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The Punjabis or Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Punjab and Punjab, Pakistan. They speak a language from the Indo-Aryan language family; the name Punjab means the land of five waters in Persian: panj āb. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent; the Punjabis are the 7th largest ethnic group in the world by total population. The historical Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the coalescence of the various tribes and the inhabitants of the Punjab region into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the onset of the 18th century CE. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab region had long shared linguistic and racial commonalities.

Traditionally, Punjabi identity is linguistic and cultural. Its identity is independent of historical origin or religion and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region or associate with its population and those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue. Integration and assimilation are important parts of Punjabi culture, since Punjabi identity is not based on tribal connections. More or less all Punjabis share the same cultural background; the Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari or tribes, with each person bound to a clan. However, Punjabi identity included those who did not belong to any of the historical tribes. With the passage of time, tribal structures are coming to an end and are being replaced with a more cohesive and holistic society, as community building and group cohesiveness form the new pillars of Punjabi society. In relative contemporary terms, Punjabis can be referred to in three most common subgroups.

In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established a Punjabi kingdom based around the Punjab. The main geographical footprint of the country was the Punjab region to Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, Tibet in the east; the religious demography of the Kingdom was Muslim, Hindu. The population was 3.5 million, according to Amarinder Singh's The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar. In 1799 Ranjit Singh moved the capital to Lahore from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh; the Punjab region was a region straddling the Afghan Durrani Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Punjabi kingdom: Punjab region till Multan in south Panjab, with the capital Lahaur Parts of Punjab, India Himachal Pradesh, India Haryana, India Jammu, annexed 1808 - 17 June 1822 Kashmir, conquered 5 July 1819 – 15 March 1846, India/Pakistan/ChinaGilgit, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan Ladakh, India Khyber Pass, Afghanistan/PakistanPeshawar, Pakistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.

This opportunity was used by the British East India Company to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars. The country was annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. A Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown; the 1947 independence of India and Pakistan, the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire. The UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus and Muslims were displaced during the partition. To date, this is considered the largest mass migration in human history; until 1947, the province of Punjab was ruled by a coalition comprising the Indian National Congress, the Sikh-led Shiromani Akali Dal and the Unionist Muslim League. However, the growth of Muslim nationalism led to the All India Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the 1946 elections; as Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs increased substantially.

Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority. Along with the province of Bengal, Punjab was partitioned on religious lines – the Muslim-majority West becoming part of the new Muslim state of Pakistan, the Hindu and Sikh East remaining in India. Partition was accompanied by massive violence on both sides, claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. West Punjab was cleansed of its Hindu and Sikh populations, who were forced to leave for India, while East Punjab and Delhi were cleansed of their Muslim population. By the 1960s, Indian Punjab underwent reorganisation as demands for a linguistic Punjabi state increased; the Hindi-speaking areas were formed into the states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana leaving a Punjabi speaking majority in the state of Punjab. In the 1980s, Sikh separatism combined with popular anger against the Indian

John Chest

John Chest is an American baritone opera singer performing with leading opera companies around the world. John Chest was born in Greenville, South Carolina, to parents Sandra Marie Chest and Robert Davis Chest, he started his professional voice studies at Bob Jones University where he got his Bachelor of Music in Voice Performance from 2003 to 2007. He studied at CCPA at Roosevelt University, where he graduated with a Master of Music in 2009 after two years. Following that he joined the Apprentice Program at Santa Fe Opera for the summer of 2008 where he covered the Bosun in Benjamin Britten's Billy Budd Chest joined the Merola Opera Program at the San Francisco Opera in the summer of 2009 where he performed Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, he concluded his formal studies in the professional Opernstudio at the Bavarian State Opera from 2009 to 2011 where he sang in over 80 performances. Best further trained with the Chicago Opera Theater and he was a member of the ensemble at Deutsche Oper Berlin until 2016.

His roles in Berlin included the title role of Billy Budd in a new production by David Alden. A finalist in the BBC Singer of the World Art Song Competition, he has appeared in recital at the Aix-en-Provence Festival, the Philharmonie de Paris, Wigmore Hall, he has made appearances on three Fauré CD's with pianist Malcolm Martineau. Official website

Michael Williams (tight end)

Michael Williams is a former American football tight end, the head football coach at Reform Pickens County High School. He was drafted by the Detroit Lions in the seventh round in the 2013 NFL Draft, he played college football at Alabama. Williams attended Pickens County High School in Alabama, he earned All-County, All-Area and honorable mention All-State honors while playing basketball in high school. While at high school, he earned the 2007 Alabama Sports Writers Association All-State honors as a Tight end on the first team and was selected as the ASWA Class 2A lineman of the year, he was a member of The Mobile Press-Register Elite 18 while at High School. He earned first team All-State honors in his Junior season and was an Honorable mention as a Tight end while at high school. Williams played College football at Alabama, he finished college with a total of 51 receptions, 503 receiving yards along with seven touchdowns. On January 7, 2013, he had 3 receptions, 17 receiving yards, one receiving touchdown against Notre Dame in the 2013 BCS National Championship Game.

In January 2013, he was added to the Senior Bowl roster. In the 2013 NFL Draft, Williams was selected in the 7th round by the Detroit Lions. On August 22, 2013, Williams broke his hand during a preseason game against the New England Patriots. On August 31, 2013, Williams was placed on injured reserve. After the draft of tight end Eric Ebron, it was announced that Williams would be moved to offensive tackle and would wear the number 73. On August 25, 2015, the Lions traded Williams to the New England Patriots in exchange for a 2017 seventh-round draft pick. Williams was assigned No. 85, indicating a return to tight end. During the 2015 season, Williams appeared in 15 regular season games and caught three passes for 26 yards. Williams appeared in both of the Patriots playoff games and started in the AFC Championship Game against the Denver Broncos on January 24, 2016. On June 8, 2016, Williams suffered a torn ACL during practice. On June 10, 2016, he was waived/injured by the Patriots and was reverted to injured reserve, missing the entire 2016 season.

On February 5, 2017, Williams's Patriots appeared in Super Bowl LI. In the game, the Patriots defeated the Atlanta Falcons by a score of 34–28 in overtime. On March 9, 2017, Williams re-signed with the Patriots on a one-year deal. On May 12, 2017, Williams was released by the Patriots. Alabama Crimson Tide bio

The End Records discography

This is an overview of the discography of The End Records and affiliated labels. The Dandy Warhols'Thirteen Tales From Urban Bohemia Live At The Wonder' Cage The Gods'Badlands' Neil Davidge'Slo Light' Nina Persson'Animal Heart' Wanz'The Christmas Song' The Mission'Swan Song' Cage The Gods'Favourite Sin' Dead Letter Circus'The Catalyst Fire' Arthur Channel'Arthur Channel' The Red Paintings'The Revolution Is Never Coming' Okta Logue'Tales of Transit City' American Sharks'American Sharks' The Mission'Sometimes The Brightest Light Comes From The Darkest Place' Sponge'Stop The Bleeding' Crossfaith'Apocalyze' Eklipse'Electric Air' Hey! Hello!'S/T' The Candles'La Candelaria' Mekon'Piece of Work' Spirits of the Dead'Rumours of a Presence' Eklipse'A Night In Strings' Scott Lucas & The Married Men'The Cruel Summer EP' British Electric Foundation'Music For Quality & Distinction, Volume 3: Dark' The Orb'More Tales From The Observatory' Anvil'Hope In Hell' Sacred Mother Tongue'Out Of The Darkness' Pushmen'The Sun Will Rise Soon On The False And The Fair' While She Sleeps'This Is The Six' The Red Paintings'You're Not One Of Them EP' Art Brut'Top Of The Pops' Neil Davidge and Kazuma Jinnouchi'Halo 4 OST, Volume II' LostAlone'I'm A UFO In This City' Petula Clark'Lost In You' Lordi'To Beast Or Not To Beast' Reverend And The Makers'@Reverend Makers' Hatchet'Dawn Of The End' Krokus'Dirty Dynamite' Godflesh'Hymns: Special Edition' Fatboy Slim'Big Beach Boutique 5' Funeral For A Friend'Conduit' Andy Winter'Incomprehensible' Helloween'Straight Out Of Hell' Halo 4'OST Remixes' Rhythms Del Mundo'Africa' Crossfaith'Zion EP' HIM'XX Two Decades Of Love Metal' FEAR'The FEAR Record' While She Sleeps'This Is The Six' Neil Davidge'HALO 4 Original Soundtrack' My Jerusalem'Preachers' AxeWound'Vultures' James Iha'Look To The Sky' Bad Powers'S/T' Paradise Lost'Evolve: Live' Paradise Lost'Draconian Times: Legacy Edition' Paradise Lost'Reflection: Best Of' Paradise Lost'Icon' Paradise Lost'Shades of God' InMe'Overgrown Eden' The Orb'The Observer In The Star House' Cosmo Jarvis'Think Bigger' Cradle of Filth'Dusk And Her Embrace' Cradle of Filth'Cruelty And The Beast' Cradle of Filth'From The Cradle To Enslave' Cradle of Filth'PanDaemonAeon' Cradle of Filth'Midian' Cradle of Filth'Lovecraft & Witch Hearts' Cradle of Filth'Vempire Or Dark Faerytales' Belligerence'Now Here's Your Secret' Chantal Claret'The One, The Only...'

1776'S/T' Scott Lucas & The Married Men'Blood Half Moon' Anvil'Plugged In Permanent' Anvil'Speed Of Sound' Anvil'Absolutely No Alternative' Anvil'Plenty Of Power' Hung'S/T' Chantal Claret - The Pleasure Seeker Anathema'Weather Systems' Bereft'Leichenhaus' The Dandy Warhols'This Machine' Opeth'Lamentations' Opeth'Deliverance' Opeth'Damnation' Opeth'Blackwater Park' Sleepy Sun'Spine Hits' Dir En Grey'Uroboros' Freshkills'Raise Up The Sheets' Amoral'Beneath' Anvil'Worth The Weight' Anvil'Strength Of Steel' Anvil'Pound For Pound' One Model Nation'Total Werks Vol. 1' Audio Bullys'Higher Than The Eiffel' Does It Offend You, Yeah?'Don't Say We Didn't Warn You' Goes Cube'In Tides And Drifts' Braveyoung'We Are Lonely Animals' Too Late The Hero'Statement Of Purpose' Mindless Self Indulgence'Tighter' Stillwell'Dirtbag' November's Doom'Aphotic' Anvil'Juggernaut Of Justice' Tarja'Underneath' The Prodigy'World's On Fire' Brendan Perry'Ark' Art Brut'Brilliant! Tragic!' Anathema'We're Here Because We're Here' James Maddock'Wake Up And Dream' Guano Apes'Bel Air' Dir En Grey'Different Sense' Spirits Of The Dead'The Great God Plan' Dir En Grey'Dum Spiro Spero' The Humans'Sugar Rush' Anvil'Monument Of Metal' Hull'Beyond The Lightles


5-Iodo-2-aminoindane is a drug which acts as a releasing agent of serotonin and dopamine. It was developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. 5-IAI substitutes for MDMA in rodents and is a putative entactogen in humans. Unlike related aminoindane derivatives like MDAI and MMAI, 5-IAI causes some serotonergic neurotoxicity in rats, but is less toxic than its corresponding amphetamine homologue pIA, with the damage observed reaching statistical significance. Sweden's public health agency suggested classifying 5-IAI as a hazardous substance, on September 25, 2019

Sikar district

Sikar district is a district of the Indian state Rajasthan in northern India. The city of Sikar is the administrative headquarters of the district. Sikar, Neem Ka Thana, Fatehpur Shekahwati are the largest cities and tehsils of the district. Sikar Shrimadhopur Neem ka thana Fatehpur Laxmangarh Dantaramgarh Reengus Losal Khatu Sikar Piprali Ajeetgarh, Teh. Shrimadhopur Patan, Teh. Neem-Ka-Thana Khandela Mundru, Teh. Shri Madhopur Nechhwa, Teh. Laxmangarh Kanwat, Teh. Khandela Palsana, Teh. Khandela Dabla, Teh. Neem-Ka-Thana Dhod The district is located in the north-eastern part of the state of Rajasthan, it is bounded on the north by Jhunjhunu district, in the north-west by Churu district, in the south-west by Nagaur district and in the south-east by Jaipur district. It touches Mahendragarh district of Haryana on its north-east corner; the district has an area of 7742.44 km² and a population of 26,77,737. Sikar, Churu district and Jhunjhunu district's comprise the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan; the old name of Sikar was "Veer Bhan Ka Bas".

According to the 2011 census Sikar district has a population of 2,677,333 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 150th in India; the district has a population density of 346 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.04%. Sikar has a sex ratio of 944 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 72.98%. At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 97.96% of the population in the district spoke Hindi and 1.94% Urdu as their first language. The district has a hot summer, scanty rainfall, a chilly winter season and a general dryness of the air, except in the brief monsoon season; the maximum and minimum temperatures are 47 to 1 to 0 degrees Celsius, respectively. The average temperature around the year is about 35 degrees Celsius; the normal rainfall received from the southwest monsoon, is 459.8 mm. Sikar district has become a hub for education in Rajasthan state. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Shekhawati University situated in the Sikar giving student opportunity to complete their dream of higher education in many field.

Along with government colleges providing arts and commerce education, private educational institutes play a good role in imparting education in the district. Mody Institute of Technology and Science, in the Lakshmangarh town of the district imparts girls' education. Other reputed colleges includes Sobhasaria Engineering College. There is one Government Polytechnic College in Sikar district. District is an emerging hub of coching IIT-JEE and NEET. Here some famous institutes provide coaching for engineering and medical exams; some institutes are Allen, Kautilya, GCI, CLC, Impulse, PCP, Samarpan. Sikar is the smallest city. Youth men provide a major role in Indian defense services compared to other districts of Rajasthan