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A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary, Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.

The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that may have grown out of domestic dwellings, first attested in the 10th century; these alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. The Wantage law code of Æthelred the Unready proscribes fines for breaching the peace at meetings held in alehouses. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.

The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.

Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.

As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740, the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was reduced and abolished in 1742; the Gin Act 1751, howeve

Jorge Mateo

Jorge Luis Mateo is a Dominican professional baseball shortstop in the Oakland Athletics organization. Mateo signed with the New York Yankees as an international free agent in January 2012, receiving a $250,000 signing bonus, he made his professional debut that season for the Dominican Summer League Yankees 2 and batted.255 with one home run and eight RBIs in 14 games. He played for the Dominican Summer League Yankees 1 in 2013, compiling a.287 batting average with seven home runs and 26 RBIs in 64 games, the Gulf Coast Yankees in 2014, slashing.276/.354/.397 in 15 games. In 2015, while playing for the Charleston RiverDogs and the Tampa Yankees, Mateo posted a combined.278 batting average with two home runs, 11 triples, 40 RBIs, 82 stolen bases in 117 total games between both clubs. Mateo received a non-roster invitation to spring training in 2016, he spent the season back with Tampa, was named to appear in the All-Star Futures Game. However, on July 6, 2016, Mateo was suspended for two weeks due to violating the team's code of conduct policy, could not participate in the Futures Game.

Mateo finished 2016 with a.254 batting average, eight home runs, 36 stolen bases, 47 RBIs. The Yankees added him to their 40-man roster after the season, he was promoted to the Trenton Thunder in late June. On July 31, 2017, the Yankees traded Mateo, along with Dustin Fowler and James Kaprielian to the Oakland Athletics, in exchange for Sonny Gray. Oakland assigned him to the Midland RockHounds and he finished the season there. In 129 total games between Tampa and Midland, he batted.267 in 532 at bats with 12 home runs, 18 triples, 57 RBIs, 52 stolen bases. In April 2018, Baseball America named Mateo as having the best speed of all minor league players, ahead of Phillies outfielder Roman Quinn; that season, playing for the AAA Nashville Sounds he hit.230/.280/.353 in 470 at bats with 3 home runs, 16 triples, 45 RBIs, 25 stolen bases while being caught 10 times. He opened the 2019 season with the Las Vegas Aviators. Mateo was named to the 2019 All-Star Futures Game. In 2019 he led the minor league in triples, with 14.

Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference


Rolamite is a technology for low friction bearings developed by Sandia National Laboratories in the 1960s. It is the only elementary machine discovered this century and can be used in various ways such as a component in switches, valves and clutches, among others; the Rolamite was invented by Sandia engineer Donald F. Wilkes and was patented on June 24, 1969, it was discovered while Wilkes was working on a miniature device to detect small changes in the inertia of a small mass. After testing an S-shaped metail foil, which he found to be unstable to support surfaces, the engineer inserted rollers into the S-shaped bends of the band, producing a mechanical assembly that has low friction in one direction and high stiffness transversely, it became known as Rolamite. The Rolamite uses a stressed metal band and counter-rotating rollers within an enclosure to create a linear bearing device that loses little energy to friction. One source claims. Tests by Sandia indicated that Rolamite mechanisms demonstrated friction coefficients as low as 0.0005, an order of magnitude better than ball bearings at the time.

There are known Rolamite versions that contain two bands that work in reciprocate parallel for more accurate kinematic transmission at the reverse motion. A video of a Rolamite in operation, to serve as a warhead safety-switch accelerometer, is available. Scrollerwheel Nelson, Robert A. "Rolamite". Rex Research. Retrieved 2007-12-11. Bishop,James E.. "Remember the Rolamite? World's 27th-and Newest-'Elementary Mechanism' Still Works, but It Hasn't Revolutionized Technology" The Wall Street Journal Page 46. Brinkman, Erik. "ScrollerWheel Rotary Rolamite". Erik Brinkman. Retrieved 2008-07-12. Compilation of Rolamite information and articles Including pictures and applications. Video of a homemade rolamite U. S. Patent #5,462,363

Dragutin Radimir

Dragutin Drago Radimir was a forestry engineer, senior government advisor, forestry expert, associate scientific consultant to Forestry Encyclopaedia in Yugoslavia. Radimir was born in the village of Dobrota in the Bay of Kotor, at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, to father Vjekoslav and mother Zorka née. Kamenarović, he attended Gymnasium in Kotor, at the time under the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, enrolled at University in Prague and Vienna. He graduated in 1912 at the University of Vienna Faculty for Soil Culture in the class of Radimir Karl; as World War I ended in 1918 and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes was created, he served as a forestry engineer in Ilidža near Sarajevo. Between 1920 and 1937 he was a forestry engineer in the directorate of forests for the Drina Banovina. In 1938 he was transferred in Mostar, for the Littoral Banovina, he stayed there until 1939. Between 1939 and 1941 he worked at the Department of Forestry of the Banovina of Croatia as a senior advisor.

During World War II, he worked in Zagreb in the laboratories of the company "La Roche". In 1945 he was employed at the Ministry of Forestry Zagreb, SFR Yugoslavia as a senior government adviser, he worked there until his retirement in 1950. After World War II he wrote and published many papers on the utilization of forestry by-products resins; as an amateur photographer, he compiled a remarkable collection of photographs of forests and their by-products. He gave the collection to a forestry company "Šipad" in Sarajevo; the whole collection was destroyed during the civil war in the nineties. Drago Radimir's principal occupation was reforestation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. To his merit was the introduction of the Serbian Spruce in Zagreb's parks and in other parts of former Yugoslavia. Several Sequoia trees on the Croatian and Montenegrin coast were planted by his co-workers. In 1962 Radimir was awarded a gold certificate at the College for soil culture in Vienna at the 50th anniversary of his graduation.

He was a member of the Croatian Mountaineering Association before the Second World War, the mountain society Zagreb since its inception. As a mountaineer he visited many European mountains, some in North America, photographed them and lectured, he was an associate member and a member of the Forestry section of the Društvo inženjera i tehničara. Radimir's first marriage was with to Angela née. Radoničić, the pair had daughters Vjera and Nada. Second marriage was with Marija Macolić, he died in SFR Yugoslavia. Iskorišćivanje šuma. Sporedni užici.. Šumarski priručnik, Zagreb 1946. S. 1144-1155. Kakvo drvo traži brodograđevna industrija. Drvna ind. 6. Zagreb 1951. S. 1-4. Borba protiv šumskih požara. Š. L. 3-4, 1952. S.174 Publicazioni della Statione sperimentale di selvicoltura No 7. Š. L. 8-10, 1951. S.351 Messeri: Anatomska istraživanja smolarevih borova. Š. L. 4, 1952. S.127 L´Italia forestale e montana: Ljekovito bilje rabarbara treba uzgajati u brdskim krajevima. Š. L. 4, 1952. S.128, Šumarstvo u Engleskoj. Š. L. 9, 1952.

S.341 Monti e boschi: Utjecaj potaše i svijetla na otpornost sadnica protiv mrazu i studeni.Š. L. 9, 1952. S.342 Nova metoda za uzgajanje sadnica umjetnim svijetlom. Š. L. 9, 1952. S.343 Uzgojna mjera kojoj se u nas ne poklanja dovoljno pažnje. Š. L. 10-11, 1952. S.416 O uspjehu sadnje pri pošumljavanju. Š. L. 12, 1952. S.481 Razvoj smolarenja stimulacijom, proizvodnja i izvoz terpentina i kolofona u SAD. Š. L. 12, 1952. S.482 Nova metoda za uzgajnje biljaka vještačkim svijetlom. Š. L. 12, 1952. S.491 Mogućnost današnje orijentacije u smolarskoj industriji Italije. Š. L. 1, 1953. S.52 Pošumljavanje goleti u raznim evropskim državama posljednjih godina. Š. L. 1, 1953. S.54 Kako gledaju strani stručnjci na šumarstvo Jugoslavije. Š. L. 2, 1953. S.95 Pejoski-Radimir: Savremeni pogledi na stimulirano smolarenje. Š. L. 4-5, 1953. S.206 Proizvodnja, potrošnja i trgovina drvetom u Evropi. Izgledi u budućnosti. Š. L. 6, 1953. S.284 Fotografska snimanja šuma i šumskih objekata. Š. L. 7-8, 1953. S.347 Razvoj smolarenja u NR Hrvatskoj i proizvodnja smole u svijetu.

Š. L. 11, 1953. S.458 Još o našim nacionalnim parkovima i umjetnim nasadima. Š. L. 11, 1953. S.481 Uspomene na velikog šumarskog entomologa Karla Eschericha. Š. L. 7, 1954. S.325 Istraživanja za povećanje plovnosti oblovine lišćara u SSSR-u. Š. L. 9-10, 1954. S.534 Radovi na uzgajanju borovih sastojina sa visokim intenzitetom lučenja smole. Narodni šumar 11-12, Sarajevo 1955. S. 461-469. O značenju uzgoja šumsko-voćnog drveća i grmlja na području NR Hrvatske. Š. L. 3-4, 1955. S.94 Proizvodnja borove smole u Francuskoj god. 1952/53. Š. L. 3-4, 1955. S.130 O racionalnijem iskorišćivanju naših borovih šuma smolarenjem. Šumarstvo 7-8, Beograd 1955. S. 435-452. Borovi na granici šumske vegetacije. Šumarstvo 7-8, Beograd, 1957. O uzgoju bambusa. Š. L. 11-12, 1957. S.449 Proizvodnja ploča vlaknatica i iverica u svijetu. Š. L. 1-2, 1958. S.75 Racionalizacija u iskorištavanju smole sa borovih stabala na području USA. Š. L. 1-2, 1958. S.75 Kako povećati proizvodnju smole. Narodni šumar, Sarajevo 1961. Forestry encyclopaedia, I. Published by Yugoslav Lexicographical Institute, MCMLXIII.

"Radimir, forestry expert", pp. 368 Karton osobe: RADIMIR, Imenik hrvatskih šumara, Published by the Croatian Forestry Society

Louise Crow

Louise Crow was an American painter best known for her portraits of Pueblo Indians. She worked in oils and watercolors, with a wide variety of subjects including landscapes, Northwest scenes of rugged mountains and portraits of such historical figures as Ezra Meeker, a pioneer who traveled the Oregon Trail, her technique was crisp and clean and feels contemporary despite her working nearly one hundred years ago. Much of her work, a challenge to locate, concentrated on California and Southwest themes. Institutions that own her include the New Mexico Museum of Art, the Museum and History and Industry and the Washington State Governor’s Mansion. Louise Crow was born on September 1891 in Seattle, Washington, she was raised in a prominent Seattle family, with members active as business leaders and musicians. From a young age Crow was determined to be an artist. In 1914 she attended William Chase's summer school in California, she studied at the San Francisco Institute of Art She began exhibiting in California and Seattle in 1915.

She studied at the Art Students League under Max Weber and the National Academy of Design in New York in 1918. She pursued additional studies with the regarded Frank Duveneck at the Cincinnati Art Academy, like may other young artists, in Paris. Crow lived in Santa Fe, New Mexico from 1918-1921. During this time Crow concentrated on rendering their surrounding landscape. In her first exhibition at the Museum of Art she showed fourteen paintings, the review in El Palacio was positive. Edgar Hewett, an American anthropologist and archaeologist noticed the fine quality of her work and made her a fellow at the School of American Research in 1920. Crow had a preference for portraiture, her greatest interest being the multi-faceted nature of people. In gratitude of Hewett’s support, she painted a portrait of him in 1918 and presented it as a gift to the Museum of New Mexico. Another one of her works in the museum is a portrait Yen-see-do. Painted before 1919, it is a striking image that merges realism with a flat modernist perspective, contrasting darker hues of red and black with pale purple and yellow.

This portrait is among the more iconic works in the museums holdings. Because of her work with Dr. Hewett the San Ildefonso Pueblo became the inspiration for her work. In 1921 Crow brought to Paris several of her paintings of Southwest subject matter, including her large canvas, Eagle Dance, San Ildefonso, of 1919; the painting was favorably received. The next year she organized an exhibit in Rome. After returning to the United States she divided her rime between Seattle, where she opened a studio, San Francisco, Santa Fe; when she returned to Santa Fe in 1938, Ina Sizer Cassidy wrote in an article: "In is not to expect too much to feel that the work of Louise Crow in the coming years will add much to the prestige of New Mexico, Santa Fe in Particular, as an art center of the west."Ultimately though, by 1938 Crow’s circumstances had changed. Her family’s fortune had been lost during the Depression. Although she had experienced significant success early in life, her painting career had become stifled by mental illness in years, As her mental health deteriorated, she felt compelled to destroy many of the paintings that were once so high acclaimed.

Fewer that twenty of her works are known to exist today. Louise Crow died destitute in 1968 in California. Eagle Dance, San Ildenfonso, 1919, oil on canvas, 6 X 8 feet. Yen-See-Do, 1915, oil on canvas

Harold Gramatges

Harold Gramatges was a Cuban composer and teacher. Gramatges was born in Cuba. In 1941, he entered the conservatory in Santiago de Cuba to study under professor Dulce María Serret, went on to study composition at the Municipal Conservatoire of Havana with Amadeo Roldán and José Ardévol, with professor Flora Mora. In 1942, he travelled to United States to complete his studies at Berkshire Music Center under Aaron Copland and Serge Koussevitzky, he founded and directed Cuba's Municipal Conservatory Orchestra, where he worked as professor of Harmony, Composition and Music History. In 1958, he received the Reichold of Caribbean and Central America Prize, conferred by the Detroit Orchestra for his Sinfonía en mi. In 1959, he created the Musical Department at Casa de las Américas, he has spent his life working on developing musical education in Cuba. In 1961 and 1964, he was the Cuban Ambassador to France, his work tends to bridge the forms of contemporary classical and modern Cuban or Latin American music.

His catalog includes symphonic, chamber and incidental music for theater and movies. He died in December 2008 in Cuba. Music about Juan Ramón Jiménez, Góngora, Rafael Alberti and Justo Rodríguez Santos texts. Ballet as request of Alicia Alonso. 2001. "Gramatges, Harold". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Listen samples in