Psychological horror is a subgenre of horror and psychological fiction that relies on mental and psychological states to frighten, disturb, or unsettle its audience. The subgenre overlaps with the related subgenre of psychological thriller, it uses mystery elements and characters with unstable, unreliable, or disturbed psychological states to enhance the suspense, drama and paranoia of the setting and plot and to provide an overall unpleasant, unsettling, or distressing atmosphere. Psychological horror aims to create discomfort or dread by exposing common or universal psychological and emotional vulnerabilities/fears and revealing the darker parts of the human psyche that most people may repress or deny; this idea is referred to in analytical psychology as the archetypal shadow characteristics: suspicion, self-doubt, paranoia of others and the world. The genre sometimes seeks to challenge or confuse the audience's grasp of the narrative or plot by focusing on characters who are themselves unsure of or doubting their own perceptions of reality or questioning their own sanity.
Characters' perceptions of their surroundings or situations may indeed be distorted or subject to delusions, outside manipulation or gaslighting by other characters, emotional disturbances, hallucinations or mental disorders. In many cases, in a similar way as the overlapping genre of psychological thriller, psychological horror may deploy an unreliable narrator or imply that aspects of the story are being perceived inaccurately by a protagonist, thus confusing or unsettling viewers or readers and setting up an ominous or disturbing overarching tone. In other cases, the narrator or protagonist may be reliable or ostensibly mentally stable but is placed in a situation involving another character or characters who are psychologically, mentally, or disturbed. Thus, elements of psychological horror focus on mental conflicts; these become important as the characters face perverse situations, sometimes involving the supernatural, immorality and conspiracies. While other horror media emphasize fantastical situations such as attacks by monsters, psychological horror tends to keep the monsters hidden and to involve situations more grounded in artistic realism.
Plot twists are an often-used device. Characters face internal battles with subconscious desires such as romantic lust and the desire for petty revenge. In contrast, splatter fiction focuses on bizarre, alien evil to which the average viewer cannot relate. However, at times, the psychological horror and splatter subgenres overlap, such as in the French horror film High Tension; the novel The Silence of the Lambs written by Thomas Harris, Robert Bloch novels such as Psycho and American Gothic, Stephen King novels such as Carrie, The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, The Shining, Koji Suzuki's novel Ring are some examples of psychological horror. Shirley Jackson's We Have Always Lived in the Castle is viewed as one of the best examples of psychological horror in fiction. Psychological horror films differ from the traditional horror film, where the source of the fear is something material, such as grotesque or horrifying creatures, serial killers, or aliens, as well as the splatter film, which derives its frightening effects from gore and graphic violence, in that tension in psychological horror films is more built through atmosphere, eerie sounds and exploitation of the viewer's and the character's psychological fears.
Psychological horror films sometimes frighten or unsettle by relying on the viewer's or character's own imagination or the anticipation of a threat rather than an actual threat or a material source of fear portrayed onscreen. However, some psychological horror films may in fact contain a material or overt threat or a physical source of fear, as well as scenes of graphic gore or violence, yet still rely or focus on atmosphere and the psychological and emotional states of the characters and viewers to frighten or disturb. For instance, some psychological horror films may portray psychotic murderers and scenes of graphic violence while still maintaining an atmosphere that focuses on either the villain's, protagonist's, or audience's psychological, mental, or emotional status; the Black Cat and Cat People have been cited as early psychological horror films. Roman Polanski directed two films which are considered quintessential psychological horror: Repulsion and Rosemary's Baby. Stanley Kubrick's 1980 film The Shining, adapted from the aforementioned Stephen King novel, is another well-known example of the genre.
The Silence of the Lambs directed by Jonathan Demme is another example of psychological horror, whilst incorporating elements of the thriller genre. Recent English-language films in the genre include Darren Aronofsky's Black Swan, The Babadook, It Follows, Get Out and The Lighthouse; the Italian film genre known as giallo employs psychological horror or elements of the psychological horror subgenre. The subgenre is a staple in Asian countries. Japanese horror films referred to as "J-horror", have been noted to be of a psychological horror nature. Notable examples are the Ju-On series. Another influential category is the Korean horror films referred to as "K-horror". Notable examples are A Tale of Two Sisters and Gretel, Whispering Corridors. A landmark film from the Philippines, Kisapmata, is an example of psychological horror. While video game genres are based upon their gameplay content, psychological horror as narrative is used in some video games. A few succe
Timiskaming is a First Nations reserve in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec, just north of the head of Lake Timiskaming. It belongs to an Algonquin band, it is geographically within the Témiscamingue Regional County Municipality but administratively not part of it. In 1853, following the proposed distribution by Commissioner of Crown Lands, John Rolph, the Governor General in Council, Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck, assigned the Nipissing and Ottawa Indians of the Timiscaming region a reserve of 38,400 acres, located along the Ottawa River, known as Temiscamingue Reserve, but piece-by-piece, the reserve was reduced in size when the Indians ceded lots back to the government in 1897, 1898, every year from 1905 to 1917, 1939, 1953, 1955. But many of these surrenders are now being disputed. On October 23, 1999, the Quebec government recognized a name change from Timiscaming to Timiskaming. On July 30, 2002, the Department of Indian Affairs recognized that the reserve's name was changed to Timiskaming.
As of June 2018, the registered population of the Timiskaming First Nation is 2,208 members, of whom 641 live on the Timiskaming reserve, 11 live on another reserve or crown land, 1,556 live off reserve. Mother tongue: English as first language: 87.5% French as first language: 8.7% English and French as first language: 1.9% Other as first language: 1.9% The reserve's economy is tied to the adjacent town of Notre-Dame-du-Nord and based on logging, farming and tourism. There are about 15 enterprises on the reserve; the Timiskaming First Nation administration employs about 70 persons. There is only one school on the reserve: Kiwetin School, providing pre-Kindergarten to secondary grade 12, it had an enrolment of 65 students in 2008-2009
Western Maori was one of the four former New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorates, from 1868 to 1996. The Western Maori electorate extended from South Auckland and the Waikato to Taranaki and the Manawatu; the seat went to Wellington. With MMP it was replaced by the Te Tai Hauāuru electorate in 1996; the electorate includes the following tribal areas: Tainui, Taranaki The first member of parliament for Western Maori from 1868 was Mete Paetahi. At the nomination meeting in Wanganui, held at the Courthouse, Paetahi was the only candidate proposed, he was thus elected unopposed. He represented the electorate of Western Maori from 1868 to 1870, he contested the electorate again at the 1871 general election, but of the three candidates, he came last. He was defeated with Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui in second place. In the 1879 election there was some doubt about the validity of the election result, a law was passed to confirm the result in Western Maori and two other electorates. From the 1890s to the 1930s the seat was held by various Reform Party MPs.
In 1935, Toko Ratana the eldest son of the founder of the Ratana Church won the seat and became the second Ratana MP. From this point until the abolition of the seat prior to the 1996 election the seat was held by Labour MPs. Toko Ratana was succeeded by his younger brother, Matiu Rātana, he died in 1949 shortly before the 1949 general election. His wife Iriaka Ratana stood in his stead, despite significant opposition from those supporting traditional leadership roles, with Te Puea Herangi speaking out against her claim to "captain the Tainui canoe". Only the strong backing of the Rātana church and her threat to stand as a Rātana Independent secured her the Labour Party nomination, she became the first woman Maori MP, getting a similar majority to her husband in 1946, but no less than seven independent candidates stood against her. Candidates for the National Party included Pei Te Hurinui Jones. Western Maori was represented by 15 Members of Parliament:Key Independent Reform Ratana Labour Table footnotes: Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known.
There is contradictory information about the affiliation of Henare Kaihau. In Wilson's New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984, the authoritative work covering parliamentary history, Kaihau is listed as a Reform Party supporter from the party's inception in 1908. Kaihau does, appear on a poster of the Liberal Party in 1910; the New Zealand Herald, in its 1905 election reporting lists him as a government supporter, i.e. a Liberal. Another example of contradictory reporting is for the 1911 election. Three newspapers, The Marlborough Express, The New Zealand Herald, the Auckland Star reported political affiliations. Two papers have Māui Pōmare as an independent, whilst the third has him as a Labour supporter. Henare Kaihau is given three different affiliations: independent and Reform. Pepene Eketone is categorised as Labour by two of the papers, whilst the third has him as a Liberal supporter; the Auckland Star lists another Labour supporter, but the name is a composite of first and last names of two of the candidates.
Table footnotes: Table footnotes: Table footnotes: Eastern Maori Northern Maori Southern Maori McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Wilson, John; the Origins of the Māori Seats. Wellington: Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 27 August 2010
Evelyn Clair Abplanalp, known professionally as Evie Clair, is a musical artist and reality television personality who appeared on the twelfth season of the talent competition series America's Got Talent. Clair is one of five children, she has been playing piano. The day after Clair advanced to the America's Got Talent finals on September 8, 2017 she announced that her father had died from colon cancer. Clair and her family are part of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Clair began acting as a tap dancer in Anne at Hale Center Theater in Gilbert, Arizona at the age of eight, she has sung the national anthem at an Arizona Diamondbacks' game. Clair auditioned for America's Got Talent three times before getting on the show, auditioning with "Arms" by Christina Perri and won praise from Perri. Due to her father's death Clair was offered the opportunity to come back for the thirteenth season however, she chose to move on and to perform in the finals. Accommodations were made for Clair on the program.
A woman, overseeing wardrobe bought two skirts for her, insuring there was enough fabric to create outfits with long enough skirts. On May 23, 2018 it was announced; the album was released on June 1, 2018. All songs are performed by Evie Clair except for the song Okay Day which features Kirra L. A. In 2018, she starred in'The Unbelievables Christmas spectacular' in Reno, Nevada as the headline act
The Kennaway Baronetcy of Hyderabad in the East Indies, is a title in the Baronetage of Great Britain. It was created on 25 February 1791 for John Kennaway, British Resident at the Court of Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad, in recognition of his part in the negotiation of the 1790 alliance between the Nizam and the East India Company against Tipoo Sultan; the second Baronet was High Sheriff of Devon in 1866. The third Baronet was a Conservative politician; the Kennaway family originated in Scotland. In 1713 the young William I Kennaway moved from Scotland to Exeter in Devon to continue his trade as a sergemaker and clothier, his son William II Kennaway joined the business which between the years 1750 and 1790 expanded into a major force in the Devonshire woollen trade, which however soon thereafter collapsed due to the Napoleonic Wars. William III Kennaway started anew in the wine trade, whilst his brothers sought their fortunes in the East Indies: John Kennaway the 1st Baronet and Richard Kennaway who acquired a fortune working for the Board of Trade in Bengal.
The seat of the Kennaway Baronets since 1794 has been Escot House in the parish of Talaton, near Ottery St Mary, Devon. Sir John Kennaway, 1st Baronet Sir John Kennaway, 2nd Baronet Sir John Henry Kennaway, 3rd Baronet Sir John Kennaway, 4th Baronet Sir John Lawrence Kennaway, 5th Baronet Sir John-Michael Kennaway, 6th Baronet The House of Kennaway Through Ten Successive Reigns: 1743-1963, published by Kennaway & Co, Exeter, 1963. Kennaway & Co, agenda books, share records, directors' reports, financial records and stock records, etc. 1880-20th cent, Devon Archives and Local Studies Service (South West Heritage Trust, 75/17 Kennaway & Co, orders and family portraits, 1682-1875, Devon Archives and Local Studies Service, 6322 Debrett's Baronetage of England p72 Google Books Debrett's Illustrated Baronetage The Official Roll of the Baronets Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets
No. 597 Squadron RAF was a proposed squadron of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. The squadron was formed on 10 January 1944 as a transport unit within 46 Group; this group was created as a Transport Support Group and was to have five squadrons at three new bases: RAF Down Ampney, RAF Blakehill Farm and RAF Broadwell. The intended squadrons were two existing – Nos. 271, 512 – and three new: 569, 575 and 597. In the event only 575 squadron was formed, while 48 squadron and 233 squadron took the other places, though personnel under training with 512 squadron had been intended for service with 569 squadron. No. 597 squadron, like 569 squadron, was disbanded on 1 March 1944 before it had any aircraft or personnel. List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons RAF Transport Command 597 Squadron history on MOD site Squadron histories for nos. 541–598 sqn on RafWeb's Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation