Ptolemy IV Philopator

Ptolemy IV Philopator, son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC. Ptolemy's succession to the throne was accompanied by a wide-ranging purge of the Ptolemaic royal family, which left control of the realm's government in the hands of his courtiers Sosibius and Agathocles, his reign was marked by the Fourth Syrian War with the Seleucid empire, which culminated in a decisive Ptolemaic victory at the Battle of Raphia, one of the largest battles of the whole Hellenistic Age. In the final years of his rule, control over the southern portion of the country was lost to the rebel Pharaoh Hugronaphor. Ptolemy IV died in mysterious circumstances in 204 BC and was succeeded by his young son Ptolemy V Epiphanes under the regency of Sosibius and Agathocles. In ancient sources, Ptolemy was criticised for being more interested in luxury and court ceremony than government and foreign relations; the decline of the Ptolemaic dynasty is traced to his reign.

Ptolemy IV was the second child and eldest son of Ptolemy III and his wife Berenice II, born about two years after his father's accession to the throne of Egypt. Ptolemy IV had an older sister, Arsinoe III, three younger brothers, Lysimachus and Magas, all born in the 240s BC; the whole family is commemorated by a statuary groups set up at Thermos and Delphi by the Aetolian League. Under Ptolemy III, the Ptolemaic kingdom had reached its height, decisively defeating the rival Seleucid kingdom in the Third Syrian War, financing mainland Greek opposition to Antigonid Macedonia, maintaining control of nearly the entire eastern Mediterranean seaboard; however the reign was marked by the first native Egyptian revolt against Ptolemaic rule, in 245 BC. In the final years of Ptolemy III's reign, the Cleomenean War broke out in Greece and, despite receiving substantial Ptolemaic support, Cleomenes III of Sparta had been defeated by an Antigonid-led coalition and forced to flee to Egypt. Sometime between October and December 222 BC, Ptolemy III died and Ptolemy IV was crowned king.

The new king was about twenty years old and was under the strong influence of two prominent aristocrats: Sosibius and Agathocles, the brother of Ptolemy's mistress Agathoclea. On Ptolemy's accession, Sosibius engineered a large-scale purge of the royal family in order to eliminate anyone who might be able to oppose him. Ptolemy IV's uncle Lysimachus was murdered at this time. Ptolemy's mother Berenice II was believed to support his younger brother Magas who had held substantial military commands and was popular with the army, so Magas was scalded to death in the bath. Berenice is said to have been poisoned. By contrast, Ptolemy's sister Arsinoe III was brought into close association with the king. By late 220 BC, Ptolemy had married his older sister, reviving the tradition of sibling-marriage, begun by Ptolemy's grandfather Ptolemy II Philadelphus and would remain the norm for the rest of the dynasty. In 222 BC Antiochus III had assumed the Seleucid throne and he proved a dynamic leader, determined to restore Seleucid power and to reverse the losses that the Seleucids had suffed in the Third Syrian War.

In 221 BC, one year after his accession, Antiochus III invaded the Ptolemaic territories in Coele-Syria. He was rebuffed by the Ptolemaic governor of the region and forced to turn east as a result of the revolt of his satrap of Media, Molon. In spring 219 BC, Antiochus III tried again and capturing the key port city and'hearth of the Seleucid dynasty' Seleucia Pieria, under Ptolemaic control since 246 BC. After this, who had become unpopular at the Ptolemaic court, switched to the Seleucid side, bringing Coele Syria and a large portion of the Ptolemaic fleet with him. Antiochus received the surrender of Tyre and Ptolemais Ake, but he became bogged down in protracted sieges of Sidon and Dora. In the midst of this, there was a revolt in Alexandria, led by Cleomenes III of Sparta, which Polybius presents as having been a serious threat to Ptolemy IV's regime. Ptolemy III had promised to restore Cleomenes, now living in Alexandria with a force of 3,000 mercenaries, to the Spartan throne, but his death had put an end to these plans.

Ptolemy IV and Sosibius had indulged Cleomenes, seeing him as a counter to Magas. But after Magas' death, Ptolemy's interest waned and Sosibius had had the Spartan placed under house arrest. In 219 BC, while Ptolemy IV was at Canopus, Cleomenes broke free and attempted to lead an armed uprising against Sosibius, he and his followers launched an attack on the main citadel in Alexandria, hoping to liberate the men imprisoned within, but this attack was unsuccessful and the people of Alexandria did not respond to their call to rise up. Cleomenes and his followers committed suicide. Antiochus' efforts to consolidate his control over Coele Syria lasted for the rest of 219 BC. At the beginning of winter, he had to negotiate a ceasefire with Ptolemy IV. Formal peace negotiations followed at Seleucia Pieria, but they do not seem to have been undertaken in good faith on either side. Antiochus refused to consider returning Seleucia Pieria to the Ptolemies, while Ptolemy demanded that Antiochus recognise Achaeus, the de facto ruler of Asia Minor, considered a rebel by the Seleucid court, as a party to the piece.

Sosibius and Agathocles used the cease fire to whip the Ptolemaic army into shape, while Antiochus III used it to prepare for a new offensive. In early 218 BC, Antiochus obliterated the Ptolemaic forces at Berytus on land and at sea, openin

Al Ulmer

Alfred C. Ulmer Jr. was an American intelligence officer. He was born in Jacksonville, Florida in August 1916, he was of Swiss extraction on his father having been born in Zurich. Ulmer graduated from Princeton University in 1939 and joined the United States Navy prior to the start of World War II becoming a major head of intelligence operations during World War II, he had three sons and a daughter. He received the Intelligence Medal of Merit when he retired from his position in 1962. Ulmer went on to business and in the 1980s joined the Swiss banking firm Lombard Odier et Cie. in Geneva setting up Lombard Odier's operations in Bermuda. He died on June 2000 in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ulmer began his career in intelligence as a major head of intelligence operations for the Navy during World War II, he joined the Office of Strategic Services in 1945 and oversaw operatives gathering information in Turkey, Egypt and Austria. When the OSS was disbanded in 1945, Ulmer became head of the Strategic Services Unit in Austria.

There, Ulmer expanded his base of operations to include the whole Balkans area including such controversial places as Yugoslavia and Hungary. Although the SSU lacked the personnel to carry out covert operations, Ulmer pushed for more money and was rewarded by a $150,000 annual budget, his glory at the SSU was short lived though as the SSU was soon liquidated into the CIA by the new Central European Section chief, Richard Helms. Ulmer was promoted to chief of the Far East division of the CIA's Directorate of Plans in 1955. At his new position Ulmer coordinated the overthrow of the president of Indonesia in 1957; the main reason behind the rebellion was to rid Indonesia of its growing Communist Party. Ulmer was criticized for the failure of its intended sequel, he worked in Athens from 1952 to 1955 and in Paris from 1958 to 1962. Ulmer went into business in London. Ulmer and his wife, are mentioned in the 1994 memoirs of Barbara Bush, the wife of former president George Herbert Walker Bush, who had served in Naval Intelligence and was in 1963 still covertly serving in the CIA while running for office.

She quotes from an otherwise unattested letter of November 22, 1963, addressed to "Dearest family," which begins Wednesday I took Doris Ulmer out for lunch. They were here from England and they had been so nice to George in Greece.... I am writing this at the Beauty Parlor and the radio says that the President has been shot.... Poppy picked me up at the beauty parlor—we went right to the airport, flew to Ft. Worth and dropped Mr. Zeppo off and flew back to Dallas. "Mr. Zeppo" was Joe Zeppa, protegé of the Rockefeller family and owner of the hotel in which Bush made his campaign speech that day; when his son Keating was told that the plane bypassed Dallas's downtown Love Field, dropped Zeppa off at Fort Worth's municipal airport, backtracked to Dallas, said, not something that his father ordinarily would have done. Intelligence Medal of Merit Baker, Russ. Family of Secrets: The Bush dynasty, the powerful forces that put it in the White House, what their influence means for America. New York: Bloomsbury Press.

ISBN 978-1-59691-557-2. Persico, Joseph E.. Piercing the Reich: The Penetration of Nazi Germany by American Secret Agents During World War II. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 978-0670554904. Prados, John. Safe For Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 978-1566638234. Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. New York: Anchor. ISBN 978-0-385-51445-3. Https://

Roy Williams (footballer)

Royston Brian "Roy" Williams was an English footballer who played as an inside forward for Hereford United and Southampton during the 1950s. Williams was born in Hereford and began his football career at local club Hereford United in August 1947. In November 1952, he signed for Southampton for a fee of £4,000, making his debut at inside-right in a 1–1 draw away to Fulham on 26 December 1952. Fulham came to The Dell on the following day and "the Saints" won 5–3, with Williams scoring the second Southampton goal with a header after 31 minutes to bring the scores level. Williams made a total of ten appearances during the 1952–53 season at the end of which Southampton were relegated to Division Three. Williams was only 5 ft 4in tall and was the smallest forward to play for Southampton, but he had a stocky build and was able to "mix it" with the toughest defenders and soon became a first-team regular. In the 1953–54 season, he became a fixture at inside-right until January, when he was dropped with Walker moving across from the left and Henry Horton taking over at inside-left.

Williams returned for the last four matches of the season, in which the Saints finished in sixth place, after having been first or second until late-January. In the next season, Williams only made a handful of appearances with Tommy Mulgrew and Johnny Walker now established at inside-right and left respectively. In his three seasons at The Dell, Williams scored seven goals from 41 league appearances. In July 1955, he returned to Hereford United and went on to become the second highest goalscorer in the club's history. In total he scored 154 goals in 357 appearances for Hereford. In April 1961, he was rewarded with a benefit match at Edgar Street against Southampton, he played for Worcester City and Cinderford Town. After retiring from football, Williams ran a window-cleaning business in Hereford, he died in October 2011