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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and psychological tests may be conducted. On occasion, neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques are used. Mental disorders are diagnosed in accordance with clinical concepts listed in diagnostic manuals such as the International Classification of Diseases and used by the World Health Organization and the used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association; the fifth edition of the DSM was published in 2013 which re-organized the larger categories of various diseases and expanded upon the previous edition to include information/insights that are consistent with current research. The combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice, but contemporary practice includes a wide variety of other modalities, e.g. assertive community treatment, community reinforcement, supported employment.

Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on other aspects of the disorder in question. An inpatient may be treated in a psychiatric hospital. Research and treatment within psychiatry as a whole are conducted on an interdisciplinary basis with other professionals, such as epidemiologists, nurses, or psychologists; the term "psychiatry" was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808 and means the'medical treatment of the soul'. A medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist. Psychiatry refers to a field of medicine focused on the mind, aiming to study and treat mental disorders in humans, it has been described as an intermediary between the world from a social context and the world from the perspective of those who are mentally ill. People who specialize in psychiatry differ from most other mental health professionals and physicians in that they must be familiar with both the social and biological sciences.

The discipline studies the operations of different organs and body systems as classified by the patient's subjective experiences and the objective physiology of the patient. Psychiatry treats mental disorders, which are conventionally divided into three general categories: mental illnesses, severe learning disabilities, personality disorders. While the focus of psychiatry has changed little over time, the diagnostic and treatment processes have evolved and continue to do so. Since the late 20th century the field of psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less conceptually isolated from other medical fields. Though the medical specialty of psychiatry uses research in the field of neuroscience, medicine, biology and pharmacology, it has been considered a middle ground between neurology and psychology; because psychiatry and neurology are intertwined medical specialties, all certification for both specialties and for their subspecialties is offered by a single board, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, one of the member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties.

Unlike other physicians and neurologists, psychiatrists specialize in the doctor–patient relationship and are trained to varying extents in the use of psychotherapy and other therapeutic communication techniques. Psychiatrists differ from psychologists in that they are physicians and have post-graduate training called residency in psychiatry. Psychiatrists can therefore counsel patients, prescribe medication, order laboratory tests, order neuroimaging, conduct physical examinations; the World Psychiatric Association issues an ethical code to govern the conduct of psychiatrists. The psychiatric code of ethics, first set forth through the Declaration of Hawaii in 1977 has been expanded through a 1983 Vienna update and in the broader Madrid Declaration in 1996; the code was further revised during the organization's general assemblies in 1999, 2002, 2005, 2011. The World Psychiatric Association code covers such matters as: confidentiality, the death penalty, ethnic or cultural discrimination, genetics, the human dignity of incapacitated patients, media relations, organ transplantation, patient assessment, research ethics, sex selection, up-to-date knowledge.

In establishing such ethical codes, the profession has responded to a number of controversies about the practice of psychiatry, for example, surrounding the use of lobotomy and electroconvulsive therapy. Discredited psychiatrists who operated outside the norms of medical ethics include Harry Bailey, Donald Ewen Cameron, Samuel A. Cartwright, Henry Cotton, Andrei Snezhnevsky. Psychiatric illnesses can be conceptualised in a number of different ways; the biomedical approach compares them with diagnostic criteria. Mental illness can be assessed, through a narrative which tries to incorporate symptoms into a meaningful life history and to frame them as responses to external conditions. Both approaches are important in the field of psychiatr

Alan Rayment

Alan William Harrington Rayment is a former English first-class cricketer. Rayment was a right-handed middle-order batsman. All but one of his first-class appearances were for Hampshire. Rayment made his debut in first-class cricket for the Combined Services against Northamptonshire in 1947; this was the only first-class match. He made his first-class debut for Hampshire two years in the 1949 County Championship against Glamorgan, he represented Hampshire in 198 first-class matches from 1949 to 1958, making his final appearance for the county against Gloucestershire at the County Ground, Southampton. In his 198 matches for the county, Rayment scored 6,338 runs at a batting average of 20.31, with 23 half centuries, 4 centuries and a highest score of 126 against Gloucestershire in 1953. His best season with the bat came in 1952 when he scored 1,056 runs at an average of 23.46, with three half centuries, two centuries and a high score of 106. He made 1,000 runs in the 1956 season, he and his wife Betty were expert ballroom dancers, ran a dancing school in Southampton from the late 1940s to the late 1950s.

He spent a year as a cricket coach with MCC at Lord's in 1959, since has been "in turn teacher, estate agent, community worker, postgraduate student, property developer and psychotherapist". Alan Rayment at Cricinfo Alan Rayment at CricketArchive

Owana Salazar

Princess Owana Kaʻōhelelani Mahealani-Rose Salazar is a musician considered to be the only female steel guitar player in Hawaiʻi to be trained by Jerry Byrd. She is a descendant of Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox and Princess Theresa Owana Kaʻōhelelani Laʻanui, of the House of Keoua, the originating line of the House of Kamehameha, she has been involved in Hawaiian sovereignty issues representing the Royal Family and is a current claimant to the crown of the Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands. Owana Kaʻohelelani Mahealani-Rose Laʻanui Wilcox Salazar was born in October 1953, her parents were Henry Mario Salazar. The only girl in a family of five, Owana grew up with an honest sense of place. "Our family discussions were vast... about many of our ancestors, about their roles in Hawaiiʻs history, about the crown lands, about Robert Wilcox, about Princess Theresa going to Washington, about Princess Elizabeth going to Washington to petition Congress to survey the crown lands." Owana Salazar was raised on the island of Oahu and graduated from Kamehameha Schools, where she sang with the Concert Glee Club, the University of Hawaii, where she learned Kihoʻalu.

Salazar studied hula with Hoʻakalei Kamauʻu, Hoʻoulu Richards and Winona Beamer. In addition to studying traditional western music theory, studied voice with Elizabeth Cole, studied piano, string methods, Javanese dance and gamelan as well as continuing to study hula. Owana married first to Ronald Kaʻimihale Walters. Divorced, they have a daughter: Princess Kapumahana Kaʻahumanu Walters. Miss Hawaii Teen USA in 1997. Graduated from Kamehameha Schools and the University of Hawaii, she resides in Lahaina and works as the director for the Maui Hula Company. Secondly, she married to Warren Kaipohoʻohuaʻamaua DeGuair, ca. 1980. They have a son: Crown Prince Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuair. Graduated from Kamehameha Schools in 1999 and Hong Kong International School in 2005, he works for Pacific Pride. At the start of her public career, Salazar performed with Hawaiian headliners such as Don Ho, Ohta-San, Ed Kenney and Charles K. L. Davis, she was introduced to the world of Kihoʻalu by friend Nelson Hiu. Combining music theory with her repertoire of Hawaiian songs and slack key, Salazar developed her playing skills with help from her professors and other fellow musicians such as George Kuo, Bla Pahinui, Cyril Pahinui, Dennis Kamakahi, George Kahumoku Jr. and Sonny Chillingworth.

Other musical influences include Joni Mitchell, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Stevie Wonder, Genoa Keawe, Gabby Pahinui, Lena Machado, Marvin Gaye. Her first recording in 1986, Owana and Kaʻipo, In Kona was nominated in the category of Most Promising Artist in the Na Hoku Hanohano Awards, a Hawaiian music industry salute; the following year, her second recording, was a final ballot nominee for Contemporary Hawaiian Album of the Year and Female Vocalist of the Year. Pupukea describes the characteristics of the ocean on the North Shore of Oʻahu. Kula Morning takes gazing from mountain to the sea. "Na Wai" is a playful poetic expression full of Hawaiian kaona. "Kalamaula" celebrates the early homesteading movement of the Hawaiian people. "Silhouette Hula" is a hapa haole piece. For most of the 1980s, Salazar sang Hawaiian classics with the Royal Hawaiian Band and performed at venues in Waikiki and Japan. Jerry Byrd accepted Salazar as his student for formal study of Hawaiian steel guitar, she received a full scholarship from the Hawaiian Steel Guitar Association.

In 1992, she became Byrd's only female graduate and has been called Hawaii's preeminent female steel guitarist. Besides Hawaii, Salazar has performed in Tahiti, New Zealand and the Americas. In January 2000, she became the first woman to tour with the Hawaiian Slack Key Festival along with George Kahumoku, Jr. Keoki Kahumoku and Daniel Ho. "Owana and Ka'ipo IN KONA", Nominated: Most Promising Artist of the Year. Owana, Nominated: Female Vocalist of the Year. Wahine Slack n’ Steel, Winner: Contemporary Hawaiian Album of the Year. Nominated: Female Vocalist of the Year. Hula Jazz, Winner: Jazz Album of the Year. Throughout her life, Salazar has promoted Hawaiian history and sovereignty, she served as family liaison to the Mayor's Office of Culture and the Arts for two years, with the goal of planning and unveiling a life-size bronze statue of her great-grandfather the Honorable Robert Kalanihiapo Wilcox. His statue was installed on the corner of King and Fort Street. Salazar is among many that believe the Kingdom of Hawaii still exists and while some genealogists recognize the claims of Princess Abigail Kawānanakoa as a potential heir to the throne, Princess Salazar asserts her claim as a descendant of the House of Keōua Nui.

A principle component of Salazar's claim is the 1844 proclamation by Kamehameha III that named Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau Laʻanui as one of the 15 children of high aliʻi descent sent to the Chief's Children's School that made them eligible to rule in different positions, including monarch. Elizabeth

Stroke-ornamented ware culture

The Stroke-ornamented ware or Stichbandkeramik, Stroked Pottery culture, Danubian Ib culture of V. Gordon Childe, or Middle Danubian culture is the successor of the Linear Pottery culture, a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic in Central Europe; the STK flourishes during 4600-4400 BC. Centered on Silesia in Poland, eastern Germany and the northern Czech Republic, it overlaps with the Lengyel horizon to the south, the Rössen culture to the west; the STbK and the Notenkopfkeramik are a development of the LBK. Much of the Musical Note pottery features incised zig-zag bands going around the pot, with punctures at the line segment junctions; the STK abandons incision in favor bands of small punctures in zig-zag patterns, with a vertical band dividing each angle. The effect is a band pattern of contiguous A-frames. Where the Musical Note pottery expanded east over the Bug River, the STK moved down the Vistula and Elbe; the spread of this style must have been the transmission of cultural objects.

The homes of the STK people show a slight modification that became a major feature of cultures: one end of the long house was made shorter than the other to achieve a trapezoidal shape. The reason for this modification remains obscure; the STK people developed a preference for cremation rather than burial. The preceding early LBK had used both methods. An unusual structure associated with STK has been found at Gosek, south of Berlin: a large, double concentric ring of post holes pierced by gates and surrounded by a circular ditch; the placement of the gates and some of the posts lead some investigators to hypothesize an observatory similar to Stonehenge, but in wood rather than stone. Stichbandkeramik

Michael Rudder

Michael Rudder is a Canadian film, television and voice actor. Rudder was injured in the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. Born in Toronto, Canada, Rudder was a Genie Award nominee in 1989 for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Buying Time, his film credits include Scanners II: The New Order, Breaking All the Rules, The Adventures of Pluto Nash, One Eyed King, Taken and Splinter Cell, his television credits include episodes of Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, The Hunger, Are You Afraid of the Dark?, The Hitchhiker and Dog, Urban Angel, War of the Worlds and the Canadian series Night Heat. Rudder is a well-known voice actor for such video games as Prince of Persia, Far Cry, Jagged Alliance, Splinter Cell, Deus Ex: Human Revolution, Assassin's Creed, he does voices on several animated TV shows such as A Miss Mallard Mystery, The Legend of White Fang, Young Robin Hood, Princess Sissi, Animal Crackers, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Maya the Bee, Night Hood, X-DuckX, Daft Planet, X-Chromosome, The Country Mouse and the City Mouse Adventures, Postcards from Buster, Kitty Cats, The Little Lulu Show, more.

He has done extensive narration and commercial voice work, appeared in films for The National Film Board of Canada and Telescene in Quebec. A professional stage actor since his teens, his last stage role was in 2011, as Almady in "The Play's The Thing" at The Segal Center in Montreal. An expert in sound recording, Rudder works as a studio director in the post-synchronization of film dialogue and as a director of dubbed film and cartoon product for the world English market. Rudder was shot four times during the Mumbai attack, he says he survived by using his film knowledge to "play dead."A student of transcendental meditation and Siddha Yoga since his twenties, now a teacher of Synchronicity High-Tech Meditation, was in India on a spiritual vacation with members of the Synchronicity Foundation, a guest of the Oberoi Hotel in Mumbai when the attacks took place. He is considering writing a book, a movie or a play about his experiences, to tell the story of his experience and miraculous escape, to help others who have endured similar trauma: I am fascinated and motivated by the meditative experience.

I realize that what I was experiencing was a battlefield situation without any machismo or John Wayne bravado. I was experiencing the cool, attentive alertness of the moment; that might serve to help my Canadian brothers and sisters who are fighting in war zones. I'd like to teach meditation to the girls with shrapnel wounds such as mine, it would be a great way to rid oneself of fear and hatred and all the negative emotions that cloud our minds at such times. Michael Rudder on IMDb

Three Prisoners problem

The Three Prisoners problem appeared in Martin Gardner's "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American in 1959. It is mathematically equivalent to the Monty Hall problem with car and goat replaced with freedom and execution respectively. Three prisoners, A, B, C, are in separate cells and sentenced to death; the governor has selected one of them at random to be pardoned. The warden knows which one is pardoned, but is not allowed to tell. Prisoner A begs the warden to let him know the identity of one of the two who are going to be executed. "If B is to be pardoned, give me C's name. If C is to be pardoned, give me B's name, and if I'm to be pardoned, secretly flip a coin to decide whether to name B or C." The warden tells A that B is to be executed. Prisoner A is pleased because he believes that his probability of surviving has gone up from 1/3 to 1/2, as it is now between him and C. Prisoner A secretly tells C the news, who reasons that A's chance of being pardoned is unchanged at 1/3, but he is pleased because his own chance has gone up to 2/3.

Which prisoner is correct? The answer is that prisoner A did not gain any information about his own fate, since he knew that the warden would give him the name of someone else. Prisoner A, prior to hearing from the warden, estimates his chances of being pardoned as 1/3, the same as both B and C; as the warden says B will be executed, it is either because C will be pardoned, or A will be pardoned and the B/C coin the warden flipped came up B. Hence, after hearing that B will be executed, the estimate of A's chance of being pardoned is half that of C; this means his chances of being pardoned, now knowing B is not, again are 1/3, but C has a 2/3 chance of being pardoned. The explanation above may be summarised in the following table; as the warden is asked by A, he can only answer B or C to be executed. As the warden has answered that B will not be pardoned, the solution comes from the second column "not B", it appears that the odds for A vs. C to be pardoned are 1:2. Call A, B and C the events that the corresponding prisoner will be pardoned, b the event that the warden tells A that prisoner B is to be executed using Bayes' theorem, the posterior probability of A being pardoned, is: P = P P P P + P P + P P = 1 2 × 1 3 1 2 × 1 3 + 0 × 1 3 + 1 × 1 3 = 1 3.

The probability of C being pardoned, on the other hand, is: P = P P P P + P P + P P = 1 × 1 3 1