Ptolemy III Euergetes

Ptolemy III Euergetes was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt from 246 to 222 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom reached the height of its power during his reign. Ptolemy III was the eldest son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his first wife Arsinoe I; when Ptolemy III was young, his mother was disgraced and he was removed from the succession. He was restored as heir to the throne in the late 250s BC and succeeded his father as king without issue in 246 BC. On his succession, Ptolemy married Berenice II, reigning queen of Cyrenaica, thereby bringing her territory into the Ptolemaic realm. In the Third Syrian War, Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid empire and won a near total victory, but was forced to abandon the campaign as a result of an uprising in Egypt. In the aftermath of this rebellion, Ptolemy forged a closer bond with the Egyptian priestly elite, codified in the Canopus decree of 238 BC and set a trend for Ptolemaic power in Egypt for the rest of the dynasty. In the Aegean, Ptolemy suffered a major setback when his fleet was defeated by the Antigonids at the Battle of Andros around 245 BC, but he continued to offer financial support to their opponents in mainland Greece for the rest of his reign.

At his death, Ptolemy was succeeded by Ptolemy IV Philopator. Ptolemy III was born some time around 280 BC, as the eldest son of Ptolemy II of Egypt and his first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of King Lysimachus of Thrace, his father had become co-regent of Egypt in 284 BC and sole ruler in 282 BC. Around 279 BC, the collapse of Lysimachus' kingdom led to the return to Egypt of Ptolemy II's sister Arsinoe II, married to Lysimachus. A conflict broke out between Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II. Sometime after 275 BC, Arsinoe I was exiled to Coptos; when Ptolemy married Arsinoe II, her victory in this conflict was complete. As children of Arsinoe I, Ptolemy III and his two siblings seem to have been removed from the succession after their mother's fall; this political background may explain why Ptolemy III seems to have been raised on Thera in the Aegean, rather than in Egypt. Ptolemy's tutors included the poet and polymath Apollonius of Rhodes head of the Library of Alexandria. From 267 BC, a figure known as Ptolemy "the Son" was co-regent with Ptolemy II.

He led naval forces in the Chremonidean war, but revolted in 259 BC at the beginning of the Second Syrian War and was removed from the co-regency. Some scholars have identified this individual with Ptolemy III; this seems unlikely, since Ptolemy III was too young to lead forces in the 260s and does not seem to have suffered any of the negative consequences that would be expected if he had revolted from his father in 259 BC. Chris Bennett has argued. Around the time of the rebellion, Ptolemy II legitimised the children of Arsinoe I by having them posthumously adopted by Arsinoe II. In the late 250s BC, Ptolemy II arranged the engagement of Ptolemy III to Berenice, the sole child of King Magas of Cyrene; the decision to single Ptolemy III out for this marriage indicates that, by this time, he was the heir presumptive. On his father's death, Ptolemy III succeeded him without issue, taking the throne on 28 January 246 BC. Cyrene had been the first Ptolemaic territory outside Egypt, but Magas had rebelled against Ptolemy II and declared himself king of Cyrenaica in 276 BC.

The aforementioned engagement of Ptolemy III to Berenice had been intended to lead to the reunification of Egypt and Cyrene after Magas' death. However, when Magas died in 250 BC, Berenice's mother Apame refused to honour the agreement and invited an Antigonid prince, Demetrius the Fair to Cyrene to marry Berenice instead. With Apame's help, Demetrius seized control of the city. A republican government, led by two Cyrenaeans named Ecdelus and Demophanes controlled Cyrene for four years, it was only with Ptolemy III's accession in 246 BC, that the wedding of Ptolemy III and Berenice seems to have taken place. Ptolemaic authority over Cyrene was forcefully reasserted. Two new port cities were named Ptolemais and Berenice after the dynastic couple; the cities of Cyrenaica were unified in a League overseen by the king, as a way of balancing the cities' desire for political autonomy against the Ptolemaic desire for control. In July 246 BC, Antiochus II Theos, king of the Seleucid empire died suddenly.

By his first wife Laodice I, Antiochus had had a son, Seleucus II, about 19 years old in 246 BC. However, in 253 BC, he had agreed to repudiate Laodice and marry Ptolemy III's eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus. By her, he had another son, named Antiochus, still an infant in 246 BC. A succession dispute broke out after Antiochus II's death. Ptolemy III invaded Syria in support of his sister and her son, marking the beginning of the Third Syrian War. An account of the initial phase of this war, written by Ptolemy III himself, is preserved on the Gurob papyrus. At the outbreak of war and Seleucus were based in western Asia Minor, while Berenice Phernophorus was in Antioch; the latter seized control of Cilicia to prevent Laodice from entering Syria. Meanwhile, Ptolemy III marched along the Levantine coast encountering minimal resistance; the cities of Seleucia and Antioch surrendered to him without a fight in late autumn. At Antioch, Ptolemy III went to the royal palace to plan his next moves with Berenice in person, only to discover that she and her young son had been murdered.

Rather than accept defeat in the face of

Powis House

Powis House was an 18th-century mansion in London, England. It stood on the northern side of Great Ormond Street, not far from Queen Square; the first version of Powis House was built in the 1690s for 2nd Marquess of Powis. No drawings of this version survive. At some point it was let for use as the French embassy, on 26 January 1713 it burned to the ground. Jonathan Swift attributed this event to "the carelessness of the rascally French servants". A replacement house was soon built, it was 104 feet wide. The subtle but lively façade featured a phoenix above the front door; the architect may have been French. The staircase walls were painted by the Venetian painter of Giacomo Amiconi. Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke leased the house in the mid 18th century and from 1764 to 1783 it was the Spanish embassy. However, the locality was falling from favour with the aristocracy, making the demise of the house more or less inevitable, by the end of the 18th century it had been demolished. There is now a small access street to Great Ormond Street Hospital called Powis Place.

London's Mansions by David Pearce, ISBN 0-7134-8702-X Newcastle House - another London mansion, briefly known as Powis House before assuming its final name

Poles in Norway

Poles in Norway are citizens and residents of Norway who are of Polish descent. They are the biggest immigrant group in Norway. Norway has experienced an influx of Polish migrant workers; this is because Norway is a member of the European Economic Area, providing the same free movement of labour as between members of the European Union. According to the Norwegian Statistics Burea, there are 108,255 Poles in Norway, make up 2.10% of the Norwegian population, It has in a short time become the largest ethnic minority in the country, 11.86% of all foreign residents in Norway are Poles. Places with significant populations are Oslo, Stavanger, Bærum, Trondheim, Asker, Sarpsborg; the first Poles came to Norway in 1830-1831 after the fall of the November Uprising. According to Statistics Norway, in the 2010-2013 period, the proportion of Poland-born perpetrators of criminal offences aged 15 and older in Norway was 66.2 per 1000 residents. This was compared to averages of 44.9 among native Norwegians and 112.9 among Norway-born residents with parents of foreign origin.

When corrected for variables such as age and sex ratio and employment, the unadjusted Polish average for 2010-2013 decreased to 46.18 after age and gender adjustment, 47.07 after residence adjustment, 41.55 after employment adjustment. Immigrants from Poland were the only over-represented population for which all three adjustable variables, including residence, could explain their over-representation. According to Statistics Norway, as of 2015, a total of 7,952 Poland citizens residing in Norway incurred sanctions; the principal breaches were traffic offences, followed by other offences for profit and alcohol offences, public order and integrity violations, property theft and maltreatment, other offences, criminal damage, sexual offences. Norwegia. Polonia i Polacy. Encyklopedia PWN Związek Polaków w Norwegii z siedzibą w Askim. Strona internetowa