible with a degree of uncertainty or latitude about how that unfolds in creative time."Some religious historians consider that biblical literalism came about with the rise of Protestantism. Fr. Stanley Jaki, a Benedictine priest and theologian, a distinguished physicist, states in his Bible and Science: Insofar as the study of the original languages of the Bible was severed from authoritative ecclesiastical preaching as its matrix, it fueled literalism... Biblical literalism taken for a source of scientific information is making the rounds nowadays among creationists who would merit Julian Huxley's description of'bibliolaters.' They bring discredit to the Bible as they pile grist upon grist on the mills of latter-day Huxleys, such as Hoyle, Sagan and others.

The fallacies of creationism go deeper than fallacious reasonings about scientific data. Where creationism is fundamentally at fault is its resting its case on a theological faultline: the biblicism constructed by the Reformers. However, the Russian Orthodox hieromonk Fr. Seraphim Rose has argued that leading Orthodox saints such as Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John Chrysostom and Ephraim the Syrian believed that Genesis should be treated as a historical account. Maxine Clarke Beach comments Paul's assertion in Galatians 4:21–31 that the Genesis story of Abraham's sons is an allegory, writing that "This allegorical interpretation has been one of the biblical texts used in the long history of Christian anti-Semitism, which its author could not have imagined or intended". Other New Testament writers took a similar approach to the Jewish Bible; the Gospel of Matthew reinterprets a number of passages. Where the prophet Hosea has God say of Israel, "Out of Egypt I called my son,", Matthew interprets the phrase as a reference to Jesus.

Isaiah's promise of a child as a sign to King Ahaz is understood by Matthew to refer to Jesus. Christians followed their example. Irenaeus of Lyons, in his work Against Heresies from the middle of the 2nd century, saw the story of Adam and the serpent pointing to the death of Jesus: Now in this same day that they did eat, in that did they die, but according to the cycle and progress of the days, after which one is termed first, another second, another third, if anybody seeks diligently to learn upon what day out of the seven it was that Adam died, he will find it by examining the dispensation of the Lord. For by summing up in Himself the whole human race from the beginning to the end, He has summed up its death. From this it is clear that the Lord suffered death, in obedience to His Father, upon that day on which Adam died while he disobeyed God. Now he died on the same day. For God said,'In that day on which ye shall eat of it, ye shall die by death.' The Lord, recapi

Pettytown, Texas

Pettytown is an unincorporated community in Bastrop and Caldwell counties in the U. S. state of Texas. According to the Handbook of Texas, there are no population estimates available for the community, it is located within the Greater Austin metropolitan area. Pettytown stands four miles south of Red Rock on the Caldwell Bastrop County border. Only a few scattered houses were in the community in the 1940 county highway map. Only a cemetery appeared in the community's map in the 1980s. Pettytown had a school with one teacher and 42 students in 1905, it was shown on the 1940 county highway map, was consolidated with the Red Rock district in 1949. Today the community is served by two school districts; the portion in Caldwell County is served by the Lockhart Independent School District and the portion in Bastrop County is served by the Bastrop Independent School District

Rick Tramonto

Richard Michael "Rick" Tramonto is a Chicago chef and cookbook author. He was executive chef and partner in Tru, a contemporary fine-dining restaurant from Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises. A native of Rochester, New York, Tramonto began his culinary career working in a Wendy's Old Fashioned Hamburgers, he worked in New York City and London, England. In 1994, while at Trio in Evanston, Tramonto was named among Food & Wine Magazine's Top Ten Best New Chefs. In 1999, he opened Tru with culinary partner Gale Gand and Rich Melman of Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises. Tramonto and his partners at Tru won the 2007 James Beard Foundation Award for Service. Tramonto was named the "Best Chef: Midwest Region" by The James Beard Foundation in 2002. At this time, Rick was a featured chef on Great Chef television, appearing in episodes of Great Chefs of America, Great Chefs - Great Cities, Top Chef, Top Chef Masters, Iron Chef America. Tramonto founded Cenitare Restaurants in 2006, opening several restaurants in a Wheeling, Illinois hotel, including Tramonto's Steak & Seafood, Osteria di Tramonto and RT Lounge.

He left the company in 2009. Tramonto left Tru in 2010. Butter, Flour, Eggs ISBN 0-609-60420-1 American Brasserie ISBN 0-02-861630-8 Amuse-Bouche ISBN 0-375-50760-4 Tru ISBN 1-4000-6061-3 Fantastico! Steak with Friends" ISBN 978-0-7407-9257-1 "Scars of a Chef" ISBN 9781414331621On July 30, 2006, he appeared on Iron Chef: America. Losing to Mario Batali In 2010, appeared on Bravo's Top Chef Masters Season 2, he was eliminated in the fourth episode of the season. On August 25, 2010, Tramonto announced his partnership with Chef John Folse and the formation of Home on the Range: Folse Tramonto Restaurant Development, LLC, their first joint venture is Restaurant R’evolution, which opened in 2011 at 777 Bienville St. in the Royal Sonesta Hotel in New Orleans. Restaurant R’evolution offers contemporary Creole cuisine, their second venture is Seafood R'evolution, which opened in 2014 in Ridgeland MS, just outside Jackson. Official website Restaurant R'evolution, New Orleans Seafood Revolution, Ridgeland MS


Mudbound is the debut novel by American author Hillary Jordan. It has been translated into French, Serbian, Norwegian and Turkish and has sold more than 250,000 copies worldwide; the novel took Jordan seven years to write. She started it while studying for an MFA in Creative Writing from Columbia University, it was adapted as a 2017 film of the same title. In the winter of 1946, Henry McAllen moves his city-bred wife, from their comfortable home in Memphis, Tennessee to a remote cotton farm in the Mississippi Delta—a place she finds both foreign and frightening. While Henry works the land he loves, Laura struggles to raise their two young daughters in a crude shack with no indoor plumbing or electricity, under the eye of her hateful, racist father-in-law; when it rains, the waters rise up and swallow the bridge to town, stranding the family in a sea of mud. As the McAllens are being tested in every way, two celebrated soldiers of World War II return home to the Delta. Jamie McAllen is everything his older brother Henry is not: charming and sensitive to Laura’s plight, but haunted by his memories of combat.

Ronsel Jackson, eldest son of the black tenant farmers who live on the McAllen farm, comes home from fighting the Nazis with the shine of a war hero, only to face far more personal—and dangerous—battles against the ingrained bigotry of his own countrymen. It is the unlikely friendship of these two brothers-in-arms, the passions they arouse in others, that drive the novel to its tragic conclusion. Won the 2006 Bellwether Prize for fiction, founded by author Barbara Kingsolver and awarded biennially to an unpublished work of fiction that addresses issues of social justice. Named as the 2008'Fiction book of the Year' by the NAIBA Won an Alex Award from the American Library Association in 2009 Long-listed for the 2010 International Dublin Literary Award In addition, this was one of twelve New Voices for 2008 chosen by Waterstones UK, ranked as one of the Top Ten Debut Novels of the Decade by Paste Magazine, a Barnes & Noble Discover Great New Writers pick, a Borders Original Voices selection, a Book Sense pick, a Richard & Judy New Writers Book Of The Month, one of Indie Next's top ten reading group suggestions for 2009.

Won 2009 Audie Award for Multi-Voiced Performance of the audio version of Mudbound. Reviews were positive: The San Antonio Express-News says "Jordan picks at the scabs of racial inequality that will never heal and brings just enough heartbreak to this intimate, universal tale, just enough suspense, to leave us contemplating how the lives and motives of these vivid characters might have been different." Publishers Weekly concludes "Jordan convincingly inhabits each of her narrators, though some descriptive passages can be overly florid, the denouement is a bit maudlin. But these are minor blemishes on a superbly rendered depiction of the fury and terror wrought by racism." Emma Hagestadt in The Independent wrote "Adultery and alcoholism, rough justice and racism may be the stock in trade of any number of Southern novels, but Jordan neatly sidesteps pat endings and solutions. The novel's alternating narrative voices work well. Only Ronsel's wartime flashbacks, which are uneasily shoe-horned into the homespun domestic drama, feel forced.

The flat landscape of the Delta and its sudden electric storms provide a suitably gothic backdrop for the shocking denouement to come. The winner of Barbara Kingsolver's Bellwether Prize for a novel "promoting social responsibility", Hillary Jordan is a writer who puts her duty to entertain first". Ron Charles in The Washington Post said Jordan "builds a compelling family tragedy, a confluence of romantic attraction and racial hatred that falls like an avalanche. Indeed, the last third of the book is downright breathless, but all of these narrators lack the essential quality of incompleteness. They're burdened with such thorough self-knowledge. "What we cannot speak," Jamie thinks toward the end, "we say in silence,", odd coming from a character who has told us everything, including painful things we should have been allowed to infer. Jordan has plenty of talent to compose an engaging story, when she tries to do less, she may well end up doing more." Jordan is writing a sequel with the working title FATHERLANDS.

In MUDBOUND, black American GI Ronsel Jackson has a love affair with a white German woman during the American occupation of Bavaria. The new novel centers on their illegitimate son, raised in Germany by his impoverished mother; as one of the "Mischlingskinder," mixed-race children who were the products of such controversial unions, he grows up feeling like an outsider who doesn't belong. When he is 7, his mother is forced to put him into foster care. At 18, Franz sets off for America, determined to find the father. There, he is caught up in the turmoil of the Civil Rights struggle and forced to navigate a complex tangle of race and politics in his search for self-realization. Official website

Gustaf Dalman

Gustaf Hermann Dalman was a German Lutheran theologian and orientalist. He did extensive field work in Palestine before the First World War, collecting inscriptions and proverbs, he collected physical articles illustrating the life of the indigenous farmers and herders of the country, including rock and plant samples and farm tools, small archaeological finds, ceramics. He pioneered the study of biblical and early post-biblical Aramaic, publishing an authoritative grammar and dictionary, as well as other works, his collection of 15,000 historic photographs and 5,000 books, including rare 16th century prints, maps formed the basis of the Gustaf Dalman Institute at Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität, which commemorates and continues his work. The theologian and translator Franz Delitzsch, who translated the New Testament into Hebrew, entrusted to Dalman the work of "thoroughly revising" the Hebrew text. Grammatik des Jüdisch-Palästinischen Aramäisch. 1894. 2nd edition. Leipzig, 1905. Aramäische Dialektproben... mit Wörterverzeichnis.

Leipzig, 1896. Worte Iesu. Leipzig, 1898. English trans. T. & T. Clark, 1902. Aramäisch-Neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch zu Talmud und Midrasch. 1901. 2nd expanded edition. Frankfurt am Main, 1922. Jesus-Jeschua. Leipzig, 1922. English trans. Jesus-Jeshua. Studies in the Aramaic Gospels. London, 1929. Arbeit und Sitte in Palastina. 1937. Reprinted 1964. Tawfiq Canaan Lewis Larsson Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. "Dalman, Gustaf". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 1. Hamm: Bautz. Cols. 1197–1198. ISBN 3-88309-013-1. Marcel Serr: Gustaf Dalman's Palestine. Jerusalem 2016. Marcel Serr: Understanding the Land of the Bible: Gustaf Dalman and the Emergence of the German Exploration of Palestine. In: Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 27–35. Http://