Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities. The term "public" is not accurate, as some types of public baths are restricted depending on membership, religious affiliation, or other reasons; as societies have changed, the need for public baths has reduced: dwellings now have their own private bathroom. Public baths have become incorporated into the social system as meeting places; as the title suggests, public bathing does not refer only to bathing. In ancient times public bathing included saunas and relaxation therapies, comparable to today's spas. In The Book of the Bath, Françoise de Bonneville wrote, "The history of public baths begins in Greece in the sixth century B. C." where men and women washed in basins near places of exercise and intellectual. Gymnasia had indoor basins set overhead, the open maws of marble lions offering showers, circular pools with tiers of steps for lounging. Bathing was ritualized, becoming an art – of cleansing sands, hot water, hot air in dark vaulted "vapor baths", a cooling plunge, a rubdown with aromatic oils.
Cities all over Ancient Greece honored sites where "young ephebes stood and splashed water over their bodies." Traditionally in Indonesia, bathing is always "public", in the sense that people might converge in riverbanks, pools or watersprings either for bathing or washing laundry. However, for modesty purposes, some sections of riverbanks apply sex segregation. Bathing naked is quite uncommon, as people might still use kain jarik wrapped around their body to cover their genitals during bathing. More modest bathing springs might use weaved bamboo partitions for privacy; this is still rural areas in Indonesia. The 8th-century complex of Ratu Boko contains a petirtaan or bathing pools structure enclosed within walled compound; this suggests that other than bathing in riverbanks or springs, people of ancient Java of Medang Kingdom developed a bathing pool, although it was not "public", since the pool was believed to be reserved for royalties or people residing in this compound. The 14th-century Majapahit city of Trowulan, contains several bathing structures, such as Candi Tikus bathing pool, believed to be a royal bathing pool, Segaran reservoir or large public pool.
The Hindu-majority island of Bali contains several public bathing pools, some dated from the 9th century such as Goa Gajah. A notable public bathing pool is Tirta Empul, which more linked to Balinese Hinduism cleansing ritual than recreation of sanitation purpose; the bubbling water of is the main source of Pakerisan river. Some of the earliest public baths are found in the ruins in of the Indus Valley Civilization. According to John Keay, the "Great Bath" of Mohenjo Daro in present-day Pakistan was the size of'a modest municipal swimming pool', complete with stairs leading down to the water at each one of its ends; the bath was used for public bathing. The Great Bath and the house of the priest suggest; the origin of Japanese bathing is ritual purification with water. After Japan imported Buddhist culture, many temples had saunas, which were available for anyone to use for free. In the Heian period, houses of prominent families, such as the families of court nobles or samurai, had baths; the bath instead became leisure.
Misogi became Gyōzui. In the 17th century, the first European visitors to Japan recorded the habit of daily baths in sexually mixed groups. Before the mid-19th century, when Western influence increased, nude communal bathing for men and children at the local unisex public bath, or sentō, was a daily fact of life. In contemporary times, but not all administrative regions forbid nude mixed gender public baths, with exceptions for children under a certain age when accompanied by parents. Public baths using water from onsen are popular. Towns with hot springs are destination resorts, which are visited daily by the locals and people from other, neighboring towns. Public baths were used throughout the Ottoman Empire; the baths had both a religious and popular origin, deriving from the Islamic ablution ritual and the use of steamrooms by the Turks. The Turkish bath, known as hamam, was considered a place for social gatherings in Turkish culture; the process of hamam is similar to that of Roman bathing.
The first public thermae of 19 BC had a rotunda 25 metres across, circled by small rooms, set in a park with artificial river and pool. By AD 300 the Baths of Diocletian would cover 140,000 square metres, its soaring granite and porphyry sheltering 3,000 bathers a day. Roman baths became "something like a cross between an aquacentre and a theme park", with pools, game rooms, gardens libraries and theatres. One of the most famous public bath sites is Aquae Sulis in England. Dr. Garrett G Fagan, a professor at Pennsylvania State University, described public bathing as a "social event" for the Romans in his book Bathing in Public in the Roman World, he states that "In Western Europe only the Finns still practice a public bathing habit." Roman style public baths were introduced on a limited scale by returning crusaders in the 11th and 12th centuries, who had enjoyed warm baths in the Middle East. These, however degenerated into brothels or at least the reputation as such and were closed down at various times.
Nester's Funky Bowling is a bowling video game developed by Saffire Corporation and published by Nintendo for the Virtual Boy handheld game console. It was only released in North America on February 26, 1996, was the second-to-last game released for the system before it was discontinued. Players control Nester, a character from the Nintendo Power comics, or his twin sister Hester, as they compete to see, the superior bowler, it features standard bowling mechanics and rules, has three modes of play - Bowling and Practice, all three supporting one or two players. It has received mixed reception, its graphics received some recognition, though it was faulted for its lack of a save function and lack of game modes. Nester's Funky Bowling was developed by Saffire Corporation and published by Nintendo for the Virtual Boy handheld game console, it was released in North America on February 26, 1996. Players control Nester, a character from the Nintendo Power magazine's comic section, or his twin sister Hester, as they attempt to prove their superiority over one another.
Like all other Virtual Boy games, Nester's Funky Bowling uses a red-and-black color scheme and uses parallax, an optical trick, used to simulate a 3D effect. There are four ranks that are achieved based on their score, based on normal bowling rules - the ranks are Beginner, Intermediate and Pro. Players may adjust their character in order to hit it how they like, such as using pins ricocheting or bouncing in order to knock more down. There are three modes of play, all of which support two players; these include Bowling and Practice. In Bowling, players play a standard game of bowling. In Challenge, players must knock down all of the pins that appear with only once chance to do so as the pin set-ups become difficult. Players are given more points for knocking all of the pins down depending on the difficulty of the shot. In Practice, players may choose from 28 different pin variations; when playing with another player, players pass the Virtual Boy forth in between turns. Nester's Funky Bowling received mixed reviews.
Tony Brusqul for The Daily Gazette criticized the randomized and unrealistic behavior of the ball and pins, suggested players looking for a bowling game play it on a different system, citing the eye pain incurred from playing. GamePro staff called it "challenging and fun at first", but found that it became easy after just a few games, they felt. Next Generation staff regarded it as one of the platform's most enjoyable games, citing its simple interface and non-intrusive visuals. In their review, Nintendo Power praised its gameplay, calling it "solid", as well as its modes of play. However, they criticized the two player mechanic, it was an editor's pick for Nintendo Power editors Scott and Henry. They named it one of the top games released for the platform. In a retrospective over of the Virtual Boy, Official Nintendo Magazine called it an average bowling game. GameSpy's Luke McKinney commented that the Virtual Boy's library consisting of "almost five percent" bowling games was a poor decision.
Allgame's Scott Alan Marriott called it a fun game for the Virtual Boy, praising the graphics but bemoaning the lack of replay value due to few modes of play and no save function. Wired's Chris Kohler stated. Nester's Funky Bowling sold disappointingly. List of Virtual Boy games
Frederick York Wolseley was an Irish-born New South Wales inventor and woolgrower who invented and developed the first commercially successful sheep shearing machinery after extensive experimentation. It revolutionised the wool industry; the former Murray Shire Council erected a monument to him where he lived at the time, referring to his invention: "It has become part of the rich history of the wool industry and is now perpetuated in poem and song." Born in Kingstown in County Dublin Ireland, Frederick was the third son of the seven surviving children of Major Garnet Joseph Wolseley of The King's Own Scottish Borderers and of the family of Mount Wolseley, co. Carlow, Frances Anne daughter of William Smith of Dublin, his eldest brother became Field Marshal Wolseley and a hero of the Victorian era, another brother became General Sir George Wolseley. Their father died in 1840 leaving their mother little more than his army pension and the brothers were educated at the local day school instead of being sent to England.
The seven children remained close-knit throughout their lives. He married his nurse, Ellen Elizabeth Clarke, in Melbourne in 1892, she looked after him through his long final illness. They had no children. Frederick Wolseley, went to Melbourne from Ireland, arriving in July 1854, aged 17, to be a jackaroo on his future brother-in-law's sheep station, his sister Fanny's husband, Gavin Ralston Caldwell, they married in Dublin in 1857, held Thule, on the Murray River, added nearby Cobran near Deniliquin. Caldwell died in 1868. About that time, Wolseley set to work developing his ideas for a sheep shearing machine. By 1872, he had created a working model, he returned from a visit to England and Ireland in 1874 and continued development in Melbourne with Richard Park & Co, an engineering business where a few years Herbert Austin, a new immigrant from England, was to serve an apprenticeship. Austin's uncle was works manager. Having acquired an interest in them, Wolseley lived on Cobran and Thule until 1876, 22 years in the same district.
In 1871 he acquired Toolong in the Murrumbidgee district, five years another property, Euroka near Walgett. Now living at Euroka, he continued testing and on 28 March 1877 he and Robert Savage, the inventor of various items of mining and agricultural machinery, were granted a patent. Another patent was granted in December, he made further developments with Richard Pickup Park and they patented an'Improved Shearing Apparatus' on 13 December 1884. The following year, Wolseley bought John Howard's rights to his horse clipper and hired him to work as a mechanic on his Euroka station. There Howard made improvements that were so effective that Wolseley began public demonstrations in Sydney and at Euroka. A William Ryley made suggestions for improving the handpiece. In 1887 -- 1888, demonstrations were arranged throughout eastern New Zealand; the culmination was the first complete shearing by machinery which took place at Sir Samuel McCaughey's woolshed at Dunlop, Louth, N. S. W. and that year, 1888, eighteen.
During 1887, Herbert Austin joined, as chief engineer, Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company Limited, incorporated in Sydney, a new business linked to R G Parks & Co, to make Wolseley's machinery in his workshops at Goldsbrough Mort & Co. Ltd Melbourne; this company was wound up in 1889 and ownership transferred to a new British company, The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company incorporated in London with a capital of £200,000. Operations remained in Australia, Austin studied the machinery while it was in use on sheep stations and made further patented improvements. Meanwhile Wolseley again visited England leaving Austin in charge. By 1893 they were facing a crisis when it was discovered they had sold a large amount of defective machinery, brought about by the failure of local suppliers to meet the required specifications, it was decided to leave John Howard in charge in Australia and send Austin to open up an operation in England. In November 1893, Wolseley and Austin arrived there, Austin to manage the business from a small workshop in Broad Street, Birmingham.
Handsome and well built, Wolseley was obliged to buy the engineering knowledge and experience to bring his ideas to fruition. His perseverance led to his machinery revolutionising the wool industry. Handicapped throughout his final ten years by his battle with cancer, he resigned as managing director of his company in 1894 and made what proved to be a brief return to Australia. Going back to England that same year for specialised treatment, he remained there, where he died aged 61 on 8 January 1899 at The Red House, Belvedere Road, Norwood and was buried at Beckenham cemetery. In the second half of the 1890s, Austin turned his attention to car manufacture as a way of stabilising the Wolseley business's inherent seasonal fluctuations, his first attempts were among the pioneer motorcars of Britain but they were not produced commercially until the Wolseley directors lost interest in the venture and shortly after Wolseley's death Vickers and Maxim took over the embryo business and the Wolseley name.
This new business was incorporated with the name The Wolseley Motor Car Company Limited. After less than five years there, Austin set out on his own and built himself The Austin Motor Company Limited at Longbridge, Birmingham; the machine clips the wool at its full length which doubles or triples its value, it removes the wool in a fleece instead of chopping it into small pieces like the shears. Prospectus. L
The Chiemgau Railway is a single-tracked, 9.6 kilometre long railway line between Prien am Chiemsee and Aschau im Chiemgau in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany. It is timetabled as route no. 952. In 1875 after Theodor von Cramer-Klett had purchased Hohenaschau Castle and its associated property in the valley of the River Prien, he financed the construction of a railway line to Aschau, it was opened on 18 August 1878 and opened up the Prien valley to the main line from Munich to Salzburg. In the post-war period the line was worked by railbuses of Class VT 98. In 1987 these were modernised by the repair shop at Kassel and painted in white and mint-green livery; these modernised Chiemgau Railway railbuses were the only ones in the Bundesbahn fleet to be given a special paint scheme - all the others were painted in the red livery typical of multiples operated by the DB. The former Chiemgau Railway vehicles are in service today in tourist trains on the Kleinengstingen–Münsingen–Schelklingen–Ulm Hbf route and known as the Ulmer Spatz.
As a result of this uniqueness there are several models by model railway manufacturers of the Chiemgau railbuses. In 1996 the Chiemgau Railway railbuses were replaced by Class 628.4 units. At present RegionalBahn trains work the line from Aschau to Prien; the 628's need 15 minutes for the 10 km long line. In the mornings and evenings there are trains that run via Prien to Rosenheim on the Munich–Salzburg line. In addition one train runs through each evening from Salzburg via Traunstein to Aschau. Royal Bavarian State Railways Bavarian branch lines de:Chiemgaubahn
Bình Ngô đại cáo was an announcement written by Nguyễn Trãi in 1428 after the order of Lê Lợi to proclaim the total pacification of the Ming Dynasty and affirm the independence of Đại Việt to its people. Bình Ngô đại cáo means Great Proclamation upon the Pacification of the Wu in which Wu was the ancestors's land of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming Dynasty. In 1356, Zhu Yuanzhang himself took the title Duke of Wu and King of Wu. Therefore, one could reason that Nguyễn Trãi named his work Pacification of the Wu instead of Pacification of the Ming in order to subtly emphasize the victory of Đại Việt and the failure of the Ming Dynasty, called by its origin's name Wu in the proclamation; the second part of the name, đại cáo is understood as the denotement of its literary genre, a great edict, or the announcement's great scale. The former was the name of a chapter in the book Classic of History in which great edict was a special form of an edict, but during the time of the early Ming Dynasty, great edict was used by Hongwu Emperor for his official documents of imperial laws and thus became a symbol of power and authority of the Ming emperor.
For this reason, there was an opinion that Nguyễn Trãi named his announcement đại cáo for the purpose of reversing the meaning of great edict from the symbol of Ming emperor to the representation of Đại Việt victory over his own army. In 1427, Lê Lợi led the Lam Sơn uprising to the ultimate victory over the Ming Dynasty which put an end to the Fourth Chinese domination in Vietnam; as a result, in 1428 Lê Lợi ordered Nguyễn Trãi to write an announcement for people in the country about the total pacification of the Ming Dynasty and the affirmation of the independence of Đại Việt. From that demand, Nguyễn Trãi wrote Bình Ngô đại cáo which not only proclaimed the independence of the country but claimed the equality of Đại Việt with China during the long history and expressed many own ideas of Nguyễn Trãi about the fairness, the role of people in history of the country and the way to win a war of independence. Besides, Nguyễn Trãi used Bình Ngô đại cáo to prove the just cause of the Lam Sơn uprising and why Lê Lợi's army could drive out the Ming Dynasty with its policies of relying on people to fight against the invaders.
After it was announced, the proclamation was considered a success, while Nguyễn Trãi became one of the most crucial figures of the royal court after the coronation of Lê Lợi, now Lê Thái Tổ. However Nguyễn Trãi was executed in 1442 during the political struggle in the royal court and royal family of the early Lê Dynasty; the earliest version of Bình Ngô đại cáo that remains today was found in the 1697 edition of Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, compiled by Ngô Sĩ Liên. Bình Ngô đại cáo is an edict-like announcement written in the literary form of parallel constructions; the proclamation was divided in four parts: The first part demonstrated the history of Đại Việt with its identity and tradition of fighting against Chinese dynasties for the purpose of independence and equal position as China. The second part denounced the conspiracy and truculent crime of the Ming Dynasty during their domination in Đại Việt when they enslaved the people and deprived resources of the country; the third part narrated the Lam Sơn uprising from the hard beginning to the final victories.
The fourth part reaffirmed that righteousness would win. Bình Ngô đại cáo was written in Hán tự, it was translated into Vietnamese by several scholars such as Ngô Tất Tố, Bùi Kỷ or Trần Trọng Kim, the translated version by Trần Trọng Kim in his Việt Nam sử lược and the revised version by Bùi Kỷ are considered the more popular and included in the schoolbook in Vietnam. Bình Ngô đại cáo is considered the second declaration of independence of Vietnam after the poem Nam quốc sơn hà, written by Lý Thường Kiệt in the early Lý Dynasty; the proclamation is appreciated not only for its value of propaganda and history but for its fine literary quality, praised as the "Incomparably powerful writing document" in the History of Vietnam. With Bình Ngô đại cáo, Nguyễn Trãi asserted the obvious independence and equal status of Vietnam with China and more reckoned that independence could be achieved only when the rulers had concern for their people and made decision for the interest of the masses. Today, Bình Ngô đại cáo is taught in both high school in Vietnam.
National Bureau for Historical Record, Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Hanoi: Education Publishing House Chapuis, Oscar, A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-29622-7 Ngô Sĩ Liên, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House Trần Trọng Kim, Việt Nam sử lược, Saigon: Center for School Materials Tham Seong Chee, Essays on Literature and Society in Southeast Asia: Political and Sociological, NUS Press, ISBN 9971-69-036-5
Wu Jing is a Chinese actress. She starred in many films in the 1990s, she is known for her roles in many popular TV series, like Sinful Debt and The Story of a Noble Family. Both of Wu Jing's parents Wu Fuhai and Pan Wenzheng were in the People's Liberation Army when she was born near the end of the Chinese Civil War. Wu Jing grew up in Shanghai, after graduating from Nanyang Model High School in the Cultural Revolution, was "sent-down" to work in Yuyao and Dafeng County. Despite passing all qualification tests Wu was denied entry to art troupes only because her parents were labeled "Capitalist roaders" during the time, it wasn't until 1975 that she landed a supporting role in the propaganda film Breaking with Old Ideas. She became an affiliated actress with the Shanghai Film Studio only in 1984. In May 2013, Wu Jing was voted one of the 9 vice-chairpeople of the Shanghai Film Association. Wu Jing and her husband Zhang Yuan appeared in many films together, such as Clown's Adventure. Jing Wu on IMDb Wu Jing at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase