Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. At the time, they were some of the largest wars that had taken place; the term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus, meaning "Carthaginian", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic; the Romans were interested in expansion via Sicily, part of which lay under Carthaginian control. At the start of the First Punic War, Carthage was the dominant power of the Western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire. Rome was a ascending power in Italy, but it lacked the naval power of Carthage; the Second Punic War witnessed Hannibal's crossing of the Alps in 218 BC, followed by a prolonged but failed campaign of Carthage's Hannibal in mainland Italy. By the end of the Third Punic War, after more than a hundred years and the loss of many hundreds of thousands of soldiers from both sides, Rome had conquered Carthage's empire destroyed the city, became the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean.

With the end of the Macedonian Wars – which ran concurrently with the Punic Wars – and the defeat of the Seleucid King Antiochus III the Great in the Roman–Seleucid War in the eastern sea, Rome emerged as the dominant Mediterranean power and one of the most powerful cities in classical antiquity. The Roman victories over Carthage in these wars gave Rome a preeminent status it would retain until the 5th century AD. During the mid-3rd century BC, Carthage was a large city located on the coast of modern Tunisia. Founded by the Phoenicians in the mid-9th century BC, it was a powerful thalassocratic city-state with a vast commercial network. Of the great city-states in the western Mediterranean, only Rome rivaled it in power and population. While Carthage's navy was the largest in the ancient world at the time, it did not maintain a large, standing army. Instead, Carthage relied on mercenaries the indigenous Numidians, to fight its wars; these mercenaries were led by officers who were Carthaginian citizens.

The Carthaginians were famed for their abilities as sailors, many Carthaginians from the lower classes served in their navy, which provided them with a stable income and career. In 200 BC, the Roman Republic had gained control of the Italian peninsula south of the Po River. Unlike Carthage, Rome had a large and disciplined army, but lacked a navy at the start of the First Punic War; this left the Romans at a disadvantage until the construction of large fleets during the war. The First Punic War was fought on land in Sicily and Africa, but was a naval war, it began as a local conflict in Sicily between Hiero II of Syracuse and the Mamertines of Messina. The Mamertines enlisted the aid of the Carthaginian navy, subsequently betrayed them by entreating the Roman Senate for aid against Carthage; the Romans sent a garrison to secure Messina, so the outraged Carthaginians lent aid to Syracuse. Tensions escalated into a full-scale war between Carthage and Rome for the control of Sicily. After a harsh defeat at the Battle of Agrigentum in 262 BC, the Carthaginian leadership resolved to avoid further direct land-based engagements with the powerful Roman legions, concentrate on the sea where they believed Carthage's large navy had the advantage.

The Carthaginian navy prevailed. In 260 BC, they defeated the fledgling Roman navy at the Battle of the Lipari Islands. Rome responded by drastically expanding its navy in a short time. Within two months, the Romans had a fleet of over one hundred warships. Aware that they could not defeat the Carthaginians in traditional ramming combat, the Romans used the corvus, an assault bridge, to leverage their superior infantry; the hinged bridge would be swung down onto enemy vessels with a sharp spike to secure the two ships together. Roman legionaries could board and capture Carthaginian ships; this innovative Roman tactic reduced the Carthaginian navy's advantage in ship-to-ship engagements. However, the corvus was cumbersome and dangerous, was phased out as the Roman navy became more experienced and tactically proficient. Save for the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Tunis in Africa, the early naval defeats, the First Punic War was a nearly unbroken string of Roman victories. In 241 BC, Carthage signed a peace treaty under the terms of which they evacuated Sicily and paid Rome a large war indemnity.

The long war was costly to both powers, but Carthage was more destabilized. According to Polybius, there had been several trade agreements between Rome and Carthage a mutual alliance against king Pyrrhus of Epirus; when Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BC, Rome secured the release of all 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom and, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity. However, Carthage refused to deliver to Rome the Roman deserters serving among their troops. A first issue for dispute was that the initial treaty, agreed upon by Hamilcar Barca and the Roman commander in Sicily, had a clause stipulating that the Roman popular assembly had to accept the treaty in order for it to be valid; the assembly not only increased the indemnity Carthage had to pay. Carthage had a liquidity problem and attempted to gain financial help from Egypt, a mutual ally of Rome and Carthage, but failed; this resulted in delay of payments owed to the mercenary troops that had served Carthage in Sicily, leading to a climate of mutual mistrust and, final

Ulysses, Pennsylvania

Ulysses is a borough in Potter County, United States. The population was 623 in 2012; the town has been known for its white supremacist activities and the practice of Odinism for a century. It hosted the World Aryan Congress in the 2000s; the Washington Post described the borough's tumultuous history in a 2018 article. When it was first settled in 1831, Ulysses was named Lewisville after Orange Lewis, an early settler and prominent farmer who became justice of the peace and county treasurer, but the post office and newspaper had always called the town Ulysses, in 1968, the town itself was renamed Ulysses. Ulysses is located at 41°54′10″N 77°45′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.0 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 684 people, 268 households, 183 families residing in the borough; the population density was 170.9 people per square mile. There were 296 housing units at an average density of 73.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.68% White, 0.73% Native American, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.58% of the population. There were 268 households, out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07. In the borough the population was spread out, with 29.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $23,971, the median income for a family was $27,813. Males had a median income of $27,292 versus $20,694 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $11,602. About 25.6% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 56.3% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over

Amigos Por Vida Friends For Life Charter School

Amigos Por Vida Friends For Life Charter School is a state charter school located in the Sierra Vista Apartments in Gulfton, Houston. The school first opened in 1999. In 2006, due to high Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores, the school received the Governor's Excellence Award. In September 2007 the U. S. Department of Education gave the school an award for helping remove the achievement gap between socioeconomically wealthy students and socioeconomically poor students; as of 2007 the school had 430 students. During that year the school was located within several converted two and three bedroom apartment units in the Sierra Vista complex. A former clubhouse served as a cafeteria. Two efficiency units served as a library. A series of fences separated the school area from the residential area; as of 2007 the school paid $33,500 per month. Jennifer Radcliffe of the Houston Chronicle said "The proximity is ideal for the impoverished immigrant community: Kids have few excuses for missing class and, when they do, teachers are a short walk from their front doors."

In addition, parents can attend school meetings and functions. As of 2007 the school had a long waiting list, was engaging in a capital campaign to raise funds so it can move into a new building; the school hoped to establish a permanent campus with science laboratory facilities and a soccer field. The lease in Sierra Vista was scheduled to expire in May 2009; the school uses a dual-immersion bilingual education program, teaching students in English and Spanish. As of 2007, first and second graders alternate between English and Spanish with one half of the day dedicated to one language, one half dedicated to the other. With third graders and higher, each week uses one language. List of state-chartered charter schools in Houston Language/culture-based charter school SER-Niños Charter School Amigos por Vida Friends for Life Charter School